Publications by authors named "Funda Kont Cobankara"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of salicylate- and calcium silicate-based root canal sealers on primer human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

Aust Endod J 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of epoxy-resin-based AHPlus, salicylate-based MTA-Fillapex and calcium silicate-based iRootSP root canal sealers. Cytotoxicity was assessed by XTT test. The extracts from sealers of different setting times were serially diluted. Cell viability was calculated as the percentage of the control group (100%). The optimal concentration of each sealer was used at genotoxicity test, and micronuclei formations were detected. Statistical analyses were done by using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post hoc test with Bonferroni correction. AHPlus and MTA-Fillapex showed the lowest percentage of cell viability at higher concentrations (1:1, 1:2, 1:4), especially at first 12 h. iRootSP showed higher viability at all concentrations and times than AHPlus and MTA-Fillapex. At genotoxicity assay, AHPlus increased the number of micronuclei. MTA-Fillapex slightly induced micronucleus formation (not significant) and iRootSP was not increased. In conclusion, calcium silicate-based iRootSP had lowest cytotoxic and genotoxic potential and can be considered as a highly biocompatible material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aej.12537DOI Listing
June 2021

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Effects of Single and Combined use of Different Irrigation Solutions Against Intracanal .

Acta Stomatol Croat 2020 Sep;54(3):250-262

Department of Preventive and Restorative Sciences, School of Dental Medicine University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objectives: This study assessed the antibacterial activity of both separate and combined uses of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 3% hydrogen peroxide (HO), MTAD, SmearClear (SC) and 13.8% chlorine dioxide (ClO) irrigation solutions against

Materials And Methods: Two hundred eighty single rooted human premolars were randomly grouped into 26 test and 2 control (negative and positive) groups and were incubated for 24 h with , except for the negative control group. The tested solutions were as follow: NaOCl; CHX; ClO; MTAD; SC; EDTA; HO; NaOCl + CHX; NaOCl + MTAD; SC + NaOCl; EDTA + NaOCl; HO + NaOCl; ClO + CHX; CHX + MTAD; SC + CHX; EDTA + CHX; CHX + HO; ClO + MTAD; SC + ClO; EDTA + ClO; ClO HO; SC+MTAD; EDTA+MTAD; MTAD + HO; SC + HO and EDTA + HO Optic density values were recorded at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 48 h and bacterial growth curve created for each solution.

Results: The CHX, MTAD and ClO showed a high potential for the elimination of both alone and in all combinations. The EDTA, HO, HO+ EDTA, HO + NaOCl and SC + NaOCl groups showed less antibacterial activity than the other groups. The SC + CHX group showed the best antibacterial effect against .

Conclusion: The SC + CHX combination can be recommended as the most effective irrigation regimen against in persistent endodontic infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15644/asc54/3/3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7586900PMC
September 2020

Effects of chelating agents on the mineral content of root canal dentin.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011 Dec 19;112(6):e149-54. Epub 2011 Oct 19.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Objective: The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of several chelating agents on the mineral content of root dentin.

Study Design: Extracted human mandibular incisor roots were prepared and divided into groups according to the following irrigation protocols: 1) 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); 2) 10% citric acid solution; 3) 18% etidronate; 4) 2.25% peracetic acid; 5) and deionized water (control). Dentin chips were obtained (Gates-Glidden nos. 3, 4, and 5). The levels of different minerals were analyzed with the use of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES).

Results: 1) Peracetic acid significantly decreased P, K, Mg, Na, and S levels compared with the other groups (P < .05). 2) S decreased by different levels in all of the chelating solutions (P < .05), and the greatest decrease was observed in peracetic acid. 3) Ca levels significantly decreased in peracetic acid, citric acid, and EDTA (P < .05). 4) Mn levels significantly decreased in the citric acid and peracetic acid groups (P < .05). 5) Na and Zn levels significantly decreased in the peracetic acid, citric acid, and etidronate groups (P < .05).

