Publications by authors named "Gözde Ulas"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

NINJ1 mediates plasma membrane rupture during lytic cell death.

Nature 2021 Mar 20;591(7848):131-136. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Physiological Chemistry, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Plasma membrane rupture (PMR) is the final cataclysmic event in lytic cell death. PMR releases intracellular molecules known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that propagate the inflammatory response. The underlying mechanism of PMR, however, is unknown. Here we show that the cell-surface NINJ1 protein, which contains two transmembrane regions, has an essential role in the induction of PMR. A forward-genetic screen of randomly mutagenized mice linked NINJ1 to PMR. Ninj1 macrophages exhibited impaired PMR in response to diverse inducers of pyroptotic, necrotic and apoptotic cell death, and were unable to release numerous intracellular proteins including HMGB1 (a known DAMP) and LDH (a standard measure of PMR). Ninj1 macrophages died, but with a distinctive and persistent ballooned morphology, attributable to defective disintegration of bubble-like herniations. Ninj1 mice were more susceptible than wild-type mice to infection with Citrobacter rodentium, which suggests a role for PMR in anti-bacterial host defence. Mechanistically, NINJ1 used an evolutionarily conserved extracellular domain for oligomerization and subsequent PMR. The discovery of NINJ1 as a mediator of PMR overturns the long-held idea that cell death-related PMR is a passive event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03218-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Structural dysconnectivity in offspring of individuals with bipolar disorder: The effect of co-existing clinical-high-risk for bipolar disorder.

J Affect Disord 2021 Feb 1;281:109-116. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: Bipolar disorder (BD) might be associated in disturbances in brain networks. However, little is known about the abnormalities in structural brain connectivity which might be related to vulnerability to BD and predictive of the emergence of manic symptoms. No previous study has investigated the effect of subthreshold syndromes on structural dysconnectivity in offspring of parents with BD (BDoff).

Methods: We investigated diffusion weighted images of 70 BDoff and 48 healthy controls (HC). Nineteen of the 70 BDoff had presented with subthreshold syndromes indicating a clinical high-risk (BDoff-CHR) and other 51 BDoff had no such history (BDoff-non-CHR). Global and regional network properties, rich club organization and inter-regional connectivity in BDoff and healthy controls were investigated using graph analytical methods and network-based-statistics (NBS).

Results: Global properties of WM networks appeared to be intact in BDoff-CHR and BDoff-non-CHR. However, decreased regional connectivity in right occipito-parietal areas and cerebellum was a common feature of both BDoff groups. Importantly, decreased interregional connectivity between nodes in right and left prefrontal regions, nodes in right prefrontal lobe and right temporal lobe and nodes in left occipital area and left cerebellum were evident in BDoff-CHR but not BDoff-non-CHR.

Limitations: The cross-sectional nature of the study was the main consideration.

Conclusion: Decreased regional connectivity in right posterior brain regions might be related to vulnerability to BD. On the other hand, interregional dysconnectivity in anterior frontal and limbic regions and left posterior brain regions might be evident in individuals genetically at risk for developing BD who had experienced subthreshold mood symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.11.122DOI Listing
February 2021

Investigation of structure-function correlation among the young offspring of patients with bipolar disorder.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2020 07 21;301:111103. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey.

Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with impaired executive functioning and integrity of fronto-limbic white matter tracts. The evaluation of these factors in young offspring of patients with BD (BDoff) as a high-risk group offers an opportunity to investigate factors that could predict vulnerability to the disorder. This study aims to examine the correlation between neurocognition and neuroimaging findings to evaluate the potential for these findings as biomarkers for the early recognition of BD. We enrolled BDoff (n = 16) who were aged between 12 and 18. Participants were assessed using clinical and neurocognitive tests. In addition, structural brain magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging data were obtained. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum were extracted and correlations with neuropsychological data were analyzed. FA values in the SLF were negatively correlated with Stroop interference, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and the Trail Making Test (B-A) scores. MD values in the cingulum were inversely correlated with the Child and Youth Resilience Measure and positively correlated with higher scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-Attentional. These findings provide a link between features of the brain and cognitive dysfunction in BDoff.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2020.111103DOI Listing
July 2020

Neurocognition in young offspring of individuals with bipolar disorder: The role of co-existing familial and clinical high-risk for bipolar disorder.

Psychiatry Res 2019 11 22;281:112565. Epub 2019 Sep 22.

Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Izmir, Turkey; Dokuz Eylul University, Institute of Neuroscience, Izmir, Turkey; Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with cognitive dysfunction which has also been reported in offspring of individuals with BD (BDoff). However, it remains unclear whether cognitive underperformance in BDoff is associated with the presence of history of subclinical syndromes associated with risk for BD. To address this knowledge gap we assessed executive function, visual and verbal memory, working memory, processing speed and verbal fluency in 21 offspring with clinical high risk (CHR; BDoff+CHR), 54 offspring without CHR (BDoff-non-CHR), and 50 healthy individuals without familial risk of BD. BDoff underperformed compared to controls in most cognitive tasks. There was no significant neurocognitive difference between BDoff+CHR and BDoff-non-CHR except in the fluency/central executive domain (Cohen's d = 0.60, p = 0.03). Our results suggest that cognitive dysfunction in multiple domains is associated with familial predisposition to BD regardless of CHR status. On the other hand, abnormalities in central executive processes might be more pronounced in BDoff+CHR than BDoff-non-CHR. Further longitudinal studies investigating cognitive trajectory of BDoff and its interaction with the emergence of subclinical syndromes are needed to fully characterize the relationship between cognition and mood dysregulation in BD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2019.112565DOI Listing
November 2019

Neurocognitive heterogeneity in young offspring of patients with bipolar disorder: The effect of putative clinical stages.

J Affect Disord 2019 10 5;257:130-135. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Mithatpaşa Cad. No:1606 Inciraltı Yerleskesi 35340 Balcova, Izmir, Turkey; Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Health Sciences, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey; Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with significant cognitive heterogeneity. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated cognitive subgroups in BD using data-driven methods and found that BD includes several subgroups including a severely impaired and a neurocognitively intact cluster. Studies in offspring of BD (BDoff) are particularly important to establish the timing of emergence of cognitive subgroups but studies investigating cognitive heterogeneity in BDoff are lacking. Our aim was to investigate cognitive heterogeneity in BDoff and the relationship between cognitive heterogeneity and putative clinical stages of BD.

Methods: Seventy-one euthymic BDoff and 50 healthy controls were assessed using clinical measures and a battery of neuropsychological tests. Neurocognitive subgroups were investigated using latent class analysis.

Results: Three neurocognitive subgroups, including a severe impairment group, a good performance cluster, and a subgroup characterized by intermediate/selective impairment was found. Both severe and intermediate level impairment subgroups underperformed healthy controls in processing speed, verbal fluency, visual memory and working memory. Deficits in verbal memory and executive functions were only evident in severe impairment subgroup. The putative stage of the illness had no significant effect on cognitive clustering of BDoff. Trait impulsivity scores were significantly increased in severe and intermediate impairment clusters but not in the cognitively good functioning subgroup of BDoff.

Limitations: The cross-sectional nature of the study was the main consideration.

Conclusion: These results suggest that cognitive heterogeneity is premorbid characteristic of BD and cognitive subgroups of BDoff emerge prior to the onset of illness and prodromal symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.07.015DOI Listing
October 2019

Vitamin E hydroquinone is an endogenous regulator of ferroptosis via redox control of 15-lipoxygenase.

PLoS One 2018 15;13(8):e0201369. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

BioElectron Technology Corporation, Inc., Mountain View, California, United States of America.

Ferroptosis is a form of programmed cell death associated with inflammation, neurodegeneration, and ischemia. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) has been reported to prevent ferroptosis, but the mechanism by which this occurs is controversial. To elucidate the biochemical mechanism of vitamin E activity, we systematically investigated the effects of its major vitamers and metabolites on lipid oxidation and ferroptosis in a striatal cell model. We found that a specific endogenous metabolite of vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol hydroquinone, was a dramatically more potent inhibitor of ferroptosis than its parent compound, and inhibits 15-lipoxygenase via reduction of the enzyme's non-heme iron from its active Fe3+ state to an inactive Fe2+ state. Furthermore, a non-metabolizable isosteric analog of vitamin E which retains antioxidant activity neither inhibited 15-lipoxygenase nor prevented ferroptosis. These results call into question the prevailing model that vitamin E acts predominantly as a non-specific lipophilic antioxidant. We propose that, similar to the other lipophilic vitamins A, D and K, vitamin E is instead a pro-vitamin, with its quinone/hydroquinone metabolites responsible for its anti-ferroptotic cytoprotective activity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0201369PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6093661PMC
January 2019

Designed metalloprotein stabilizes a semiquinone radical.

Nat Chem 2016 Apr 15;8(4):354-9. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California - San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA.

