Publications by authors named "Göksel Özer"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genetic Diversity and Pathogenicity of spp. Isolates Associated with Red Cabbage in Samsun (Turkey).

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Mar 21;7(3). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Ordu University, 52200 Ordu, Turkey.

A total of 132 isolates were recovered from red cabbage plants with root rot and wirestem symptoms in the province of Samsun (Turkey) between 2018 and 2019. Based on the sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region located between the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes and including nuclear staining, these 124 isolates were assigned to multinucleate , and eight were binucleate . The most prevalent anastomosis group (AG) was AG 4 (84%), which was subdivided into AG 4 HG-I (81%) and AG 4 HG-III (3%), followed by AG 5 (10%) and AG-A (6%), respectively. The unweighted pair group method phylogenetic tree resulting from the data of 68 isolates with the inter-PBS amplification DNA profiling method based on interspersed retrotransposon element sequences confirmed the differentiation of AGs with a higher resolution. In the greenhouse experiment with representative isolates ( = 24) from AGs on red cabbage (cv. Rondale), the disease severity index was between 3.33 and 4.0 for multinucleate AG isolates and ranged from 2.5 to 3.17 for AG-A isolates. In the pathogenicity assay of six red cabbage cultivars, one isolate for each AG was tested using a similar method, and all cultivars were susceptible to AG 4 HG-I and AG 4 HG-III isolates. Redriver and Remale were moderately susceptible, while Rescue, Travero, Integro, and Rondale were susceptible to the AG 5 isolate. The results indicate that the most prevalent and aggressive AGs of are devastating pathogens to red cabbage, which means that rotation with nonhost-crops for these AGs may be the most effective control strategy. This is the first comprehensive study isolates in red cabbage using a molecular approach to assess genetic diversity using iPBS-amplified DNA profiling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7030234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004240PMC
March 2021

First Report of Crown Rot Caused by Fusarium redolens on Wheat in Kazakhstan.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

CIMMYT Turkey, CIMMYT Uluslararası Buğday ve Mısır Geliştirme Merkezi, Şehit Cem Ersever Caddesi No : 9/11, Tarla Bitkileri Araştırma Enstitüsü Kampüsü içi, Ankara, Ankara, Turkey, 06170;