Conclusions: The chelation agents can create different effects on mineral contents of root dentin, so it is important to know what effects each solution will have on root dentin before their clinical use. In addition, according to the results of this in vitro study, it might be recommended that peracetic acid, in particular, should be used with caution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tripleo.2011.06.037DOI Listing
December 2011

An alternative adhesive strategy to optimize bonding to root dentin.

J Endod 2011 Oct 15;37(10):1427-32. Epub 2011 Aug 15.

Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Introduction: This study examined the hypothesis that the shear-bond strengths of AH Plus (AH) and Hybrid Root Seal (HRS) to root dentin might be optimized by using a powdered dentin-reinforced bonding procedure.

Methods: The surfaces of root halves obtained from extracted human premolars were ground (800-grit silicon carbide paper), treated (5.25% NaOCl 17% EDTA for 5 minutes followed by distilled water) and randomly allocated into two groups according to the sealer and then into three subgroups according to bonding procedure. Dentin particles with a maximum size of 25 μm were incorporated into the adhesive of Clearfil Liner Bond 2V, and groups were created as follows: no adhesive, adhesive alone, and with powdered dentin reinforced adhesive; 3 × 3 mm high buildups were created using sealer and allowed to set (37 °C, 100% humidity, 72 hours). Shear tests were performed (1 mm/min). Data were calculated as MPa and analyzed (two-way analysis of variance, Tukey test).

Results: A significant difference was found between the groups (P = .000). Adhesive or reinforced adhesive had a negative effect on the shear-bond strength of AH, but they significantly increased the shear-bond strength of HRS (P = .000). HRS showed a similar bond strength with either adhesive alone or adhesive reinforced with powdered dentin. AH group was characterized by mixed failure, whereas the predominant failure type of the HRS group was cohesive failure within the sealer.

Conclusions: Reinforcing adhesive resin with powdered dentin may be considered an alternative for optimizing the bonding of methacrylate-based sealers to root dentin and might affect the shear bond strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2011.06.014DOI Listing
October 2011

Comparison of organic tissue dissolution capacities of sodium hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide.

J Endod 2010 Feb;36(2):272-4

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

The organic tissue dissolution properties of irrigating solutions are important for the success of endodontic treatment. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) has been recently proposed as an irrigation solution in endodontics. The organic tissue dissolution property of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is well-known and extensively investigated, but apparently no data have been published on tissue-dissolving properties of ClO2. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare organic tissue dissolution capacity of NaOCl and ClO2. In this study, 5.25% NaOCl, 13.8% ClO2, and, as a control, isotonic saline solutions (0.9% NaCl) were used. Thirty bovine pulp specimens were previously weighed and immersed for 20 minutes in each test solution (changing the solution every 2 minutes). The pulp specimens were then blotted dry and weighed again. The percentage of weight loss was calculated and statistically analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference tests. Saline solution did not dissolve the organic tissue. Both 5.25% NaOCl and 13.8% ClO2 dissolved the tissue pieces more effectively than saline control (P < .05). No statistically significant difference was found between the tissue-dissolving properties of 5.25% NaOCl and those of 13.8% ClO2 (P > .05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that ClO2 and NaOCl are equally efficient for dissolving organic tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2009.10.027DOI Listing
February 2010

Long-term evaluation of the influence of smear layer on the apical sealing ability of MTA.

J Endod 2008 Dec 11;34(12):1537-40. Epub 2008 Oct 11.

Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of the smear layer on apical microleakage in teeth obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Fifty single-rooted central maxillary teeth were used in this study. All teeth were instrumented to size 60 by using the step-back technique. The selected teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 20). In the first group (smear [+]), the teeth were irrigated with only NaOCl (5.25%). In the second group (smear [-]), the teeth were irrigated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (17%) and NaOCl (5.25%) to remove the smear layer. The teeth were then filled with MTA. The computerized fluid filtration method was used for evaluation of apical microleakage. The quantitative apical leakage of each tooth was measured after 2, 30, and 180 days. Statistical analysis was done with the Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. At the end of this study there was no difference in 2 days between the groups, but removal of the smear layer caused significantly more apical microleakage than when the smear layer was left intact for 30 and 180 days (P < .005). Within the constraints of this study it can be concluded that the apical microleakage of MTA is less when the smear layer is present than when it is absent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2008.08.022DOI Listing
December 2008

Effect of immediate and delayed post preparation on apical microleakage by using methacrylate-based EndoREZ sealer with or without accelerator.

