Publications by authors named "Gérard Michel"

172 Publications

Innate lymphoid cell recovery and occurrence of GvHD after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

APHM, Hôpital de la Timone, Service d'Immunologie, Marseille-Immunopole, Marseille, France.

Lymphocytes are essential for microbial immunity, tumor surveillance, and tissue homeostasis. However, the in vivo development and function of helper-like innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in humans remain much less well understood than those of T, B, and NK cells. We monitored hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to determine the kinetics of ILC development in both children and adults. It was found that, unlike NK cells, helper-like ILCs recovered slowly, mirroring the pattern observed for T cells, with normalization achieved at 1 year. The type of graft and the proportion of CD34 cells in the graft did not significantly affect ILC reconstitution. As HSCT is often complicated by acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), the potential role of ILC subsets in maintaining tissue integrity in these conditions was also analyzed. It was found that GVHD was associated with lower levels of activated and gut-homing NKp44 ILCP, consistent with a non-redundant role of this ILC subset in preventing this life-threatening disorder in lymphopenic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.5A1019-522RRDOI Listing
April 2021

COVID19 and acute lymphoblastic leukemias of children and adolescents: Updated recommendations (Version 2) of the Leukemia Committee of the French Society for the fight against Cancers and leukemias in children and adolescents (SFCE).

Bull Cancer 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Université de Paris, service d'hémato-immunologie pédiatrique, hôpital universitaire Robert-Debré (APHP), boulevard Sérurier, 75019 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Since the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, many recommendations have been made. However, the very specific nature of acute lymphoblastic leukemias and their treatment in children and adolescents led the Leukemia Committee of the French Society for the fight against Cancers and leukemias in children and adolescents (SFCE) to propose more specific recommendations. Here is the second version of these recommendations updated according to the evolution of knowledge on COVID19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2021.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7951944PMC
March 2021

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I and III.

Blood Adv 2021 Jan;5(1):262-273

Willem-Alexander Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Type I and III leukocyte adhesion deficiencies (LADs) are primary immunodeficiency disorders resulting in early death due to infections and additional bleeding tendency in LAD-III. The curative treatment of LAD-I and LAD-III is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). In this retrospective multicenter study, data were collected using the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry; we analyzed data from 84 LAD patients from 33 centers, all receiving an allo-HSCT from 2007 to 2017. The 3-year overall survival estimate (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 83% (74-92) for the entire cohort: 84% (75-94) and 75% (50-100) for LAD-I and LAD-III, respectively. We observed cumulative incidences (95% CI) of graft failure (GF) at 3 years of 17% (9%-26%) and grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) at 100 days of 24% (15%-34%). The estimate (95% CI) at 3 years for GF- and GVHD-II to IV-free survival as event-free survival (EFS) was 56% (46-69) for the entire cohort; 58% (46-72) and 56% (23-88) for LAD-I and LAD-III, respectively. Grade II to IV acute GVHD was a relevant risk factor for death (hazard ratio 3.6; 95% CI 1.4-9.1; P = .006). Patients' age at transplant ≥13 months, transplantation from a nonsibling donor, and any serological cytomegalovirus mismatch in donor-recipient pairs were significantly associated with severe acute GVHD and inferior EFS. The choice of busulfan- or treosulfan-based conditioning, type of GVHD prophylaxis, and serotherapy did not impact overall survival, EFS, or aGVHD. An intrinsic inflammatory component of LAD may contribute to inflammatory complications during allo-HSCT, thus providing the rationale for considering anti-inflammatory therapy pretreatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805328PMC
January 2021

Bone Mineral Density Evolution and Its Determinants in Long-term Survivors of Childhood Acute Leukemia: A Leucémies Enfants Adolescents Study.

Hemasphere 2021 Feb 12;5(2):e518. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology and EA3279, Timone Children Hospital and Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.

This prospective study aimed to analyze determinants that can influence bone mineral density evolution in childhood acute leukemia survivors. Patients included were selected from the long-term follow-up LEA cohort and had dual energy radiograph absorptiometry scan between 10 and 18 years and after the age of 18. All scans were centrally reviewed. Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, and whole body, and expressed as z-score. Eighty-nine patients (female 39, lymphoblastic leukemia 68, relapse 25, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 44, and mean age 15.4 and 20.1 years at the first and second scans, respectively) were studied. The first and second scan z-scores were significantly correlated ( < 10). Mean femoral neck and total hip z-scores improved significantly between the first and second scans, whereas no significant evolution occurred at the lumbar spine and whole-body level. On the second evaluation, 14.6% of patients had z-score <-2 at the lumbar spine and 4.3% at the femoral neck level. Gender, type of leukemia, transplantation, relapse, cumulative corticosteroid doses, or growth hormone deficiency did not have any significant impact on z-score variation. Younger age at diagnosis (≤8.5 years) proved an unfavorable risk factor for z-score evolution at the lumbar spine ( = 0.041); the trend did not reach statistical significance for metabolic syndrome ( = 0.054). At the femoral neck, both were associated with unfavorable z-score evolution ( = 0.003 and 0.025, respectively). Patients treated at a younger age and those with metabolic syndrome seem to be at higher risk of bone mineral density decline and should benefit from specific interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806242PMC
February 2021

Testosterone deficiency in men surviving childhood acute leukemia after treatment with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or testicular radiation: an L.E.A. study.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Jan 16. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Timone Enfants Hospital and Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.

We included 255 patients from the L.E.A. French long-term follow-up cohort. All had received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and/or testicular radiation for childhood acute leukemia and were older than 18 years at last L.E.A. evaluation. Total testosterone deficiency was defined as a <12 nmol/l level or by substitutive therapy, partial deficiency as normal testosterone with elevated luteinizing hormone (>10 UI/l). After myeloablative total body irradiation (n = 178), 55.6% had total deficiency, 15.7% partial deficiency, and 28.7% were normal. A 4-6 Gy testicular boost and a younger age at HSCT increased significantly the risk. After a Busulfan-containing myeloablative conditioning regimen (n = 53), 28.3% had total deficiency, 15.1% partial deficiency, 56.6% were normal (62.5% vs. 0% in patients without or with additional testicular radiation). A 24-Gy testicular radiation without HSCT induced total or partial deficiency in 71.4% and 28.6%, respectively (n = 21). Total testosterone deficiency increased the risk of metabolic syndrome: 25% vs. 12.1% in men with partial testosterone deficiency and 8.8% when Leydig cell function was normal (p = 0.031).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01180-yDOI Listing
January 2021

Long term follow-up of pediatric-onset Evans syndrome: broad immunopathological manifestations and high treatment burden.