Fusarium crown rot, caused by several species within the genus, is a major constraint that results in significant losses in wheat production worldwide. In June 2019, diseased wheat plants with typical symptoms of crown rot, including discoloration on the first two or three internodes of the stem just above the soil line and stunted, dry rotted, and discolored roots were collected in several bread wheat fields during the maturity stage in Almaty, East Kazakhstan, and Karaganda Regions of Kazakhstan. For each field, approximately twenty tillers were randomly sampled. Symptomatic tissues were surface sterilized in 1% NaClO for 2 min, rinsed with sterile distilled water three times, air-dried in a laminar flow hood, and then transferred to Petri dishes containing one-fifth strength potato dextrose agar (PDA). After incubating in the dark at 23°C for 5 days, 79 single-spore isolates showing cultural and microscopic characteristics of Fusarium were obtained on PDA and Spezieller-Nährstoffarmer agar (SNA). Colonies were initially white but later produced a beige to pink diffusible pigment in PDA. Microconidia that formed on aerial monophialides were hyaline, 0 to 1 septum, oval- to kidney-shaped, and measured 4.3 to 10.3 × 1.9 to 3.4 µm (average 7.8 × 2.6 µm), whilst macroconidia were straight to slightly curved, 3 to 5 septate, and measured 18.7 to 38.8 × 2.9 to 6.6 µm (average 29.9 × 4.7 µm), with foot-shaped basal cells on SNA. Chlamydospores were present on PDA. Sequence analysis based on portions of translation elongation factor 1α (TEF1) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS rDNA) loci with primers EF1/EF2 (O'Donnell et al. 1998) and ITS1/ITS4 (White et al. 1990) identified 29 of the 79 isolates as Fusarium redolens Wollenw. The sequences of the five representative isolates with 99.85% of similarity to those of F. redolens strains available in GenBank e.g., ITS (MT435063) and TEF1 (GU250584). The TEF1 (accession nos. MW403914-MW403918) and ITS rDNA (accession nos. MW397138-MW397142) sequences of the isolates were deposited in GenBank. The morphological features are consistent with the described features of F. redolens (Leslie and Summerell 2006). To confirm pathogenicity of the five isolates, five pre-germinated seeds of wheat cultivar Seri 82 were placed in a 9-cm-diameter pot filled with a sterile potting mix containing equal volumes of peat, vermiculite, and soil. An approximately 1-cm-diameter 7-day-old mycelial plug of each isolate was individually placed in contact with the seeds. Seeds were covered with the same potting mix, and then the pots were maintained for four weeks in a growth chamber at 23°C with a 12-h photoperiod. The experiment was conducted twice with three replicate 15-cm pots with 5 plants per pot. Controls were inoculated with sterile agar plugs using the same procedure. After four weeks, all the inoculated plants showed stunted growth with brown discoloration in most parts of the crown and roots, whereas no symptoms were observed in the control plants. The mean severity of the disease for each isolate was between 2.1 and 2.7 according to the scale of 1 to 5 described by Gebremariam et al. (2015). The pathogen was reisolated from crowns of diseased plants, but not from asymptomatic control tissues, and identified morphologically based on the methods described above, fulfilling Koch's postulates. Although several morphological features are shared by F. oxysporum and F. redolens, Baayen et al. (2001) showed that these species could be easily distinguished using molecular data. The pathogen was previously reported as F. redolens associated with crown rot of wheat in Turkey (Gebremariam et al. 2015) and Saskatchewan, Canada (Taheri et al. 2011). The presence of F. redolens causing crown rot is confirmed in the six wheat fields surveyed in Kazakhstan, for the first time. This pathogen may pose a risk for wheat production, and further studies needed to determine the impact on the crop in Kazakhstan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-21-0015-PDNDOI Listing
March 2021

Plant-parasitic nematode associated with wheat in central, eastern, and south-eastern Kazakhstan.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

CIMMYT Turkey, CIMMYT Uluslararası Buğday ve Mısır Geliştirme Merkezi, Şehit Cem Ersever Caddesi No : 9/11, Tarla Bitkileri Araştırma Enstitüsü Kampüsü içi, Ankara, Ankara, Turkey, 06170;

Kazakhstan is one of the biggest wheat producers, however, its wheat production is far below the average international wheat production standard due to biotic and abiotic stressors. Plant-parasitic nematodes are devastating for cereal production systems worldwide. A comprehensive survey was conducted in 2019 to identify plant-parasitic nematodes associated with wheat in different locations of central, eastern, and south-eastern Kazakhstan. The results revealed 33 root-lesion and 27 cyst nematode populations from the 77 localities sampled. These two genera occurred in separate or in mixed populations. The root-lesion populations were identified as Pratylenchus neglectus and P. thornei while all cyst nematodes were identified as Heterodera filipjevi. The identification of nematodes was firstly performed based on morphological and morphometric features and confirmed by BLAST and phylogenetic analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer and the D2-D3 expansion located in the 28S gene of ribosomal DNA for CCN and RLN populations, respectively. Pratylenchus neglectus and P. thornei populations from Kazakhstan showed a high similarity with the American, European, and Asian populations. Heterodera filipjevi populations formed a well-supported cluster with the corresponding populations from different countries and showed a slightly intraspecific polymorphism. Kazakhstan populations of H. filipjevi may have multiple introductions in Kazakhstan due to the divergence among them. The results of this study are of great importance for breeding programs and will enable awareness to extension advisors to develop measures to control these nematodes in cereal cropping areas in Kazakhstan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-20-2424-SRDOI Listing
March 2021

