Publications by authors named "G Arnold"

847 Publications

Maximize EU pollinator protection: Minimize risk.

Science 2021 Jul;373(6552):290

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agro-Alimentari, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abj8116DOI Listing
July 2021

Long-term exposure of Daphnia magna to polystyrene microplastic (PS-MP) leads to alterations of the proteome, morphology and life-history.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 3;795:148822. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

University of Bayreuth, Animal Ecology 1, Universitätsstraße 30, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany. Electronic address:

In the past years, the research focus on the effects of MP on aquatic organisms extended from marine systems towards freshwater systems. An important freshwater model organism in the MP field is the cladoceran Daphnia, which plays a central role in lacustrine ecosystems and has been established as a test organism in ecotoxicology. To investigate the effects of MP on Daphnia magna, we performed a chronic exposure experiment with polystyrene MP under strictly standardized conditions. Chronic exposure of D. magna to PS microparticles led to a significant reduction in body length and number of offspring. To shed light on underlying molecular mechanisms induced by microplastic ingestion in D. magna, we assessed the effects of PS-MP at the proteomic level, as proteins, e.g., enzymes, are especially relevant for an organism's physiology. Using a state-of-the-art mass spectrometry based approach, we were able to identify 28,696 different peptides, which could be assigned to 3784 different proteins. Using a customized bioinformatic workflow, we identified 41 proteins significantly altered in abundance (q-value <0.05) in the PS exposed D. magna. Among the proteins increased in the PS treated group were several sulfotransferases, involved in basic biochemical pathways, as well as GABA transaminase catalyzing the degradation of the neurotransmitter GABA. In the abundance decreased group, we found essential proteins such as the DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit and other proteins connected to biotic and inorganic stress and reproduction. Strikingly, we further identified several digestive enzymes that are significantly downregulated in the PS treated animals, which could have interfered with the affected animal's nutrient supply. This may explain the altered morphological and life history traits of the PS exposed daphnids. Our results indicate that long-term exposure to PS microplastics, which are frequently detected in environmental samples, may affect the fitness of daphnids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148822DOI Listing
November 2021

Training-induced plasticity enables visualizing sounds with a visual-to-auditory conversion device.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 20;11(1):14762. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Sorbonne Université, CNRS UMR 7222, Institut des Systèmes Intelligents et de Robotique (ISIR), 75005, Paris, France.

Sensory substitution devices aim at restoring visual functions by converting visual information into auditory or tactile stimuli. Although these devices show promise in the range of behavioral abilities they allow, the processes underlying their use remain underspecified. In particular, while an initial debate focused on the visual versus auditory or tactile nature of sensory substitution, since over a decade, the idea that it reflects a mixture of both has emerged. In order to investigate behaviorally the extent to which visual and auditory processes are involved, participants completed a Stroop-like crossmodal interference paradigm before and after being trained with a conversion device which translates visual images into sounds. In addition, participants' auditory abilities and their phenomenologies were measured. Our study revealed that, after training, when asked to identify sounds, processes shared with vision were involved, as participants' performance in sound identification was influenced by the simultaneously presented visual distractors. In addition, participants' performance during training and their associated phenomenology depended on their auditory abilities, revealing that processing finds its roots in the input sensory modality. Our results pave the way for improving the design and learning of these devices by taking into account inter-individual differences in auditory and visual perceptual strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94133-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292401PMC
July 2021

Age-Related Alterations in the Testicular Proteome of a Non-Human Primate.

Cells 2021 May 24;10(6). Epub 2021 May 24.

Laboratory for Functional Genome Analysis LAFUGA, Gene Center, LMU München, 81377 München, Germany.

Aging of human testis and associated cellular changes is difficult to assess. Therefore, we used a translational, non-human primate model to get insights into underlying cellular and biochemical processes. Using proteomics and immunohistochemistry, we analyzed testicular tissue of young (age 2 to 3) and old (age 10 to 12) common marmosets (). Using a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach, we identified 63,124 peptides, which could be assigned to 5924 proteins. Among them, we found proteins specific for germ cells and somatic cells, such as Leydig and Sertoli cells. Quantitative analysis showed 31 differentially abundant proteins, of which 29 proteins were more abundant in older animals. An increased abundance of anti-proliferative proteins, among them CDKN2A, indicate reduced cell proliferation in old testes. Additionally, an increased abundance of several small leucine rich repeat proteoglycans and other extracellular matrix proteins was observed, which may be related to impaired cell migration and fibrotic events. Furthermore, an increased abundance of proteins with inhibitory roles in smooth muscle cell contraction like CNN1 indicates functional alterations in testicular peritubular cells and may mirror a reduced capacity of these cells to contract in old testes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10061306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225046PMC
May 2021

A systems-based approach to the environmental risk assessment of multiple stressors in honey bees.

EFSA J 2021 May 20;19(5):e06607. Epub 2021 May 20.

The European Parliament requested EFSA to develop a holistic risk assessment of multiple stressors in honey bees. To this end, a systems-based approach that is composed of two core components: a monitoring system and a modelling system are put forward with honey bees taken as a showcase. Key developments in the current scientific opinion (including systematic data collection from sentinel beehives and an agent-based simulation) have the potential to substantially contribute to future development of environmental risk assessments of multiple stressors at larger spatial and temporal scales. For the monitoring, sentinel hives would be placed across representative climatic zones and landscapes in the EU and connected to a platform for data storage and analysis. Data on bee health status, chemical residues and the immediate or broader landscape around the hives would be collected in a harmonised and standardised manner, and would be used to inform stakeholders, and the modelling system, ApisRAM, which simulates as accurately as possible a honey bee colony. ApisRAM would be calibrated and continuously updated with incoming monitoring data and emerging scientific knowledge from research. It will be a supportive tool for beekeeping, farming, research, risk assessment and risk management, and it will benefit the wider society. A societal outlook on the proposed approach is included and this was conducted with targeted social science research with 64 beekeepers from eight EU Member States and with members of the EU Bee Partnership. Gaps and opportunities are identified to further implement the approach. Conclusions and recommendations are made on a way forward, both for the application of the approach and its use in a broader context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8135085PMC
May 2021
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