Publications by authors named "Fuwei Zhao"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Transport stress affects the fecal microbiota in healthy donkeys.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Sep 31;35(5):2449-2457. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

National Engineering Research Center for Gelatin-based TCM, Dong-E E-Jiao Co., Ltd, Liaocheng, Shandong Province, China.

Background: With the development of large-scale donkey farming in China, long-distance transportation has become common practice, and the incidence of intestinal diseases after transportation has increased. The intestinal microbiota is important in health and disease, and whether or not transportation disturbs the intestinal microbiota in donkeys has not been investigated.

Objectives: To determine the effects of transportation on the fecal microbiota of healthy donkeys using 16S rRNA sequencing.

Animals: Fecal and blood samples were collected from 12 Dezhou donkeys before and after transportation.

Methods: Prospective controlled study. Cortisol, ACTH, and heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) concentrations were measured. Sequencing of 16S rRNA was used to assess the microbial composition. Alpha diversity and beta diversity were assessed.

Results: Results showed significant (P < .05) increases in cortisol (58.1 ± 14.6 to 71.1 ± 9.60 ng/mL), ACTH (163.8 ± 31.9 to 315.8 ± 27.9 pg/mL), and HSP90 (10.8 ± 1.67 to 14.6 ± 1.75 ng/mL) on the day of arrival. A significantly lower (P = .04) level of bacterial richness was found in fecal samples after transportation, compared with that before transportation without distinct changes in diversity. Most notably, donkeys had significant decreases in Atopostipes, Eubacterium, Streptococcus, and Coriobacteriaceae.

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: Transportation can induce stress in healthy donkeys and have some effect on the composition of the in fecal microbiota. Additional studies are required to understand the potential effect of these microbiota changes, especially significantly decreased bacteria, on the development intestinal diseases in donkeys during recovery from transportation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.16235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8478045PMC
September 2021

Quantitative Label-Free Proteomic Analysis of Milk Fat Globule Membrane in Donkey and Human Milk.

Front Nutr 2021 22;8:670099. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

National Engineering Research Center for Gelatin-Based Traditional Chinese Medicine, Dong-E E-Jiao Co., Ltd, Liaocheng, China.

Previous studies have found donkey milk (DM) has the similar compositions with human milk (HM) and could be used as a potential hypoallergenic replacement diet for babies suffering from cow's milk allergy. Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins are involved in many biological functions, behaving as important indicators of the nutritional quality of milk. In this study, we used label-free proteomics to quantify the differentially expressed MFGM proteins (DEP) between DM (in 4-5 months of lactation) and HM (in 6-8 months of lactation). In total, 293 DEP were found in these two groups. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that the majority of DEP participated in regulation of immune system process, membrane invagination and lymphocyte activation. Several significant Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were determined for the DEP, such as lysosome, galactose metabolism and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. Our study may provide valuable information in the composition of MFGM proteins in DM and HM, and expand our knowledge of different biological functions between DM and HM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.670099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258387PMC
June 2021

An ethnobotanical study of forage plants in Zhuxi County in the Qinba mountainous area of central China.

Plant Divers 2021 Jun 4;43(3):239-247. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resource, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650201, China.

In the Qinba mountainous area of Central China, pig farming has a significant impact on the growth of the rural economy and has substantially increased farmer incomes. Traditional knowledge plays an important role in the selection of forage plant species for pig farming by local people. This study aimed to identify the forage plants used for pig feeding and to catalog indigenous knowledge regarding their use. During 2016 and 2017, ethnobotanical surveys and inventories were conducted in Zhuxi County, Hubei Province, China. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, key informant reports, free listings, guided field walks, and participatory observations with 77 households in 16 villages in 13 towns/townships. The obtained data were analyzed using a relative frequency citation (RFC) index. Overall, 145 wild forage plants from 91 genera and 31 families were recorded. The most cited families were Asteraceae, Polygonaceae, Urticaceae, Amaranthaceae, Fabaceae, Cruciferae, Caryophyllaceae, and Lamiaceae. Whole plants (75.9%) and tender leaves (12.4%) were the most frequently used parts of the plants. Most of the forage plants were herbaceous (88.9%). Almost all forage plants could be collected throughout the year (62.7%). Raw and cooked were the two main preparation methods. The most frequently cited species were , , , , and var. . A total of 14 species were identified as the top forage plants in Zhuxi County based on their RFC values (RFC value greater than 0.5). Local people possess rich traditional knowledge about the utilization and management of forage plants for pig feeding. However, the maintenance of this traditional knowledge may be seriously threatened by changes in pig feeding modes and the lack of successors. Appropriate strategies and action plans have been suggested for the conservation of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity and the sustainable use of forage species resources. These include 1) taking targeted measures to protect forage resources and associated traditional knowledge; 2) strengthening research on the forage plants with the highest RFC values for nutritional value, digestibility, other functions, and ecological status; and 3) enhancing the identification of poisonous forage plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pld.2020.12.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233530PMC
June 2021