First Report of Fusarium culmorum and Microdochium bolleyi Causing Root Rot on Triticale in Kazakhstan.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

CIMMYT Turkey, CIMMYT Uluslararası Buğday ve Mısır Geliştirme Merkezi, Şehit Cem Ersever Caddesi No : 9/11, Tarla Bitkileri Araştırma Enstitüsü Kampüsü içi, Ankara, Ankara, Turkey, 06170;

Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) is obtained from wheat × rye crossing. It is positioned between wheat and rye in terms of resistance to soilborne pathogens including Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Fusarium culmorum, F. avenaceum, and Bipolaris sorokiniana (Arseniuk and Góral 2015). In 2019, seven triticale fields were surveyed in Almaty Province, Kazakhstan to examine soil-borne fungal pathogens. A total of 28 symptomatic plants with stunting, rot or discolored root were collected to identify causal agents. The overall disease incidence was approximately 8 to 10% in the fields. Fungi were isolated from 3-5 mm pieces excised from symptomatic tissues. The pieces were exposed to surface disinfection in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution for 2 min, rinsed three times with sterile distilled water, blotted dry, and plated on 1/5 strength potato dextrose agar (PDA) amended with 0.01% streptomycin. Plates were left in the dark at 23°C for 7 days. A total of 34 fungal colonies were isolated of which nineteen isolates, originally from six fields showed the cultural characteristics of B. sorokiniana. This species was previously reported to cause common root rot on triticale in Kazakhstan (Özer et al. 2020). Ten isolates from four fields produced pale orange and cottony mycelium with red pigmentation on the agar, which is typical of Fusarium-like growth. The remaining isolates (n=5) from two fields produced salmon-colored and scarce aerial mycelium with no soluble pigmentation, similar to Microdochium spp. Fusarium isolates produced thick-walled and curved macroconidia with 3-4 septa (n=50, 25.7 to 37.6 × 4.1 to 7.3 μm in size) and notched basal cell on PDA, but microconidia were absent, which matches the description of F. culmorum (Wm.G. Sm.) Sacc. (Leslie and Summerell 2006). Microdochium isolates produced swollen, brown, and thick-walled chlamydospores and hyaline, one-celled, and thin-walled conidia (n=50, 5.4 to 9.3 × 1.5 to 3.0 μm in size) formed on ampullate and cylindrical conidiogenous cells on oatmeal agar (OA). These morphological features are consistent with previous observations for Microdochium bolleyi (R. Sprague) de Hoog & Herm.-Nijh. (Hong et al. 2008). To confirm morphological preliminary identifications, the portion of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α) gene was amplified with EF1/EF2 primers (O'Donnell et al. 1998) for representative Fusarium isolates (n=4) for each field. Additionally, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal DNA was amplified with ITS1/ITS4 primers (White et al. 1990) for representative Microdochium isolates (n=2) for each field. BLASTn queries against NCBI GenBank revealed that the EF1-α sequences of Fusarium isolates (MW311081-MW311084) shared 100% identity with F. culmorum strain CBS 110262 (KT008433). The ITS sequences of M. bolleyi isolates (MW301448-MW301449) matched that of M. bolleyi strain CBS 137.64 (AM502264) with 100% sequence similarity. Pathogenicity test was conducted on pregerminated seeds of triticale cv. Balausa. A plastic pot (17 cm height, 9 cm in diam) was filled with a sterile mixture of vermiculite, peat, and soil (1:1:1, v/v/v). Mycelial plugs (1 cm in diam) were cut from the margin of a growing culture of representative isolates (Kaz_Fus123 and Kaz_Mb01) and placed onto the mixture in the pot. A sterile agar plug was employed as a control treatment. One pregerminated seed was put on the plug and covered with the mixture. The pots were transferred to a growth chamber set at 23 ± 2°C and a photoperiod of 14 hours. The experiment was performed twice using 5 replication pots per isolate. Four weeks after inoculation, discoloration of the crown was observed on all the inoculated roots, whereas no symptoms were observed on the control plants. Koch's postulates were fulfilled by reisolating and identifying the pathogen based on the morphology described above. This is the first report of M. bolleyi and F. culmorum causing root rot on triticale in Kazakhstan. Although B. sorokiniana is the most primary pathogen that may limit yield in the production of triticale in Kazakhstan, F. culmorum and M. bolleyi have been found to be less frequent and less aggressive pathogens, respectively. Further studies are needed to better understand the potential distribution and impact of these pathogens on triticale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-20-2659-PDNDOI Listing
March 2021