Enzymes use binding energy to stabilize their substrates in high-energy states that are otherwise inaccessible at ambient temperature. Here we show that a de novo designed Zn(II) metalloprotein stabilizes a chemically reactive organic radical that is otherwise unstable in aqueous media. The protein binds tightly to and stabilizes the radical semiquinone form of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol. Solution NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with molecular dynamics simulations show that the substrate binds in the active site pocket where it is stabilized by metal-ligand interactions as well as by burial of its hydrophobic groups. Spectrochemical redox titrations show that the protein stabilized the semiquinone by reducing the electrochemical midpoint potential for its formation via the one-electron oxidation of the catechol by approximately 400 mV (9 kcal mol(-1)). Therefore, the inherent chemical properties of the radical were changed drastically by harnessing its binding energy to the metalloprotein. This model sets the basis for designed enzymes with radical cofactors to tackle challenging chemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nchem.2453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4857601PMC
April 2016

Redirecting electron transfer in photosystem II from water to redox-active metal complexes.

J Am Chem Soc 2011 Aug 4;133(34):13260-3. Epub 2011 Aug 4.

Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8107, United States.

A negatively charged region on the surface of photosystem II (PSII) near Q(A) has been identified as a docking site for cationic exogenous electron acceptors. Oxygen evolution activity, which is inhibited in the presence of the herbicide 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), is recovered by adding Co(III) complexes. Thus, a new electron-transfer pathway is created with Co(III) as the new terminal electron acceptor from Q(A)(-). This binding site is saturated at ∼2.5 mM [Co(III)], which is consistent with the existence of low-affinity interactions with a solvent-exposed surface. This is the first example of a higher plant PSII in which the electron-transfer pathway has been redirected from the normal membrane-associated quinone electron acceptors to water-soluble electron acceptors. The proposed Co(III) binding site may enable efficient collection of electrons generated from photochemical water oxidation by PSII immobilized on an electrode surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja2049226DOI Listing
August 2011

Biocompatible and pH-sensitive PLGA encapsulated MnO nanocrystals for molecular and cellular MRI.

ACS Nano 2011 May 3;5(5):3438-46. Epub 2011 May 3.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, United States.

Inorganic manganese-based particles are becoming attractive for molecular and cellular imaging, due to their ability to provide bright contrast on MRI, as opposed to the dark contrast generated from iron-based particles. Using a single emulsion technique, we have successfully fabricated pH-sensitive poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-encapsulated manganese oxide (MnO) nanocrystals. Two classes of particles were fabricated at ∼140 nm and 1.7 μm and incorporated 15 to 20 nm MnO nanocrystals with high encapsulation efficiencies. Intact particles at physiological pH cause little contrast in MRI, but following endocytosis into low pH compartments within the cells, the particles erode and MnO dissolves to release Mn(2+). This causes the cells to appear bright on MR images. The magnitude of the change in MRI properties is as high as 35-fold, making it the most dynamic "smart" MRI contrast agent yet reported. Possible applications of these MnO particles include slow release Mn(2+), tumor targeting, and confirmation of cell uptake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn1019779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3102302PMC
May 2011

Furan approach to vitamin D analogues. Synthesis of the A-ring of calcitriol and 1α-hydroxy-3-deoxyvitamin D(3).

J Org Chem 2010 Oct;75(20):6820-9

Department of Chemistry, Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania 18042, USA.

The A-rings of calcitriol (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)) and 1α-hydroxy-3-deoxyvitamin D(3) were synthesized using the furan approach. The critical steps in the synthesis of the A-ring of calcitriol involved an asymmetric carbonyl-ene reaction of 3-methylene-2,3-dihydrofuran with 3-(tert-butyldimethylsiloxy)propanal, a diastereoselective Friedel-Crafts hydroxyalkylation, an oxidation of the 2,3-disubstituted furan to give a γ-hydroxybutenolide, and a Peterson olefination. The A-ring (Z)-dienol of calcitriol was synthesized in 12 steps from 3-(tert-butyldimethylsiloxy)propanal in 17% yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jo101155cDOI Listing
October 2010

Zwitterion modulation of O(2)-evolving activity of cyanobacterial photosystem II.

Biochemistry 2010 Sep;49(37):8220-7

Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8107, USA.