J Endod 2008 Dec 11;34(12):1504-7. Epub 2008 Oct 11.

Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Endodontics, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of immediate and delayed post space preparation on the apical sealing ability of EndoREZ, a methacrylate-based dual-cured resin sealer, with or without accelerator. Fifty extracted human teeth were endodontically prepared and randomly divided into 6 groups. Teeth in experimental groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 (n = 10) were filled with resin-coated gutta-percha and either EndoREZ with accelerator (A+) or EndoREZ without accelerator (A-) by the lateral compaction technique. In group1 (A+) and group2 (A-), the post space was prepared immediately at the time of obturation. In groups 3 (A+) and 4 (A-), the post space was prepared after storage in 100% humidity at 37 degrees C for 1 week. Groups 5 and 6 (n = 5) represented positive and negative control groups, respectively. Leakage was determined by computerized fluid filtration device. Complete leakage was observed in group 5, and no leakage was evident in group 6 (P = 1.000). In experimental groups, mean apical microleakage values (microL/cmH(2)O/min(-1)) were as follows: group 1, 2.77 +/- 0.79(a); group 2, 2.88 +/- 1.38(a); group 3, 19.95 +/- 7.85(c); group 4, 6.20 +/- 2.09(b) (different letters indicate significantly different groups, P < .005). Immediate post space preparation achieved better sealing than delayed post preparation at the apical end, regardless of whether the EndoREZ accelerator was used. There was no significant difference between the (A+) and (A-) in immediate post space preparation. However, more leakage was found when using (A+) than (A-) in delayed post preparation. Under the conditions of this study, it was concluded that EndoREZ accelerator seems not to provide clinicians with any advantage for rapid transition from endodontic treatment to post-endodontic restorative procedures immediately after completion of root canal therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2008.08.030DOI Listing
December 2008

The effect of different restoration techniques on the fracture resistance of endodontically-treated molars.

Oper Dent 2008 Sep-Oct;33(5):526-33

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Aim: This study compared the fracture resistance of endodontically-treated mandibular molars with mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities restored using different restoration techniques.

Methodology: Sixty sound extracted mandibular molars were randomly assigned to six groups (n=10). Group 1 did not receive any preparation. The teeth in Groups 2-6 received root canal treatment and a MOD cavity preparation. The teeth in Group 2 were kept unrestored. Group 3 was restored conventionally with amalgam. Group 4 was restored with a dentin bonding system (DBS, Clearfil SE Bond) and resin composite (CR) (Clearfil Photoposterior). Group 5 was restored with indirect hybrid ceramic inlay material (Estenia). In Group 6, polyethylene ribbon fiber (Ribbond) was inserted into cavities in a buccal-to-lingual direction and the teeth were then restored with DBS and CR. After finishing and polishing, the specimens, except for Group 2, were loaded to failure by a chewing simulation device (60,000 cycles x 50 N load, 1.3 Hz frequency) in an artificial environment at 37 degrees C. Each tooth was subjected to compressive loading perpendicular to the occlusal surface at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. The mean loads necessary to fracture were recorded in Newtons and the results were statistically analyzed.