Haematologica 2021 Jan 14. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Centre de Référence National des Cytopénies Auto-immunes de l'Enfant (CEREVANCE), Bordeaux, France; Pediatric Oncology Hematology Unit, University Hospital, Plurithématique CIC (CICP), Centre d'Investigation Clinique (CIC) 1401, INSERM Bordeaux.

Pediatric-onset Evans syndrome (pES) is defined by both immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) before the age of 18 years. There have been no comprehensive long-term studies of this rare disease, which can be associated to various immunopathological manifestations (IMs). We report outcomes of the 151 patients with pES and more than 5 years of follow-up from the nationwide French prospective OBS'CEREVANCE cohort. Median age at final follow-up was 18.5 (6.8-50.0) years and the median follow-up period was 11.3 (5.1-38.0) years. At 10 years, ITP and AIHA were in sustained complete remission in 54.5% and 78.4% of patients, respectively. The frequency and number of clinical and biological IMs increased with age: at 20 years old, 74% had at least one clinical cIM. A wide range of cIMs occurred, mainly lymphoproliferation, dermatological, gastrointestinal/hepatic and pneumological IMs. The number of cIMs was associated with a subsequent increase in the number of second-line treatments received (other than steroids and immunoglobulins; hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.60; p = 0.0002, Cox proportional hazards method). Survival at 15 years after diagnosis was 84%. Death occurred at a median age of 18 (1.7-31.5) years, and the most frequent cause was infection. The number of second-line treatments and severe/recurrent infections were independently associated with mortality. In conclusion, longterm outcomes of pES showed remission of cytopenias but frequent IMs linked to high secondline treatment burden. Mortality was associated to drugs and/or underlying immunodeficiencies, and adolescents-young adults are a high-risk subgroup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.271106DOI Listing
January 2021

A Randomized Trial of Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents with Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jan 2;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology and Oncology, APHM, La Timone Children's Hospital, 13385 Marseille, France.

Background: to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a physical activity program (PAP) in children and adolescents with cancer.

Methods: children and adolescents with cancer were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to the six-month PAP (intervention group) or to the control group. The first evaluation was performed at the end of the PAP (T0 + 6 mo). At T0 + 6 mo, both groups received the six-month PAP with a second evaluation at T0 + 12 mo. The primary outcome was the evolution of exercise capacity measured using the six-minute walk test (6 MWT) at T0 + 6 mo. Secondary outcomes included PAP safety and changes in other physical functions, self-esteem, and quality-of-life parameters.

Results: The trial involved 80 children and adolescents (age range 5.0-18.4 years), of whom 41 were assigned to the interventional group and 39 to the control group. Underlying malignancies were leukemia (39%) and a broad range of solid tumors (61%). No adverse events occurred. At T0 + 6 mo, the evolution of the 6 MWT distance (±SEM) was improved in the intervention group vs. the control group (86 ± 12 m vs. 32 ± 6 m, < 0.001). Several other physical parameters were significantly improved in the intervention group. Global self-esteem and parent-reported quality-of-life were significantly increased in the intervention group. Analysis at T0 + 12 mo showed persistence of the benefits in the intervention group on exercise capacity evolution (115 ± 18 m vs. 49 ± 11 m, = 0.004) and on most physical and QoL parameters.

Conclusion: In children and adolescents with cancer, a physical activity program is safe, improves exercise capacity, and may have physical and psychological benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13010121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795208PMC
January 2021

Evaluation of Next-Generation Sequencing and Crystal Digital PCR for Chimerism Monitoring of Post-Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jan 24;27(1):89.e1-89.e10. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Immunogenetic Laboratory, Etablissement Français du Sang Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur-Corse, Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, Etablissement Français du Sang, Anthropologie bio-culturelle-Droit-Ethique-Santé, Marseille, France.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment for most hematologic diseases. To evaluate the level of donor engraftment, chimerism must be carefully monitored after HSCT. Short tandem repeats, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and, more recently, digital PCR (dPCR) are widely used to determine the proportions of donor and recipient cells after HSCT. The screening and quantification of chimerism have been evaluated by 2 new methods: a ready-to-use next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based method using the Devyser ChimerismNGS kit and an original combination of the Stilla crystal digital PCR (cdPCR) platform with 3-color multiplexing capacity using GenDX KMRtrack reagents. The genotyping of 4 HSCT pairs by cdPCR using 11 triplex mixes of the GenDX KMRtype kit was consistent at 98.8% with qPCR. Informative samples (n = 20) from 6 donor-recipient pairs and 1 external proficiency test demonstrated the reliability of the results (0.1% to 50%) for the 2 methods. The methods are also highly sensitive (0.1%) and accurate. The chimerism values of the 2 methods are correlated and concordant with those of the reference methods. In addition, the ADVYSER software (Devyser) is user-friendly and well adapted to chimerism monitoring. In conclusion, these 2 innovative methods are easy to perform and user-friendly in all molecular, hematology, and immunogenetic laboratories and allow the genotyping and monitoring of chimerism with high performance and sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.09.023DOI Listing
January 2021

Quality of life in parents of childhood leukemia survivors. A French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study for Leukemia study.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 10 15;67(10):e28419. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Aix-Marseille Univ, EA 3279: CERESS-Health Service Research and Quality of Life Center, Marseille, France.

Introduction: Our objectives were to assess the quality of life (QoL) of parents of childhood leukemia survivors compared with population norms and to identify the determinants of parents' long-term QoL.