Photosystem II (PSII) is the only enzyme in nature that can catalyze the challenging catalytic photooxidation of H(2)O into four protons, four electrons, and O(2). Slowing down turnover of the O(2)-evolving complex (OEC) is a plausible approach to gain mechanistic information on the reaction. However, modulating the kinetics of the reaction without perturbing the active site is a challenge. In this study, it is shown that the steady-state activity of cyanobacterial PSII is inhibited by small zwitterions, such as glycine betaine and β-alanine. We show that the binding of zwitterions is nondenaturing, is highly reversible, and results in the decrease of the rate of catalytic turnover by ∼50% in the presence of excess zwitterion. Control measurements of photoinduced electron transfer in O(2)-inactive PSII show that the inhibition by zwitterions is the result of a specific decrease in the rate of catalytic turnover of the OEC. Recovery of activity upon addition of an exogenous proton carrier (HCO(3)(-)) provides evidence that proton-transfer pathways, thought to be essential for the relay of protons from the OEC to the lumen, are affected. Interestingly, no inhibition is observed for spinach PSII, suggesting that zwitterions act specifically by binding to the extrinsic proteins on the lumenal side of PSII, which differ significantly between plants and cyanobacteria, to slow proton transfer on the electron donor side of PSII.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi101027aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2939297PMC
September 2010

Evidence against bicarbonate bound in the O2-evolving complex of photosystem II.

Biochemistry 2008 Mar 15;47(10):3073-5. Epub 2008 Feb 15.

Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8107, USA.

The oxidation of water to molecular oxygen by photosystem II (PSII) is inhibited in bicarbonate-depleted media. One contribution to the inhibition is the binding of bicarbonate to the non-heme iron, which is required for efficient electron transfer on the electron-acceptor side of PSII. There are also proposals that bicarbonate is required for formation of O 2 by the manganese-containing O 2-evolving complex (OEC). Previous work indicates that a bicarbonate ion does not bind reversibly close to the OEC, but it remains possible that bicarbonate is bound sufficiently tightly to the OEC that it cannot readily exchange with bicarbonate in solution. In this study, we have used NH 2OH to destroy the OEC, which would release any tightly bound bicarbonate ions from the active site, and mass spectrometry to detect any released bicarbonate as CO 2. The amount of CO 2 per PSII released by the NH 2OH treatment is observed to be comparable to the background level, although N 2O, a product of the reaction of NH 2OH with the OEC, is detected in good yield. These results strongly argue against tightly bound bicarbonate ions in the OEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi8000424DOI Listing
March 2008

Efficient coupling of catalysis and dynamics in the E1 component of Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008 Jan 23;105(4):1158-63. Epub 2008 Jan 23.

Department of Chemistry, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07102, USA.

Protein motions are ubiquitous and are intrinsically coupled to catalysis. Their specific roles, however, remain largely elusive. Dynamic loops at the active center of the E1 component of Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex are essential for several catalytic functions starting from a predecarboxylation event and culminating in transfer of the acetyl moiety to the E2 component. Monitoring the kinetics of E1 and its loop variants at various solution viscosities, we show that the rate of a chemical step is modulated by loop dynamics. A cysteine-free E1 construct was site-specifically labeled on the inner loop (residues 401-413), and the EPR nitroxide label revealed ligand-induced conformational dynamics of the loop and a slow "open <--> close" conformational equilibrium in the unliganded state. An (19)F NMR label placed at the same residue revealed motion on the millisecond-second time scale and suggested a quantitative correlation of E1 catalysis and loop dynamics for the 200,000-Da protein. Thermodynamic studies revealed that these motions may promote covalent addition of substrate to the enzyme-bound thiamin diphosphate by reducing the free energy of activation. Furthermore, the global dynamics of E1 presumably regulate and streamline the catalytic steps of the overall complex by inducing an entirely entropic (nonmechanical) negative cooperativity with respect to substrate binding at higher temperatures. Our results are consistent with, and reinforce the hypothesis of, coupling of catalysis and regulation with enzyme dynamics and suggest the mechanism by which it is achieved in a key branchpoint enzyme in sugar metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0709328105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2234108PMC
January 2008

Kishner's reduction of 2-furylhydrazone gives 2-methylene-2,3-dihydrofuran, a highly reactive ene in the ene reaction.

J Org Chem 2005 Apr;70(7):2862-5

Department of Chemistry, Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania 18042, USA.

[reaction: see text] The Kishner reduction of 2-furylhydrazone gives 2-methylene-2,3-dihydrofuran as the major abnormal reduction product. 2-Methylene-2,3-dihydrofuran is an excellent ene in the carbonyl-ene reaction, reacting with a variety of aldehydes. Most notable was the asymmetric carbonyl-ene reaction of 2-methylene-2,3-dihydrofuran and decanal using Ti(OCH(CH3)2)4/(S)-BINOL to give the corresponding alcohol in 66% yield and 94% ee. The reaction of 2-methylene-2,3-dihydrofuran with 2 equiv of 1,4-benzoquinone unexpectedly gave a monoalkylated 1,4-hydroquinone/1,4-benzoquinone electron donor-acceptor complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jo0479112DOI Listing
April 2005