Results: The mean fracture values were as follows: Group 1: 2485.3 +/- 193.98a, Group 2: 533.9 +/- 59.4a, Group 3: 1705.8 +/- 135.7a, Group 4: 2033.3 +/- 137.6cd, Group 5: 2121.3 +/- 156.5d, Group 6: 1908.9 +/- 132.2cd. There were statistically significant differences between the groups annotated with different letters. Thus, Group 1 (intact teeth) had the greatest fracture resistance and Group 2 (non-restored teeth) the poorest. No statistically significant differences were found between Groups 3 (amalgam), 4 (resin composite) and 6 (polyethylene ribbon fiber reinforced composite) (p > 0.05). Group 5 (indirect hybrid ceramic inlay) had greater fracture resistance than Group 3 (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, although all of the restoration groups were stronger than the prepared-only group, none of the restoration techniques tested was able to completely restore the fracture resistance lost from MOD cavity preparation. However, use of indirect hybrid inlay restorations in these teeth may be recommended, because this restoration technique indicated more favorable fracture failure modes than other restoration techniques used in this study and particularly greater fracture strength than amalgam restorations. The promising result of indirect hybrid inlay restorations may need to be confirmed by long-term clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2341/07-132DOI Listing
December 2008

Maxillary first molar with an unusual morphology: report of a rare case.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008 Dec 7;106(6):e62-5. Epub 2008 Sep 7.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Variations in dental anatomy are found in all teeth. Knowledge of these variations, particularly concerning the location and treatment of all canals, is very important for the success of endodontic therapy, because the inability to find and properly treat the root canals may cause failures. Variations in canal morphology, such as extra canals, apical ramifications, apical deltas, or lateral canals, are commonly encountered, and their incidence and significance have been well documented. However, the clinician should also be aware of the possibility of the existence of fewer root and/or canal numbers. The goal of this clinical article is to describe root canal treatment in a maxillary first molar with the unusual morphology of a single root and a single canal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tripleo.2008.07.023DOI Listing
December 2008

Calcifications of the pulp chamber: prevalence and implicated factors.

Clin Oral Investig 2009 Jun 30;13(2):209-15. Epub 2008 Jul 30.

Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of pulp chamber calcifications in a sample of Turkish dental patients and to report associations between presence of pulp chamber calcifications and dental status, gender, age, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Data were collected through radiographic examination of periapical and bitewing radiographs of 15,326 teeth from 536 dental patients, comprising 270 male and 266 female patients aged between 13 and 65 years. Definite radiopaque focuses inside the radiolucent pulp chamber were defined as pulp chamber calcifications. When the pulp chamber was completely radiolucent, that tooth was scored as tooth without pulp chamber calcification. The dental status was scored as intact, carious, restored, or restored + carious. Pulp chamber calcifications were identified in 204 (38%) patients examined. Of the 15,326 teeth, 747 (4.8%) had pulp chamber calcifications. Gender and dental status were found to be correlated with the presence of pulp chamber calcifications. The high prevalence of pulp chamber calcifications in carious, restored, and restored + carious teeth support the view that the occurrence of pulp chamber calcifications can be a response to long-standing irritants. However, to report any associations between occurrence of pulp chamber calcifications and different dental or clinical status, further studies are still needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-008-0212-xDOI Listing
June 2009

Effect of unintentionally extruded calcium hydroxide paste including barium sulfate as a radiopaquing agent in treatment of teeth with periapical lesions: report of a case.

J Endod 2008 Jul 22;34(7):888-91. Epub 2008 May 22.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] has been widely used as short- or long-term intracanal antibacterial dressing material after endodontic treatment. In general when used in endodontics, Ca(OH)2 paste is composed of the powder, a vehicle, and a radiopacifier. To provide radiopacity, barium sulfate (BaSO4) powder is usually added to the paste. In this case report, BaSO4:Ca(OH)2 powders (ratio 1:8) and distilled water were mixed and applied as dressing material after root canals of mandibular left canine and premolar teeth with periapical lesions. However, the prepared paste was unintentionally extruded into the periapical lesion during application. The patient was seen 12 and 36 months later, at which point periapical healing was evaluated. At this time, it was observed that the periapical lesion had disappeared, but white radiopaque spots were seen at the place where calcium hydroxide remnants had originally been present. The presented case report reveals that when Ca(OH)2 paste that included BaSO4 was applied as an intracanal dressing and extruded through the periapical lesion associated with pulpless teeth, it had no detrimental effect. However, healing might take longer when Ca(OH)2 paste including BaSO4 is used, so deliberate overextension is not advocated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2008.04.012DOI Listing
July 2008

Effect of a new restoration technique on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth.