Methods: Parents of minors who had survived childhood leukemia participating in the French LEA cohort (Leucémie de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent-French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study for Leukemia) were asked to complete the French version of the WHOQOL-BREF. Results were compared with age- and sex-matched values from a French reference population. Parents' and survivors' characteristics likely to be associated with QoL, long after the child's leukemia diagnosis, were explored using multivariate analysis.

Results: We included 487 parents (mean age 42.9 ± 6.0 years, mean follow-up time from diagnosis 7.3 ± 3.3 years). Compared with the reference population, scores for physical health and social relationships for parents of childhood leukemia survivors were significantly lower (P < 0.001, effect size = 0.24 and P < 0.001, effect size = 0.29, respectively) contrary to scores for psychological health which were significantly higher (P < 0.001, effect size = 0.29). Even if health- and cancer-related characteristics were associated with parents' QoL in some dimensions, the only factor associated with each of the three dimensions (social relationships, physical health, and psychological) in the multivariate analysis was the parent's financial situation.

Conclusions: Long after leukemia diagnosis, the parents reported lower scores in the physical health and social relationship domains. Despite the difficulties of actually influencing socioeconomic characteristics, it is important to consider the social situation of each family in the long-term care of survivors and their families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28419DOI Listing
October 2020

COVID-19 and acute lymphoblastic leukemias of children and adolescents: First recommendations of the Leukemia committee of the French Society for the fight against Cancers and Leukemias in children and adolescents (SFCE).

Bull Cancer 2020 Jun 30;107(6):629-632. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Hôpital Universitaire Robert-Debré AP-HP, Université de Paris, service d'hémato-immunologie pédiatrique, Paris, France.

Since the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, many recommendations have been made. However, the very nature of acute lymphoblastic leukemias and their treatment in children and adolescents led the Leukemia Committee of the French Society for the fight against cancers and leukemias in children and adolescents (SFCE) to propose more specific recommendations, even if data for this population are still scarce. They may have to evolve according to the rapid evolution of knowledge on COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2020.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190519PMC
June 2020

Outcome of patients with Fanconi anemia developing myelodysplasia and acute leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A retrospective analysis on behalf of EBMT group.

Am J Hematol 2020 07 21;95(7):809-816. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

UOC Ematologia, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is curative for bone marrow failure in patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), but the presence of a malignant transformation is associated with a poor prognosis and the management of these patients is still challenging. We analyzed outcome of 74 FA patients with a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 35), acute leukemia (n = 35) or with cytogenetic abnormalities (n = 4), who underwent allo-HSCT from 1999 to 2016 in EBMT network. Type of diagnosis, pre-HSCT cytoreductive therapies and related toxicities, disease status pre-HSCT, donor type, and conditioning regimen were considered as main variables potentially influencing outcome. The 5-year OS and EFS were 42% (30-53%) and 39% (27-51%), respectively. Patients transplanted in CR showed better OS compared with those transplanted in presence of an active malignant disease (OS:71%[48-95] vs 37% [24-50],P = .04), while none of the other variables considered had an impact. Twenty-two patients received pre-HSCT cytoreduction and 9/22 showed a grade 3-4 toxicity, without any lethal event or negative influence on survival after HSCT(OS:toxicity pre-HSCT 48% [20-75%] vs no-toxicity 51% [25-78%],P = .98). The cumulative incidence of day-100 grade II-IV a-GvHD and of 5-year c-GvHD were 38% (26-50%) and 40% (28-52%). Non-relapse-related mortality and incidence of relapse at 5-years were 40% (29-52%) and 21% (11-30%) respectively, without any significant impact of the tested variables. Causes of death were transplant-related events in most patients (34 out of the 42 deaths, 81%). This analysis confirms the poor outcome of transformed FA patients and identifies the importance of achieving CR pre-HSCT, suggesting that, in a newly diagnosed transformed FA patient, a cytoreductive approach pre-HSCT should be considered if a donor have been secured.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25810DOI Listing
July 2020

Myeloablative conditioning for allo-HSCT in pediatric ALL: FTBI or chemotherapy?-A multicenter EBMT-PDWP study.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 08 17;55(8):1540-1551. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Division for Stem Cell Transplantation and Immunology, Department for Children and Adolescents, University Hospital, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

Although most children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receive fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), it is an important matter of debate if chemotherapy can effectively replace FTBI. To compare outcomes after FTBI versus chemotherapy-based conditioning (CC), we performed a retrospective EBMT registry study. Children aged 2-18 years after MAC for first allo-HSCT of bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) from matched-related (MRD) or unrelated donors (UD) in first (CR1) or second remission (CR2) between 2000 and 2012 were included. Propensity score weighting was used to control pretreatment imbalances of the observed variables. 3.054 patients were analyzed. CR1 (1.498): median follow-up (FU) after FTBI (1.285) and CC (213) was 6.8 and 6.1 years. Survivals were not significantly different. CR2 (1.556): median FU after FTBI (1.345) and CC (211) was 6.2 years. Outcomes after FTBI were superior as compared with CC with regard to overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), relapse incidence (RI), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). However, we must emphasize the preliminary character of the results of this retrospective "real-world-practice" study. These findings will be prospectively assessed in the ALL SCTped 2012 FORUM trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0854-0DOI Listing
August 2020

Second-line treatment trends and long-term outcomes of 392 children with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura: the French experience over the past 25 years.