Comparative proteomic analysis of seminal plasma proteins in relation to freezability of Dezhou donkey semen.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Aug 11;231:106794. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

National Engineering Research Center for Gelatin-based Traditional Chinese Medicine, Dong-E-E-Jiao Co. Ltd., No. 78, E-jiao Street, Dong'e Country, Shandong Province, 252201, China. Electronic address:

Variation in donkey sperm freezability (capacity to withstand freeze-thawing) between ejaculates is a limitation for sperm cryopreservation. Seminal plasma proteins are essential for sperm function and also related to individual differences in sperm freezability. A Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) peptide labeling combine with a LC-MS/MS approach was conducted to quantitatively identify the seminal plasma proteins differentially abundant in ejaculates with optimal freezability characteristics (GFE) compared with those with suboptimal freezability characteristics (PFE). A total of 866 proteins were identified, and 99 ejaculates were in larger abundance in GFE samples. Differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) were subjected to intensive bioinformatic analysis. The majority of DAPs were involved in metabolic processes, oxidation-reduction processes and biological regulation. Results from functional protein analysis suggested that proteins functioned in oxidoreductase activity and acid phosphatase activity. This is the first report where there were analyses of the proteome of seminal plasma from donkey ejaculates with different freezability and to identify candidate proteins that could be used to explore the molecular mechanism related to donkey sperm cryotolerance. In this study, there also was elucidation of biomarkers for the early identification and selection of donkeys with optimal semen freezability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2021.106794DOI Listing
August 2021

Relative transmissibility of shigellosis among different age groups: A modeling study in Hubei Province, China.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 06 10;15(6):e0009501. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen City, Fujian Province, People's Republic of China.

Shigellosis is a heavy disease burden in China especially in children aged under 5 years. However, the age-related factors involved in transmission of shigellosis are unclear. An age-specific Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious/Asymptomatic-Recovered (SEIAR) model was applied to shigellosis surveillance data maintained by Hubei Province Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2005 to 2017. The individuals were divided into four age groups (≤ 5 years, 6-24 years, 25-59 years, and ≥ 60 years). The effective reproduction number (Reff), including infectivity (RI) and susceptibility (RS) was calculated to assess the transmissibility of different age groups. From 2005 to 2017, 130,768 shigellosis cases were reported in Hubei Province. The SEIAR model fitted well with the reported data (P < 0.001). The highest transmissibility (Reff) was from ≤ 5 years to the 25-59 years (mean: 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34-1.17), followed by from the 6-24 years to the 25-59 years (mean: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.35-1.02), from the ≥ 60 years to the 25-59 years (mean: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.29-0.86), and from the 25-59 years to 25-59 years (mean: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.21-0.78). The highest infectivity was in ≤ 5 years (RI = 1.71), and was most commonly transmitted to the 25-59 years (45.11%). The highest susceptibility was in the 25-59 years (RS = 2.51), and their most common source was the ≤ 5 years (30.15%). Furthermore, "knock out" simulation predicted the greatest reduction in the number of cases occurred by when cutting off transmission routes among ≤ 5 years and from 25-59 years to ≤ 5 years. Transmission in ≤ 5 years occurred mainly within the group, but infections were most commonly introduced by individuals in the 25-59 years. Infectivity was highest in the ≤ 5 years and susceptibility was highest in the 25-59 years. Interventions to stop transmission should be directed at these age groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219151PMC
June 2021

Daily Sperm Output, Spermatogenic Efficiency, and Sexual Behavior of Dezhou Donkey Jacks Mounting Jennies in Estrus.