Potential of Moroccan entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae).

Sci Rep 2020 11 5;10(1):19204. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), P.K. 39, Emek, Ankara, 06511, Turkey.

The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, is a deleterious pest worldwide affecting fruit production. The entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are a potential biocontrol agent that could be effectively used to control this Mediterranean fruit fly. In this study, five EPN strains reported from different fields in Morocco were evaluated for their efficacy against C. capitata. In laboratory assays, Steinernema feltiae-SF-MOR9, S. feltiae-SF-MOR10 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora-HB-MOR7 strains showed significantly higher infectivity and penetration rates when compared to the other strains. S. feltiae-SF-MOR9 caused the highest larval mortality rate (80%) at 50 infective juveniles (IJs) cm. However, additional results showed that both S. feltiae strains were significantly effective in controlling C. capitata larvae in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) fruits on soil surface with high mortality rate at 50 and 100 IJs cm. Different soil textures and moisture levels resulted in a significant variation in EPN strain virulence against C. capitata. Sandy clay loam soil in combination with 50 IJs cm of S. feltiae (SF-MOR9 or SF-MOR10) caused a higher mortality rate of C. capitata larvae. Furthermore, applying these EPN strains at 50-100 IJs cm in combination with 10-15% moisture level showed optimal results against C. capitata larvae. Therefore, those two Moroccan EPN strains could be used as promising eco-friendly biological agents against C. capitata.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76170-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7645415PMC
November 2020

: A Novel Killer Pathogen of Plane () Causing Canker Stain and Root and Collar Rot.

Plant Dis 2020 Oct 13;104(10):2642-2648. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Harran University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, 63300 Şanlıurfa, Turkey.

Decline symptoms associated with lethal stem and branch canker stain along with root and collar rots were observed on 5- to 7-year-old roadside oriental plane trees () in Diyarbakır, Turkey. Above-ground symptoms included leaf necrosis, leaf curling, extensive bluish or blackish staining of shoots, branches, stem bark, and wood surfaces, as well as stem cankers and exfoliation of branch bark scales. A general decline of the trees was distinctly visible from a distance. A /-like oomycete species with globose to ovoid, often papillate and internally proliferating sporangia was consistently isolated from the fine and coarse roots and stained branch parts and shoots. The pathogen was identified as based on several morphological features. Partial DNA sequences of three loci, including nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large ribosomal subunit (LSU), and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (II) confirmed the morphological identification. All isolates were homothallic, developing gametangia, ornamented oogonia with elongate to lobate antheridia. Pathogenicity of . was tested by inoculation on excised shoots and by root inoculation on seedlings. produced large lesions and blights on shoots in just 5 days and killed 100% of the seedlings in a month. This paper presents the first confirmed report of as an important pathogen on a plant species causing branch and stem cankers, and root and collar rot, in and on , resulting in a rapid decline of trees and suggesting a threat to plane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-20-0141-REDOI Listing
October 2020

Identity and Pathogenicity of Fungi Associated with Crown and Root Rot of Dryland Winter Wheat in Azerbaijan.

Plant Dis 2020 Aug 26;104(8):2149-2157. Epub 2020 May 26.

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) P.O. Box. 39 Emek, Ankara, Turkey.