Br J Haematol 2020 06 4;189(5):931-942. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Pediatric Hematology Unit, CIC1401, INSERM CICP, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Childhood chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (cITP) is a rare disease. In severe cases, there is no evidence for the optimal therapeutic strategy. Our aim was to describe the real-life management of non-selected children with cITP at diagnosis. Since 2004, patients less than 18 years old with cITP have been enrolled in the national prospective cohort, OBS'CEREVANCE. From 1990 to 2014, in 29 centres, 392 children were diagnosed with cITP. With a median follow-up of six years (2·0-25), 45% did not need second-line therapy, and 55% (n = 217) received one or more second lines, mainly splenectomy (n = 108), hydroxychloroquine (n = 61), rituximab (n = 61) or azathioprine (n = 40). The overall five-year further second-line treatment-free survival was 56% [95% CI 49·5-64.1]. The use of splenectomy significantly decreased over time. Hydroxychloroquine was administered to children with positive antinuclear antibodies, more frequently older and girls, and reached 55% efficacy. None of the patients died. Ten years after the initial diagnosis, 55% of the 56 followed children had achieved complete remission. Children with cITP do not need second-line treatments in 45% of cases. Basing the treatment decision on the pathophysiological pathways is challenging, as illustrated by ITP patients with positive antinuclear antibodies treated with hydroxychloroquine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16448DOI Listing
June 2020

Management of childhood aplastic anemia following liver transplantation for nonviral hepatitis: A French survey.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 04 11;67(4):e28177. Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Immunology, AP-HP, Robert-Debré Hospital, Paris, France.

Background: Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (AA) is a rare syndrome combining acute hepatitis of variable severity and AA. Hepatitis may be severe enough to require urgent liver transplantation (LT). Herein, we describe clinical presentation and management of a cohort of pediatric patients diagnosed with AA after undergoing LT for nonviral hepatitis.

Methods: To describe this rare clinical situation, we performed a national survey and identified nine children treated for AA following LT during the last 10 years in France.

Results: All patients were treated first for hepatic failure with urgent LT. AA was diagnosed with a median delay of 34 days [21-200] from the diagnosis of hepatitis. Seven children were treated with antithymocyte globulin/cyclosporine, one with CSA alone and one received bone marrow transplantation. At the last visit (median follow-up: 4 years), outcomes were excellent: all patients were alive and in hematological remission (complete remission: 7; partial remission: 2). Immunosuppressive therapy was pursued in all patients due to the liver transplant. No unusual toxicities were reported.

Conclusion: AA after LT is considered a therapeutic challenge. Nevertheless, hematological outcome is good using a standard immunosuppressive approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28177DOI Listing
April 2020

B-ALL With t(5;14)(q31;q32); Rearrangement and Eosinophilia: A Comprehensive Analysis of a Peculiar -Rearranged B-ALL.

Front Oncol 2019 10;9:1374. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Immunology, University Hospital Robert Debré, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Paris, France.

B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia associated with t(5;14)(q31;q32); is an exceptional cause of eosinophilia. The enhancer on 14q32 is juxtaposed to the gene on 5q31, leading to interleukin-3 overproduction and release of mature eosinophils in the blood. Clinical, biological and outcome data are extremely scarce in the literature. Except for eosinophilia, no relevant common feature has been highlighted in these patients. However, it has been classified as a distinct entity in the World Health Organization classification. Eight patients with t(5;14)(q31;q32) treated by French or Austrian protocols were retrospectively enrolled. Array comparative genomic hybridization, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification or genomic PCR search for deletion were performed in 7. Sixteen patients found through an exhaustive search in the literature were also analyzed. For those 24 patients, median age at diagnosis is 14.3 years with a male predominance (male to female ratio = 5). Eosinophilia-related symptoms are common (neurologic in 26%, thromboembolic in 26% or pulmonary in 50%). Median white blood cells count is high (72 × 10/L) and linked to eosinophilia (median: 32 × 10/L). Peripheral blasts are present at a low level or absent (median: 0 × 10/L; range: 0-37 × 10/L). Bone marrow morphology is marked by a low blast infiltration (median: 42%). We found an deletion in 5 out of 7 analyzable patients Outcome data are available for 14 patients (median follow-up: 28 months): 8 died and 6 are alive in complete remission. Some of these features are concordant with those seen in patients with other -rearranged B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias: young age at onset, male sex, low blast count, high incidence of deletion and intermediate prognosis. Based on shared epidemiological and biological features, B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with t(5;14)(q31;q32) is a peculiar subset of -rearranged B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with an intermediate prognosis and particular clinical features related to eosinophilia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.01374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6914849PMC
December 2019

Shell-vial Assay in Diagnosis of Disseminated BCG Infection in an Immunodeficient Child.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 03;39(3):258-259

From the Aix Marseille University, MEPHI, IRD.

We are reporting a case of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine-disseminated infection in a 19-month-old HIV-negative girl diagnosed with severe combined immunodeficiency. While standard culture protocols failed to isolate and culture the Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin strain, it was isolated from skin and mesenteric lymph node biopsies using the shell-vial assay, allowing whole-genome sequencing and in silico drug susceptibility testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002565DOI Listing
March 2020

Maintenance Therapy With Interleukin-2 for Childhood AML: Results of ELAM02 Phase III Randomized Trial.

Hemasphere 2018 Dec 29;2(6):e159. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, GH HUEP, Armand Trousseau Hospital, Paris, France; Sorbonne Université, UMRS_938, Paris, France.

Despite significant progress in the treatment of pediatric acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), relapse remains the commonest cause of death. Randomized ELAM02 trial questioned if maintenance therapy with interleukin-2 (IL2), for 1 year, improves disease-free survival (DFS). Patients aged 0 to 18 years, with newly diagnosed AML (excluding patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia or down syndrome AML) were enrolled. They received 1 course of induction treatment (cytarabine and mitoxantrone) and 3 courses of consolidation treatment (high-dose cytarabine in courses 1 and 3). According to the cytogenetics risk, patients not undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, still in complete remission (CR) after the third course of consolidation treatment, were eligible for randomization to 1 year of maintenance therapy with monthly courses of IL2 or no maintenance treatment. There were 438 evaluable patients, 154 of whom were randomized to the IL2/no maintenance groups. Relapse occurred in 28 patients from the IL2+ group and 29 patients in the IL2- group. Survival was similar in the 2 groups, with a 4-year DFS of 62% without IL2 and 66% with IL2 ( = 0.75). In the CBF population, 4-year DFS was 55% without IL2 and 78% with IL2 ( = 0.07). No deaths from toxicity or excess of serious adverse events related to IL2 treatment were recorded. Prolonged IL2 for maintenance therapy after intensive chemotherapy is feasible and safe in pediatric AML patients in their first CR. Such treatment did not improve DFS in this study, but a positive trend was observed in favor of IL2 maintenance therapy among core binding factor acute myeloblastic leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6745961PMC
December 2018

A 1-Year Prospective French Nationwide Study of Emergency Hospital Admissions in Children and Adults with Primary Immunodeficiency.