J Equine Vet Sci 2021 06 19;101:103420. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois Urbana, Champaign, IL. Electronic address:

This study aimed to assess the sexual behavior of jacks mounting jennies in estrus and determine the daily sperm output (DSO) and spermatogenic efficiency using two equations to calculate testicular volume (TV). Eight sexually rested mature jacks, aging 5 to 10 years old, had semen collected once a day for 10 consecutive days using jennies in good standing estrus for mounting. Sexual behavior and semen parameters were assessed during each collection. Testicular measurements of height, width, and length were taken immediately before the first semen collection, and these measurements were used to calculate TV. After that, the TV was used to predict the DSO. The average total sperm number (TSN) obtained on days 8 to 10 was deemed the actual DSO. Differences in the predicted vs. the actual DSO were used to calculate the spermatogenic efficiency. In addition, the actual DSO was also used to calculate the number of inseminating doses a jack could produce for both on- and off-site breeding. Jack's sexual behavior and sperm motility did not vary across collection days. Sperm concentration and TSN reduced over time (P < .05). The actual DSO was 9.1 ± 4.1 billion, and the predicted DSO varied from 4.7 to 18 billion. Spermatogenic efficiency varied from 50 to 150% based on jack and the equation used to calculate TV. The number of inseminating doses ranged from 15 to 47 at 300-500 million progressively motile sperm (pms)/dose for on-site breeding. In contrast, the number of breeding doses with cooled-shipped semen (1 billion pms/dose) varied from 4 to 14 doses across donkeys. In conclusion, sexual behavior was not affected by daily semen collections. Sexual rest did not affect sperm motility. The predicted DSO varied with the equation used to determine TV. Clinically normal donkeys have high spermatogenic efficiency, which confirms previous histology reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2021.103420DOI Listing
June 2021

Mitochondrial genome of and its implications for infrageneric division of the genus of .

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Oct 5;5(3):3485-3486. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu, P. R. China.

was a member of the genus of in family Salicaceae with unique morphological traits, and once recognized as a separate genus, Kimura. Here, we sequenced and assembled the complete mitochondrial genome of , which was 735,173 bp in length, including 56 genes, 28 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, 25 tRNA genes, and one large inverted repeat regions with length of 13,603 bp. Phylogenetic analysis based on 26 mitochondrial CDS confirmed that is a member of , and support its merge into in aspect of our new insights on mitogenome phylogenomics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1827065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782887PMC
October 2020

Effects of long-distance transportation on blood constituents and composition of the nasal microbiota in healthy donkeys.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Sep 15;16(1):338. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, 225009, Yangzhou, P.R. China.

Background: This study aims to determine the effects of transportation on the nasal microbiota of healthy donkeys using 16S rRNA sequencing.

Results: Deep nasal swabs and blood were sampled from 14 donkeys before and after 21 hours' long-distance transportation. The values of the plasma hormone (cortisol (Cor), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)), biochemical indicators (total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), creatinine (CREA), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), blood urea (UREA), plasma glucose (GLU)) and blood routine indices (white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte (LYM), neutrophil (NEU), red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB)) were measured. 16S rRNA sequencing was used to assess the nasal microbiota, including alpha diversity, beta diversity, and phylogenetic structures. Results showed that levels of Cor, ACTH, and heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) were significantly increased (p < 0.05) after long-distance transportation. Several biochemical indicators (AST, CK) and blood routine indices (Neu, RBC, and HGB) increased markedly (p < 0.05), but the LYM decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Nine families and eight genera had a mean relative abundance over 1%. The predominant phyla in nasal microbiota after and before transportation were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Transportation stress induced significant changes in terms of nasal microbiota structure compared with those before transportation based on principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) coupled with analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) (p < 0.05). Among these changes, a notably gain in Proteobacteria and loss in Firmicutes at the phylum level was observed.

Conclusions: These results suggest transportation can cause stress to donkeys and change the richness and diversity of nasal microbiota. Further studies are required to understand the potential effect of these microbiota changes on the development of donkey respiratory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02563-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7493398PMC
September 2020

Quantitative Proteomic Analyses of a Pathogenic Strain and Its Highly Passaged Attenuated Strain of .