A comprehensive survey was performed to assess fungal populations associated with crown and root rot of wheat throughout the main wheat-growing areas of Azerbaijan. Samples were taken from 76 fields; 630 fungal strains were isolated, identified, and evaluated for pathogenicity. The identification was conducted with morphological and molecular tools such as species-specific PCR and DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and -α (-α) loci. The fungus found in the greatest number of fields (44) was with 192 isolates, followed by . Other spp. isolates were identified: , , , , , , , and . , , , , and spp. isolates were also identified, associated with underground parts of wheat. Phylogenetic analyses based on ITS and -α sequences of the isolates showed that the isolates belonging to the same species were clearly separated in the dendrogram. Pathogenicity assays revealed that , , and were most aggressive; , , , , , and isolates were moderately aggressive; , , and were weakly aggressive; and others were nonpathogenic. The result of this study exhibited the existence of a wide range of species associated with crown and root rot of wheat in Azerbaijan. Additionally, this is the first report of , , , , and as pathogens on wheat in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan is the second country after Algeria in which was detected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-19-1799-REDOI Listing
August 2020

The utility of iPBS retrotransposons markers to analyze genetic variation in yeast.

Int J Food Microbiol 2020 Jul 25;325:108647. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu 14030, Turkey.

Yeasts are one of the main organisms in the food industry and effective components of many ecosystems. The method for identifying and detecting certain yeast species or strains is a crucial step for the food industry and should be simple, reliable, fast, and inexpensive. In our study, inter-priming binding sites (iPBS) retrotransposon marker system was employed to elucidate the genetic variability at intraspecies and interspecies levels among 112 yeast strains belonging to eight species previously obtained from fermented foods. The molecular identification of yeast strains was firstly confirmed by sequencing the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA. The eight selected retrotransposon-based primers produced 278 bands, all of which were polymorphic with an average of 34.75 polymorphic fragments per primer. The averages of polymorphism information contents and the resolving power values for the iPBS marker system were 0.23 and 10.11, respectively. The genetic parameters within each yeast species obtained from iPBS markers were observed as; the percentage of polymorphic loci for each species ranging from 19.23% to 71.21%, Nei's gene diversity from 0.085 to 0.228, while Shannon's information index values ranging from 0.125 to 0.349. The value of gene flow (0.09) and genetic variation among the populations (0.85) showed higher genetic variation among the species. UPGMA analyses demonstrated considerable genetic variability in the yeast strains, clustered them according to their species, and revealed the intraspecific variation. Each of the selected iPBS primer provided enough species-discrimination. Present evaluations suggest the utility of iPBS marker system to estimate the genetic variation of yeast strains. This study is a preliminary point for further studies on the identification methodology, and population genetics of yeast species having importance in the food industry with iPBS markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108647DOI Listing
July 2020

CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Immunity in Plants Against Pathogens.

Curr Issues Mol Biol 2018 7;26:55-64. Epub 2017 Sep 7.

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey.

Global crop production is highly threatened due to pathogen invasion. The huge quantity of pesticides application, although harmful to the environment and human health, is carried out to prevent the crop losses worldwide, every year. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity and plant resistance against pathogen is important. The resistance against pathogens is regulated by three important phytohormones viz. salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET). Here we review possible role of CRISPR technology to understand the plant pathogenicity by mutating genes responsible for pathogen invasion or up-regulating the phytohormones genes or resistant genes. Thus hormone biosynthesis genes, receptor and feeding genes of pathogens could be important targets for modifications using CRISPR/Cas9 following multiplexing tool box strategy in order to edit multiple genes simultaneously to produce super plants. Here we put forward our idea thatthe genes would be either mutated in case of plant receptor protein targets of pathogens or up-regulation of resistant genes or hormone biosynthesis genes will be better choice for resistance against pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21775/cimb.026.055DOI Listing
August 2018