Dent Traumatol 2008 Apr;24(2):214-9

Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a new fiber-reinforced composite restoration technique on fracture resistance in endodontically treated premolars. Eighty sound extracted human mandibular premolars were assigned to four groups (n = 20). Group 1 did not receive any treatment. In groups 2, 3 and 4, the teeth received root canal treatment and a mesio-occluso-distal cavity preparation. Group 2 was kept unrestored. Group 3 was restored with a dentin bonding system and composite resin. In group 4, a piece of polyethylene ribbon fiber was inserted into the groove in a buccal to lingual direction during the restoration of teeth with dentin bonding system and composite resin. After finishing and polishing, the specimens were stored in 100% humidity at 37 degrees C for 24 h and placed at an angle of 45 degrees to the long axis of the tooth and subjected to compressive loading in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm min(-1). The load necessary to fracture the samples was recorded in Newton (N) and submitted to Kruskal-Wallis anova and Mann-Whitney U-test. The fracture strength of the teeth reinforced with a combination of polyethylene fiber and composite resin were not significantly different than those that were restored with only composite resin (P > 0.05). However, most of the failure modes of the reinforced teeth were limited to the level of the enamel, while the other three groups showed fractures generally at the level of the dentin, cemento-enamel junction or more below (P < 0.05). Therefore, polyethylene ribbon fiber-reinforced composite resin restorations seemed a more reliable restorative technique than traditional composite restorations for extensive cavities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2007.00538.xDOI Listing
April 2008

Replantation after extended dry storage of avulsed permanent incisors: report of a case.

Dent Traumatol 2007 Aug;23(4):251-6

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey.

A 15-year-old boy lost his maxillary right and left central incisor teeth in a bicycle accident. He was referred to our clinic 1 week after the injury. The crown-root integrities of both the teeth were not damaged. Although the teeth were stored under dry conditions for 1 week, reimplantation of the teeth was planned to retain the teeth in the mouth for as long a period as possible because of the patient's age. Following the debridement and sterilization of root surfaces in 2.5% NaOCl, root canals were prepared and filled with calcium hydroxide. Then, about 2 mm of the apexes were resected to ensure that the roots easily seated in the alveolar socket and the prepared cavities in root ends were obturated with the amalgam. The teeth were placed into their respective sockets and splinted temporarily. The root canal therapy was completed 5 weeks later. Ankylosis was observed radiographically after 10 months. The patient is now 23 years old and he is still able to use both the central incisors functionally. However, there is a pink appearance on the cervical buccal surface of left central incisor because of progressive replacement resorption. In this case, the new treatment plan is to perform a permanent restoration with dental implants following the extraction of both teeth. Even though the long-term prognosis is uncertain, this treatment technique has provided an advantage for the patient in his adolescent period by maintaining the height of alveolar bone and making the provision of an aesthetically acceptable permanent restoration at a later age possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2005.00425.xDOI Listing
August 2007

Effect of elapsed time following bleaching on the shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2008 Feb;84(2):363-8

Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of post-treatment time on the shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel after bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) and 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching systems. One hundred and thirty-five flattened labial enamel surfaces obtained from human mandibular incisors were divided into two bleaching groups of 10% CP (n = 60) and 35% HP (n = 60) and a control group (n = 15). Specimens in the control group (group 1) were not bleached. Each bleaching group was then divided into four subgroups (n = 15). For both CP and HP groups, group 2 consisted of specimens bonded immediately after bleaching. In groups 3, 4, and 5, specimens were immersed in artificial saliva for 24 h, 1 week, or 2 weeks after bleaching, respectively. After the specimens were bonded with Clearfil SE Bond and Clearfil ST, they were tested in shear until failure. For both CP and HP groups, shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel that was bonded immediately after bleaching was significantly lower than that of unbleached enamel (p < 0.05). However, in CP group restored after 24 h, the bond strength returned to values close to those of nonbleached enamel (p > 0.05). It took 1 week to return to conditions that lead to control bond values for HP bleaching applications (p > 0.05). The results of this study proved that immediate bonding of composite to enamel bleached with 10% CP and 35% HP gels result in a significant decrease in shear bond strength. It is advisable that composite resin application onto bleached enamel surfaces should be delayed at least 24 h for 10% CP and 1 week for 35% HP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.30879DOI Listing
February 2008

Spontaneously healed horizontal root fracture in maxillary first premolar: report of a case.

Dent Traumatol 2007 Apr;23(2):120-2

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Root fractures of the posterior teeth are rare and occur as a result of severe trauma. This study describes the horizontal root fracture of a maxillary first premolar. The fractured roots were discovered during a routine radiographic examination. The tooth was asymptomatic and responded positively to electric pulp testing. The patient reported accidental trauma, which occurred 14 years before. Our case is an example of spontaneously healed fractured roots. The interesting findings were that the healing was observed even in the presence of two roots, including preservation of the vitality of the pulp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2006.00575.xDOI Listing
April 2007

The effect of fiber insertion on fracture resistance of endodontically treated molars with MOD cavity and reattached fractured lingual cusps.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2006 Oct;79(1):35-41

Department of Endodontics, Selçuk University, Faculty of Dentistry, Konya, Turkey.

In this study, the effect of flowable composite reinforced with a leno wave ultra high modulus (LWUHM) polyethylene fiber (Ribbond) on fracture resistance of endodontically treated molars with MOD cavity and lingual cuspal fracture was evaluated. Sixty sound extracted human mandibular molars were randomly assigned to six groups (n = 10). Group 1 served as control. Teeth in groups 2-6 received root canal treatment and a MOD cavity preparation. Teeth in group 2 were kept unrestored. Lingual walls of specimens in groups 3-6 were fractured at the CEJ and reattached (C&B Super-Bond). Group 3 was kept unrestored, and group 4 was restored with a composite resin (CR) (AP-X). In group 5, a flowable resin (FR, Protect Liner F) and in group 6, a Ribbond in combination with FR were inserted inside the cavity before CR restoration. After finishing and polishing, the specimens were subjected to compressive loading perpendicular to the occlusal surface at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The mean load necessary to fracture were recorded in Newton and the results were statistically analyzed. MOD cavity preparation reduced fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth (p < 0.05). Fracture resistance of rebonded fractured specimens was found to be similar to that of the nonfractured samples (p > 0.05). Use of LWUHM polyethylene fiber Ribbond increased fracture strength of endodontically treated molar teeth with MOD cavity preparation and cuspal fracture (p < 0.05). As a result, it was concluded that the insertion of Ribbond inside the cavity has a positive effect on fracture strength of endodontically treated molar teeth with MOD cavity preparation and cuspal fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.30508DOI Listing
October 2006

The quantitative evaluation of apical sealing of four endodontic sealers.

J Endod 2006 Jan;32(1):66-8

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University, Campus 42075, Konya, Turkey.

The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the apical seal obtained with four root canal sealers: Rocanal 2, Sealapex, AH Plus, and RC Sealer. Forty root canals were prepared using the step-back technique. The specimens were divided into four groups of 10 samples and obturated by laterally condensed gutta-percha with one of the tested sealers. The computerized fluid filtration method was used for evaluation of apical sealing properties. The quantitative apical leakage of each specimen was measured after 7, 14, and 21 days. Statistical analysis indicated that the apical leakage of all sealers used in this study decreased gradually from 7 days to 21 days (p < 0.05). Sealapex showed better apical sealing than the other sealers at 7, 14, and 21 days (p < 0.05). RC Sealer, AH Plus, and Rocanal 2 showed similar apical leakage values at every period (p > 0.05).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2005.10.019DOI Listing
January 2006

Sealing properties of different resin-based root canal sealers.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2006 Apr;77(1):1-4

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, S. Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey.