Biomed Res Int 2019 1;2019:4165735. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, a chronic respiratory disease in swine resulting in enormous economic losses. To identify the components that contribute to virulence and unveil those biological processes potentially related to attenuation, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification technology (iTRAQ) to compare the protein profiles of the virulent strain 168 and its attenuated highly passaged strain 168L. We identified 489 proteins in total, 70 of which showing significant differences in level of expression between the two strains. Remarkably, proteins participating in inositol phosphate metabolism were significantly downregulated in the virulent strain, while some proteins involved in nucleoside metabolism were upregulated. We also mined a series of novel promising virulence-associated factors in our study compared with those in previous reports, such as some moonlighting adhesins, transporters, lipoate-protein ligase, and ribonuclease and several hypothetical proteins with conserved functional domains, deserving further research. Our survey constitutes an iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis of a virulent strain and its attenuated strain originating from a single parent with a well-characterized genetic background and lays the groundwork for future work to mine for potential virulence factors and identify candidate vaccine proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4165735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6634062PMC
December 2019

Label-free based comparative proteomic analysis of whey proteins between different milk yields of Dezhou donkey.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 01 24;508(1):237-242. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

National Engineering Research Center for Gelatin-based TCM, Dong-E E-Jiao Co., Ltd, 78 E-Jiao Street Donge County, 252201, Shandong Province, China; College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China. Electronic address:

Donkey milk, similar to human milk in compositions, has been suggested as the best potential hypoallergenic replacement diet for babies suffering from cow milk protein allergens and a promising nutraceutical for aged people. In this study, label-free mass spectrometry analysis was conducted to quantitatively identify the whey proteins differentially expressed in high-milk-yield samples compared with low-milk-yield samples. A total of 216 whey proteins were identified, and 19 of them showed significant differences in high-milk-yield samples. Of these proteins, 16 were upregulated and 3 were downregulated. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were subjected to intensive bioinformatic analysis. Results revealed that the majority of DEPs participated in protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, estrogen signaling pathway, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Functional protein analysis suggested that proteins functioned in binding, catalytic activity, molecular function regulation, structural molecule activity, and transporter activity. Our study was the first to analyze the whey protein profile of different samples of donkey milk and to identify candidate proteins that could be used to explore the molecular mechanism related to the yield traits of Dezhou donkey milk. This study provided the biomarkers for the selection of high-milk-yielding donkey and obtained valuable information for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.11.130DOI Listing
January 2019

Exosomes Mediate Intercellular Transmission of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

J Virol 2018 02 30;92(4). Epub 2018 Jan 30.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China

Exosomes are small membrane-enclosed vesicles produced by various cells and actively released into the extracellular space. They participate in intercellular communication and transfer of biologically active proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Accumulating evidence suggests that exosomes derived from cells infected by some viruses selectively encapsulate viral proteins, genetic materials, or even virions to mediate cell-to-cell communication and/or virus transmission. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an that has been devastating the global swine industry since the late 1980s. Recent studies have shown that major proteins secreted from PRRSV-infected cells are exosomal proteins and that the serum-derived exosomes from PRRSV-infected pigs contain viral proteins. However, the role of exosomes in PRRSV infection remains unclear. In this study, purified exosomes isolated from PRRSV-infected cells were shown with reverse transcription-PCR and mass spectrometry to contain viral genomic RNA and partial viral proteins. Furthermore, exosomes from PRRSV-infected cells established productive infection in both PRRSV-susceptible and -nonsusceptible cells. More importantly, exosome-mediated infection was not completely blocked by PRRSV-specific neutralizing antibodies. In summary, this study demonstrated that exosomes can mediate PRRSV transmission and are even resistant to antibody neutralization, identifying a potential immune evasion mechanism utilized by PRRSV. Exosomes have recently been characterized as bioactive vesicles that function to promote intercellular communication. The exosomes from virally infected cells containing altered compositions confer numerous novel functionalities. A study of the secretome of cells infected with PRRSV indicated that the exosomal pathway is strongly activated by PRRSV infection. Here, we demonstrate that PRRSV can utilize host exosomes to infect naive healthy cells. Furthermore, exosome-mediated viral transmission is largely resistant to PRRSV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Our study provides novel insights into an alternative mechanism of PRRSV transmission that can compromise the host's anti-PRRSV immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01734-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5790938PMC
February 2018

Porcine bocavirus NP1 protein suppresses type I IFN production by interfering with IRF3 DNA-binding activity.