Authors:
Hélène Coignard-Biehler Nizar Mahlaoui Benoit Pilmis Vincent Barlogis Pauline Brosselin Nathalie De Vergnes Marianne Debré Marion Malphettes Pierre Frange Emilie Catherinot Isabelle Pellier Isabelle Durieu Antoinette Perlat Bruno Royer Alain Le Quellec Eric Jeziorski Alain Fischer Olivier Lortholary Laurent Aaron Daniel Adoue Claire Aguilar Nathalie Aladjidi Alexandre Alcais Zahir Amoura Philippe Arlet Corinne Armari-Alla Brigitte Bader-Meunier Sophie Bayart Yves Bertrand Boris Bienvenu Stéphane Blanche Damien Bodet Bernard Bonnotte Raphaël Borie Patrick Boutard Claire Briandet Jean-Paul Brion Jacques Brouard Sarah Cohen-Beaussant Laurence Costes Louis-Jean Couderc Pierre Cougoul Virginie Courteille Geneviève de Saint Basile Catherine Devoldere Anne Deville Jean Donadieu Eric Dore Fabienne Dulieu Christine Edan Natacha Entz-Werle Claire Fieschi Amandine Forestier Fanny Fouyssac Vincent Gajdos Lionel Galicier Virginie Gandemer Martine Gardembas Catherine Gaud Gaelle Guillerm Eric Hachulla Mohamed Hamidou Olivier Hermine Cyrille Hoarau Sébastien Humbert Arnaud Jaccard Serge Jacquot Jean-Philippe Jais Roland Jaussaud Pierre-Yves Jeandel Kamila Kebaili Anne-Sophie Korganow Olivier Lambotte Fanny Lanternier Claire Larroche Anne-Sophie Lascaux Emmanuelle Le Moigne Vincent Le Moing Yvon Lebranchu Marc Lecuit Guillaume Lefevre Richard Lemal Valérie Li Thiao Te Aude Marie-Cardine Nicolas Martin Silva Agathe Masseau Christian Massot Françoise Mazingue Etienne Merlin Gérard Michel Frédéric Millot Béatrice Monlibert Fabrice Monpoux Despina Moshous Luc Mouthon Martine Munzer Bénédicte Neven Raphaëlle Nove-Josserand Eric Oksenhendler Marie Ouachée-Chardin Caroline Oudot Anne Pagnier Jean-Louis Pasquali Marlène Pasquet Yves Perel Capucine Picard Christophe Piguet Dominique Plantaz Johan Provot Pierre Quartier Frédéric Rieux-Laucat Pascal Roblot Pierre-Marie Roger Pierre-Simon Rohrlich Hervé Rubie Valéry Salle Françoise Sarrot-Reynauld Amélie Servettaz Jean-Louis Stephan Nicolas Schleinitz Felipe Suarez Laure Swiader Sophie Taque Caroline Thomas Olivier Tournilhac Caroline Thumerelle François Tron Jean-Pierre Vannier Jean-François Viallard

J Clin Immunol 2019 10 10;39(7):702-712. Epub 2019 Aug 10.

Service de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre d'Infectiologie Necker Pasteur, Hôpital Universitaire Necker-Enfants Malades, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Purpose: Patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) are at risk of serious complications. However, data on the incidence and causes of emergency hospital admissions are scarce. The primary objective of the present study was to describe emergency hospital admissions among patients with PID, with a view to identifying "at-risk" patient profiles.

Methods: We performed a prospective observational 12-month multicenter study in France via the CEREDIH network of regional PID reference centers from November 2010 to October 2011. All patients with PIDs requiring emergency hospital admission were included.

Results: A total of 200 admissions concerned 137 patients (73 adults and 64 children, 53% of whom had antibody deficiencies). Thirty admissions were reported for 16 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. When considering the 170 admissions of non-transplant patients, 149 (85%) were related to acute infections (respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal tract infections in 72 (36%) and 34 (17%) of cases, respectively). Seventy-seven percent of the admissions occurred during winter or spring (December to May). The in-hospital mortality rate was 8.8% (12 patients); death was related to a severe infection in 11 cases (8%) and Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoma in 1 case. Patients with a central venous catheter (n = 19, 13.9%) were significantly more hospitalized for an infection (94.7%) than for a non-infectious reason (5.3%) (p = 0.04).

Conclusion: Our data showed that the annual incidence of emergency hospital admission among patients with PID is 3.4%. The leading cause of emergency hospital admission was an acute infection, and having a central venous catheter was associated with a significantly greater risk of admission for an infectious episode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-019-00658-9DOI Listing
October 2019

Myeloablative Unrelated Cord Blood Transplantation in Adolescents and Young Adults with Acute Leukemia.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 12 5;25(12):2438-2446. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Eurocord, Hôpital Saint Louis, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université de Paris, Paris, France; Monacord, Centre Scientifique de Monaco, Principauté de Monaco, Monaco. Electronic address:

Outcomes for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with leukemia differ from other age groups and are still under-represented in clinical research. The aim of this study was to analyze outcomes of umbilical cord blood transplant (UCBT) in AYAs with acute leukemia reported to Eurocord/European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Patients (N = 504) had acute lymphoblastic (59%) or myeloid leukemia (41%), were aged 15 to 25 years, and received UCBT after myeloablative conditioning regimens between 2004 and 2016. The primary endpoint was 3-year overall survival (OS). Median follow-up was 3.9 years. Transplant was single in 58% and double UCBT in 42%. Three-year OS was 45% and leukemia free survival (LFS) was 41%. Cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and relapse were 31% and 28%, respectively. CIF of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grades II to IV at day 100 was 28%. Three-year CIF of chronic GVHD was 25%. In adjusted analysis, better disease status at UCBT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.74; P < .001) and more recent UCBT (HR, 1.43; P = .01) were associated with increased OS, and a similar effect of these factors was observed on LFS. Contrastingly, the use of antithymocyte globulin had a negative effect in LFS. The risk of acute GVHD grades II to IV increased with the use of double UCBT (HR, 1.65; P  = .02) and decreased with more recent transplant period (HR, .65; P = .02) and antithymocyte globulin use (HR, .55; P  = .01). Outcomes of AYA UCBT improved in more recent years, becoming comparable with pediatric results. Demonstrating the feasibility of UCBT in AYAs facilitates stem cell source selection and provides the basis for future prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.07.031DOI Listing
December 2019

Gonadal Function after Busulfan Compared with Treosulfan in Children and Adolescents Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 09 11;25(9):1786-1791. Epub 2019 May 11.