In this study, a comparison of the sealing properties of three different resin-based sealers, AH26, Diaket, and EndoREZ with those of the root canal sealer zinc oxide-eugenol-based U/P Root Canal Sealer was performed. Eighty extracted single-rooted human mandibular first premolar teeth were used. The coronal part of each tooth was removed at the apical 17-mm of roots. The root canals were prepared to a size 7 with ProFile 0.06 taper Series 29 rotary instruments in a crown-down manner before lateral condensation of gutta-percha with the tested sealers (n = 20). A fluid filtration method was used for quantitative evaluation of apical leakage. Statistical analysis revealed that there were no significant differences between the resin-based sealers groups (AH26, Diaket, and EndoREZ) (p > 0.05). U/P Root Canal Sealer, zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer, leaked significantly more than other tested groups (p < 0.05). Under the limitations of this study, resin-based root canal sealers were found more effective in sealing root canals than the zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.30408DOI Listing
April 2006

Effect of home bleaching agents on the roughness and surface morphology of human enamel and dentine.

Int Dent J 2004 Aug;54(4):211-8

University of Selcuk, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Endodontics, Konya, Turkey.

Aims: Carbamide peroxide (CP) containing bleaching agents are now widely used in different concentrations. In this study, the effect of 10% and 15% CP containing home bleaching agents on the surface roughness and morphology of human enamel and dentine were evaluated in vitro.

Methods: 90 non-carious human mandibular incisors were divided randomly into two equal groups (enamel and dentine). The dentine group specimens were ground to expose dentine surfaces. The samples in both groups were then randomly divided into three main groups and then divided into three subgroups, according to bleaching application times (n=15). The samples in both enamel and dentine groups were treated with 10% CP at Group 1 and 4, 15% CP at Group 2 and 5 and distilled water at Group 3 and 6. The surface roughness of the samples was analysed before bleaching (1a, 2a, 3a for enamel, 4a, 5a, 6a for dentine), after 4hr (1b, 2b, 3b for enamel, 4b, 5b, 6b for dentine) and after 28hr of bleaching application (1c, 2c, 3c for enamel, 4c, 5c, 6c for dentine) using a computerised roughness tester. The surface morphologies of treated and control specimens were also examined by SEM.

Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the surface roughness of untreated control specimens and the specimens treated with the bleaching materials (10% and 15% CP) for both enamel and dentine at any given measurement time (p>0.05).

Conclusion: Under the careful guidance of a dentist, home bleaching can be thought a reliable treatment for both stained enamel and dentine, regardless of whether 10% or 15% CP is used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1875-595x.2004.tb00282.xDOI Listing
August 2004

Microleakage of endodontically treated teeth with different dowel systems.

J Prosthet Dent 2004 Aug;92(2):163-9

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Selcuk, Konya, Turkey.

Statement Of Problem: Several new esthetic dowel systems are available for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth, but little is known about how effectively these dowels seal the restored teeth.

Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare microleakage of 3 esthetic, adhesively luted dowel systems with a conventional dowel system.

Material And Methods: The root canals of 41 human intact single-rooted extracted teeth were prepared using a step-back technique. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (n=10), and 1 tooth served as a positive control. The decoronated roots were obturated with gutta-percha using lateral condensation. Roots were restored with 1 of the following dowel systems according to the manufacturer's instructions: (1) stainless steel dowels (ParaPost), (2) glass fiber dowels (Snowpost), (3) resin-supported polyethylene fiber (Ribbond) dowels, or (4) zirconia dowels (Cosmopost). Using a fluid filtration method, coronal leakage of the specimens along the dowel space and root canal restorative material was measured. Fluid movement measurements were made at 2-minute intervals for 8 minutes to measure the presence of voids existing in the obturated canals, at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months following dowel insertion. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze logarithmic transformations of data (time and dowel material) for significant differences. The Tukey HSD test and paired 2-tailed tests were used to perform multiple comparisons (alpha=.05).