Virus Genes 2016 Dec 1;52(6):797-805. Epub 2016 Aug 1.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, 1 Shi-zi-shan Street, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Type I interferon (IFN) and the IFN-induced cellular antiviral responses are the primary defense mechanisms against viral infection; however, viruses always evolve various mechanisms to antagonize this host's IFN responses. Porcine bocavirus (PBoV) is a newly identified porcine parvovirus. In this study, we found that the nonstructural protein NP1 of PBoV inhibits Sendai virus-induced IFN-β production and the subsequent expression of IFN-stimulating genes (ISGs). Ectopic expression of NP1 significantly impairs IRF3-mediated IFN-β production; however, it does not affect the expression, phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation of IRF3, the most important transcription factor for IFN synthesis. Coimmunoprecipitation and Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggested that NP1 interacts with the DNA-binding domain of IRF3, which in turn blocks the association of IRF3 with IFN-β promoter. Together, our findings demonstrated that PBoV encodes an antagonist inhibiting type I IFN production, providing a better understanding of the PBoV immune evasion strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-016-1377-zDOI Listing
December 2016

SILAC-based quantitative proteomic analysis of secretome of Marc-145 cells infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

Proteomics 2016 10 6;16(20):2678-2687. Epub 2016 Sep 6.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, P. R. China.

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of PRRS, which causes severe reproductive failure in sows, respiratory disease in young and growing pigs, and enormous economic losses to the global swine industry. In this study, SILAC combined with MS/MS was used to quantitatively identify the secretory proteins differentially expressed in PRRSV-infected Marc-145 cells compared with mock-infected controls. In total, we identified 204 secretory proteins showing significant differences in infected cells (163 upregulated, 41 downregulated). Intensive bioinformatic analysis of secretome data revealed that PRRSV infection strongly activated nonclassical protein secretion, especially vesicle-mediated release of exosomal proteins, including different danger-associated molecular pattern molecules and the majority of secreted proteins involved in protein binding and transport, regulation of response to stimulus, metabolic processes, and immune responses. According to the functional proteins analysis, we speculate that proteins functioning in binding, transport, and the immune response are exploited by PRRSV to facilitate virus replication and immune evasion. Our study for the first time analyzes the secretory protein profile of PRRSV-infected Marc-145 cells and provides valuable insight into the host response to PRRSV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201500486DOI Listing
October 2016

Molecular cloning, expression and antiviral activity of porcine interleukin-29 (poIL-29).

Dev Comp Immunol 2011 Mar 21;35(3):378-84. Epub 2010 Nov 21.

Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Human interleukin-29 (IL-29) is a recently discovered cytokine displaying antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of viruses, designated as interferon (IFN)-λ1. We here report the molecular cloning, expression and antiviral activity of porcine IL-29 (poIL-29). The full-length poIL-29 cDNA sequence encoded 191 amino acids with a 19 amino acid signal peptide. Sequence alignments showed that poIL-29 had amino acid sequence similarity to wolf (76%), bear (75%), horse (75%), orangutan (73%), human (72%), cat (72%) and dog (70%) IL-29. The poIL-29 without signal anchor sequence was efficiently expressed as a 6 × HIS fusion protein in Escherichia coli and the antiviral activity of the purified recombinant protein was 1.8 × 10(3)U/mg protein. The purified recombinant poIL-29 also exhibited significant antiviral effects against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and pseudorabies virus in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that poIL-29 is a potential antiviral agent against swine infectious diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2010.11.003DOI Listing
March 2011

The genomic diversity of Chinese porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates from 1996 to 2009.

Vet Microbiol 2010 Dec 10;146(3-4):226-37. Epub 2010 May 10.

Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Since it was first reported in 1995, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has become one of the most important swine diseases in China. A large number of field PRRSV strains have been isolated from different regions of China at different times, especially after a highly pathogenic PRRSV emerged in 2006. Previous studies based on ORF5 gene sequences revealed extensive genetic diversity among Chinese PRRSV isolates. To fully understand the extent of genetic diversity of PRRSV in China, we determined the genomic sequence of PRRSV WUH1, a highly pathogenic PRRSV isolated in late 2006. Based on the complete genomic sequences of strain WUH1 and 66 other field Chinese PRRSV strains isolated from 1996 to 2009, we further analyzed their genetic diversity. The results showed that all the tested Chinese PRRSV isolates belong to the North American genotype and can be clearly divided into four highly diverse subgenotypes. Furthermore, the analysis supported the concept that the highly pathogenic PRRSV in China emerged by gradual variation and evolution from the Chinese domestic virus. In addition, different deletions within Nsp2, deletion and potential antigenic drift within GP3, and point mutations within GP5, were extensively observed in Chinese PRRSV isolates. Interestingly, in addition to a unique discontinuous deletion of 30 aa in Nsp2, there was a 1 nucleotide deletion in both the 5'UTR and 3'UTR in nearly all highly pathogenic PRRSV isolates. These results will contribute to the elucidation of the evolutionary mechanisms of PRRSV in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2010.05.011DOI Listing
December 2010
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