Goethe-Universität, Universitätsklinikum Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

Gonadal impairment is an important late effect with a significant impact on quality of life of transplanted patients. The aim of this study was to compare gonadal function after busulfan (Bu) or treosulfan (Treo) conditioning regimens in pre- and postpubertal children. This retrospective, multicenter study included children transplanted in pediatric European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) centers between 1992 and 2012 who did not receive gonadotoxic chemoradiotherapy before the transplant. We evaluated 137 patients transplanted in 25 pediatric EBMT centers. Median age at transplant was 11.04 years (range, 5 to 18); 89 patients were boys and 48 girls. Eighty-nine patients were prepubertal at transplant and 48 postpubertal. One hundred eighteen children received Bu and 19 Treo. A higher proportion of girls treated with Treo in the prepubertal stage reached spontaneous puberty compared with those treated with Bu (P = .02). Spontaneous menarche was more frequent after Treo than after Bu (P < .001). Postpubertal boys and girls treated with Treo had significantly lower luteinizing hormone levels (P = .03 and P = .04, respectively) compared with the Bu group. Frequency of gonadal damage associated with Treo was significantly lower than that observed after Bu. These results need to be confirmed in a larger population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.05.005DOI Listing
September 2019

High-intensity end-of-life care among children, adolescents, and young adults with cancer who die in the hospital: A population-based study from the French national hospital database.

Cancer 2019 07 26;125(13):2300-2308. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Aix-Marseille University, EA 3279 CEReSS - Health Service Research and Quality of Life Center, Marseille, France.

Background: Efforts to improve the quality of end-of-life (EOL) care depend on better knowledge of the care that children, adolescents, and young adults with cancer receive, including high-intensity EOL (HI-EOL) care. The objective was to assess the rates of HI-EOL care in this population and to determine patient- and hospital-related predictors of HI-EOL from the French national hospital database.

Methods: This was a population-based, retrospective study of a cohort of patients aged 0 to 25 years at the time of death who died at hospital as a result of cancer in France between 2014 and 2016. The primary outcome was HI-EOL care, defined as the occurrence of ≥1 chemotherapy session <14 days from death, receiving care in an intensive care unit ≥1 time, >1 emergency room admission, and >1 hospitalization in an acute care unit in the last 30 days of life.

Results: The study included 1899 individuals from 345 hospitals; 61.4% experienced HI-EOL care. HI-EOL was increased with social disadvantage (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.65; P = .028), hematological malignancies (AOR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.57-2.77; P < .001), complex chronic conditions (AOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.23-2.09; P = .001) and care delivered in a specialty center (AOR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.22-2.36; P = .001). HI-EOL was reduced in cases of palliative care (AOR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.24-0.41; P < .001).

Conclusion: A majority of children, adolescents, and young adults experience HI-EOL care. Several features (eg, social disadvantage, cancer diagnosis, complex chronic conditions, and specialty center care) were associated with HI-EOL care. These findings should now be discussed with patients, families, and professionals to define the optimal EOL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32035DOI Listing
July 2019

Lipodystrophy-like features after total body irradiation among survivors of childhood acute leukemia.

Endocr Connect 2019 Apr;8(4):349-359

Aix Marseille University, INSERM, INRA, C2VN, Marseille, France.

Background/objective: The number of long-term survivors of childhood acute leukemia (AL) is substantially growing. These patients are at high risk for metabolic syndrome (MS), especially those who received total body irradiation (TBI). The consequences of children's irradiation on adipose tissue (AT) development in adulthood are currently unknown. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of TBI on AT of childhood AL survivors.

Design: We compared the morphological and functional characteristics of AT among survivors of childhood AL who developed MS and received (n = 12) or not received (n = 12) TBI.

Subjects/methods: Body fat distribution and ectopic fat stores (abdominal visceral and liver fat) were evaluated by DEXA, MRI and 1H-spectroscopy. Functional characteristics of subcutaneous AT were investigated by studying gene expression and pre-adipocyte differentiation in culture.

Results: Patients who have received TBI exhibited a lower BMI (minus 5 kg/m2) and a lower waist circumference (minus 14 cm), especially irradiated women. Despite the lower quantity of intra-abdominal AT, irradiated patient displayed a nearly two-fold greater content of liver fat when compared to non-irradiated patient (17 vs 9%, P = 0.008). These lipodystrophic-like features are supplemented by molecular abnormalities in subcutaneous AT of irradiated patients: decrease of gene expression of SREBP1 (minus 39%, P = 0.01) and CIDEA (minus 36%, P = 0.004) and a clear alteration of pre-adipocyte differentiation.

Conclusions: These results strongly support the direct effect of irradiation on AT, especially in women, leading to specific nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, despite lower BMI. A long-term appropriate follow-up is necessary for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-18-0497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454302PMC
April 2019

Early (Day 15 Post Diagnosis) Peripheral Blood Assessment of Measurable Residual Disease in Flow Cytometry is a Strong Predictor of Outcome in Childhood B-Lineage Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2019 03 7;96(2):128-133. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Service d'Hématologie Biologique, CHU Nantes, Nantes, France.

Background: In children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) low levels of minimal residual disease (MRD) after induction, essentially assessed in the bone marrow, have been shown to be of good prognosis. However, only few studies have tested the peripheral blood for MRD.

Methods: Here, we report the impact on survival of peripheral blood (PB) MRD assessment by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) at early time points of treatment in 125 B-ALL children, compared to Day 35 molecular bone marrow (BM) MRD. Patients were sampled for MFC one week postdiagnosis after a pre-phase of corticotherapy (Day 8), then after one week of chemotherapy (Day 15). The study enrolled 67 boys and 58 girls with a median follow-up of 52 months. Over the duration of the study, 20 patients relapsed and eight died. MFC was performed based on the leukemia-associated immunophenotype at diagnosis, using panels of 10 antibodies.

Results: Although, PB MFC-MRD had no prognostic impact at Day 8, Day 15 MRD negativity was associated with a significantly better 4 years DFS (91.6 ± 3% vs. 67.6 ± 9% P = 0.0013). Furthermore, while MFC and molecular data were concordant in most cases, patients with detectable PB MRD on Day 15, yet negative in BM on Day 35 had a significantly lower DFS (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the less invasive procedure of MFC-MRD assessment in PB can be informative for childhood ALL patients at the early point of Day 15 of the treatment schedule. © 2019 International Clinical Cytometry Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.b.21769DOI Listing
March 2019

Neurological Involvement in Childhood Evans Syndrome.

J Clin Immunol 2019 02 22;39(2):171-181. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Centre de Référence National des Cytopénies Autoimmunes de l'Enfant (CEREVANCE), University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are associated in the definition of Evans syndrome (ES). The occurrence of neurological involvement in this population is poorly described and suggests an underlying primary immunodeficiency (PID). We aimed to describe the clinical manifestations, evolution, and PID profiles of these patients.

Methods: OBS'CEREVANCE is a French, nationwide prospective cohort that includes children with chronic ITP, AIHA, and ES. Patients with a neurological involvement were described. Centralized radiological and pathological reviews and genetic analyses were performed.

Results: On October 2016, eight patients (7/181 ES, 1/371 AIHA, and 0/615 ITP) were identified, all male, with a median age (range) at cytopenia onset of 11.5 years (1.6-15.8). Neurological symptoms appeared with a median delay of 6 years (2.5-18) after cytopenia and were polymorphic: seizures (n = 4), cranial nerve palsy (n = 2), Brown-Sequard syndrome (n = 2), intracranial pressure (n = 2), vertigo (n = 1), and/or sensory neuropathy (n = 1). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed inflammatory lesions, confirmed by pathology for five patients with macrophagic or lymphoplasmocytic infiltrates. All patients had other relevant immunopathological manifestations: pulmonary nodules (n = 6), lymphoproliferation (n = 4), abnormal immunophenotype (n = 8), and hypogammaglobulinemia (n = 7). Treatment consisted of steroids that improved symptomatology and MRI. Five patients relapsed and three had an asymptomatic radiological progression. A PID was identified in 3/8 patients: 22q11.2 microdeletion (n = 1) and CTLA deficiency (n = 2).

Conclusion: Neurological involvement is a rare and severe late event in the course of childhood ES, which can reveal an underlying PID. Imaging and pathology examination highlight a causative immune dysregulation that may guide targeted therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-019-0594-3DOI Listing
February 2019

Risk factors affecting outcome of unrelated cord blood transplantation for children with familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

Br J Haematol 2019 02 21;184(3):397-404. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Eurocord, Hôpital Saint Louis, Paris, France.

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is still the only available curative option for Familial Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (FHLH). Most studies report outcomes after bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. We analysed the outcomes of 118 children with FHLH undergoing single-unit umbilical cord blood transplantation performed from 1996 to 2014. Myeloablative conditioning regimen was given to 90% of the patients, and was mostly busulfan-based (n = 81, 76%), including anti-thymocyte globulin or alemtuzumab (n = 102, 86%). The cumulative incidence of Day 60 neutrophil engraftment was 85%; and that of non-relapse mortality and acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) was 21% and 33% at 100 days, respectively. The 6-year cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD was 17% and the 6-year probability of overall survival was 55%. In multivariate analysis, children receiving a graft with a total nucleated cell dose greater than 9·9 × 10 /kg had a better overall survival (hazard ratio [HR]: 0·49, 95% CI: 0·27-0·88, P = 0·02). Degree of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matching was associated with improved disease-free survival (5/6 vs. 6/6 HR: 2·11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1·01-4·4, P = 0·05 and ≤4/6 vs. 6/6, HR: 2·82, CI: 1·27-6·23, P = 0·01). Umbilical cord blood transplantation with a high cell dose and good HLA match is a suitable alternative option to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with FHLH who lack a HLA-matched donor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15642DOI Listing
February 2019

Adolescence and Socioeconomic Factors: Key Factors in the Long-Term Impact of Leukemia on Scholastic Performance-A LEA Study.

J Pediatr 2019 02 13;205:168-175.e2. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Pediatric Onco-Hematology, University Hospital of Rennes, Rennes1 University, Rennes, France.

Objective: To evaluate the association between medical and social environmental factors and the risk of repeating a grade in childhood leukemia survivors.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study of childhood leukemia survivors, recruited through the LEA cohort (Leucémie de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent [French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study for Leukemia]) in 2014. An adjusted logistic regression model was used to identify variables linked to repeating a grade after the diagnosis among the survivors, and the rates of repeating a grade were compared between the survivors and their siblings using a multilevel logistic regression model.

Results: The mean age at inclusion of the 855 participants was 16.2 ± 7.0 years, and the mean duration of follow-up from diagnosis to evaluation was 10.2 ± 6.2 years. After disease onset, 244 patients (28.5%) repeated a grade, with a median interval of 4 years (IQR, 2-8 years). Independent factors associated with repeating a grade were male sex (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.21-2.60), adolescence (OR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.63-4.48), educational support during the treatment period (OR, 3.79; 95% CI, 2.45-5.88), low parental education level (OR, 2.493; 95% CI, 1.657-3.750), and household financial difficulties (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.607-4.28). Compared with siblings, survivors were at greater risk of repeating a grade (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.48-2.35).

Conclusions: The most vulnerable patients seemed to be adolescents and those with parents of low socioeconomic status. Improving the schooling career of leukemia survivors will require that the medical community more carefully consider the social status of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.09.047DOI Listing
February 2019

Single-Unit versus Double-Unit Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation in Children and Young Adults with Residual Leukemic Disease.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 04 29;25(4):734-742. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, APHM, Timone Hospital, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France; Department of Public Health -EA 3279 Research Unit, Marseille University Hospital, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

We previously reported in a French prospective randomized study that transplantation of 2 unrelated cord blood (UCB) units instead of 1 unit does not decrease the risk of transplantation failure but may enhance alloreactivity. Here we evaluated the influence of pretransplantation minimal residual disease (MRD) on leukemia relapse and survival after single- versus double-UCB transplantation (UCBT). Among 137 children and young adults who underwent UCBT in this randomized study, 115 had available data on MRD assessment done immediately before initiation of the pretransplantation conditioning regimen. MRD was considered positive at a level of ≥10, which was the case of 43 out of 115 patients. Overall, the mean 3-year survival probability was 69.1 ± 4.4%, and it was not significantly influenced by the MRD level: 70.7 ± 5.4% in MRD-negative (<10) patients (n = 72), 71.1 ± 9.4% in MRD-positive patients with 10 ≤ MRD <10 (n = 26) and 58.8 ± 11.9% in MRD-positive patients with ≥10 (n = 17). In the MRD-positive group, the mean risk of relapse was significantly lower in the double-UCBT arm compared with the single-UCBT arm (10.5 ± 7.2% versus 41.7 ± 10.4%; P = .025) leading to a higher mean 3-year survival rate (82.6 ± 9.3% versus 53.6 ± 10.3%; P = .031). This difference was observed only in patients who had not received antithymocyte globulin during their conditioning regimen. In the MRD-negative group, there was no differencebetween the single- and the double-UCBT arms. We conclude that even in cases of positive pretransplantation MRD, UCBT in children and young adults with acute leukemia yields a high cure rate, and that a double-unit strategy may enhance the graft-versus-leukemia effect and survival in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.10.016DOI Listing
April 2019

Survival and Functional Outcomes in Boys with Cerebral Adrenoleukodystrophy with and without Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 03 4;25(3):538-548. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplantation Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Electronic address:

Cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (CALD) is a rapidly progressing, often fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, resulting in deficiency of ALD protein. Clinical benefit has been reported following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We conducted a large multicenter retrospective chart review to characterize the natural history of CALD, to describe outcomes after HSCT, and to identify predictors of treatment outcomes. Major functional disabilities (MFDs) were identified as having the most significant impact on patients' abilities to function independently and were used to assess HSCT outcome. Neurologic function score (NFS) and Loes magnetic resonance imaging score were assessed. Data were collected on 72 patients with CALD who did not undergo HSCT (untreated cohort) and on 65 patients who underwent transplantation (HSCT cohort) at 5 clinical sites. Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimates of 5-year overall survival (OS) from the time of CALD diagnosis were 55% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.2% to 65.7%) for the untreated cohort and 78% (95% CI, 64% to 86.6%) for the HSCT cohort overall (P = .01). KM estimates of 2-year MFD-free survival for patients with gadolinium-enhanced lesions (GdE) were 29% (95% CI, 11.7% to 48.2%) for untreated patients (n = 21). For patients who underwent HSCT with GdE at baseline, with an NFS ≤1 and Loes score of 0.5 to ≤9 (n = 27), the 2-year MFD-free survival was 84% (95% CI, 62.3% to 93.6%). Mortality rates post-HSCT were 8% (5 of 65) at 100days and 18% (12 of 65) at 1 year, with disease progression (44%; 7 of 16) and infection (31%; 5 of 16) listed as the most common causes of death. Adverse events post-HSCT included infection (29%; 19 of 65), acute grade II-IV graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (31%; 18 of 58), and chronic GVHD (7%; 4 of 58). Eighteen percent of the patients (12 of 65) experienced engraftment failure after their first HSCT. Positive predictors of OS in the HSCT cohort may include donor-recipient HLA matching and lack of GVHD, and early disease treatment was predictive of MFD-free survival. GdE status is a strong predictor of disease progression in untreated patients.‎ This study confirms HSCT as an effective treatment for CALD when performed early. We propose survival without MFDs as a relevant treatment goal, rather than solely assessing OS as an indicator of treatment success.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.09.036DOI Listing
March 2019

The stem cell-associated gene expression signature allows risk stratification in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.

Leukemia 2019 02 8;33(2):348-357. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

UMR-S 1172, JPArc - Jean-Pierre AUBERT Research Center Neurosciences et Cancer, Univ. Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille, France.

Despite constant progress in prognostic risk stratification, children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) still relapse. Treatment failure and subsequent relapse have been attributed to acute myeloid leukemia-initiating cells (LSC), which harbor stem cell properties and are inherently chemoresistant. Although pediatric and adult AML represent two genetically very distinct diseases, we reasoned that common LSC gene expression programs are shared and consequently, the highly prognostic LSC17 signature score recently developed in adults may also be of clinical interest in childhood AML. Here, we demonstrated prognostic relevance of the LSC17 score in pediatric non-core-binding factor AML using Nanostring technology (ELAM02) and RNA-seq data from the NCI (TARGET-AML). AML were stratified by LSC17 quartile groups (lowest 25%, intermediate 50% and highest 25%) and children with low LSC17 score had significantly better event-free survival (EFS: HR = 3.35 (95%CI = 1.64-6.82), P < 0.001) and overall survival (OS: HR = 3.51 (95%CI = 1.38-8.92), P = 0.008) compared with patients with high LSC17 scores. More importantly, the high LSC17 score was an independent negative EFS and OS prognosticator determined by multivariate Cox model analysis (EFS: HR = 3.42 (95% CI = 1.63-7.16), P = 0.001; OS HR = 3.02 (95%CI = 1.16-7.85), P = 0.026). In conclusion, we have demonstrated the broad applicability of the LSC17 score in the clinical management of AML by extending its prognostic relevance to pediatric AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-018-0227-5DOI Listing
February 2019