Results: The data indicated that the leakage values varied according to the dowel system used (P<.01). There was significant interaction between dowel systems and time of testing (P<.01). The sealing ability of zirconia dowels decreased over time (P<.01), but sealing abilities of stainless steel and resin-supported polyethylene fiber dowels remained constant (P>.05). The sealing ability of glass fiber dowels increased at 3 months (P=.032) and remained constant over the next 3 months (P=.758). Statistically, resin-supported polyethylene fiber and glass fiber dowels showed the lowest coronal leakage when compared with stainless steel and zirconia dowels at all time periods (P<.01). There were no significant differences between resin-supported polyethylene fiber and glass fiber dowels at any time period. The initial leakage measurement in zirconia dowel and stainless steel dowels were similar (P=.914), but became significantly different at 3 and 6 months (P<.01).

Conclusion: Resin-supported polyethylene fiber dowels and glass fiber dowels tested exhibited less microleakage compared to zirconia dowel systems. The latter system should be further evaluated because of its unacceptable level of leakage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2004.05.004DOI Listing
August 2004

Evaluation of the influence of smear layer on the apical and coronal sealing ability of two sealers.

J Endod 2004 Jun;30(6):406-9

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University, Campus 42075, Konya, Turkey.

The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of the smear layer on apical and coronal leakage in root canals obturated with AH26 or RoekoSeal sealers. A total of 160 maxillary anterior teeth extracted for periodontal reasons were used. The root canals were prepared to a size #7 with ProFile.06 taper Series 29 rotary instruments in a crown-down manner. Eight groups were created by all possible combinations of three factors: smear layer (present/absent), leakage assessment (apical/coronal), and sealer used (AH26/RoekoSeal). All teeth were obturated using lateral condensation technique of gutta-percha. A fluid filtration method was used to test apical or coronal leakage. According to the results of this study, the smear (+) groups displayed higher apical and coronal leakage than those smear (-) groups for both root canal sealers (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in either apical or coronal leakage between RoekoSeal and AH26, regardless of the presence or absence of the smear layer (p > 0.05). However, apical leakage was significantly higher than coronal leakage for both root canal sealers used in this study (p < 0.05). Under the conditions of this study, the results indicate that removal of the smear layer has a positive effect in reducing apical and coronal leakage for both AH26 and RoekoSeal root canal sealers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004770-200406000-00007DOI Listing
June 2004

In vitro antibacterial activities of root-canal sealers by using two different methods.

J Endod 2004 Jan;30(1):57-60

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey.

The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of five different root-canal sealers (RoekoSeal, Ketac-Endo, AH Plus, Sealapex, Sultan). With the use of Enterococcus faecalis as a test organism, both the agar-diffusion test (ADT) and direct-contact test (DCT) were performed. For DCT, sealers were mixed and placed on the sidewall of microtiter plate wells. A 10-microl bacterial suspension was placed on the tested material samples. Bacteria were allowed to directly contact to the sealers for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Bacterial growth was then spectrophotometrically measured through every 30 min for 19 h by using an Anthos Labtec HT 2. For ADT, a 200-microl bacterial suspension was spread on brain-heart infusion agar plates. Freshly mixed sealers were poured into uniform wells punched in the agar. After periods of incubation at 37 degrees C for 24 h and 7 days in humid atmosphere, the zones of inhibition of bacterial growth on agar plates were observed and measured. Ketac-Endo, Sultan, and AH Plus had similar results for DCT. These sealers were more potent bacterial-growth inhibitors than Sealapex and RoekoSeal. According to ADT, RoekoSeal showed no antibacterial activity. There was no significant difference among AH Plus, Sealapex, and Sultan (p > 0.05). Ketac-Endo demonstrated lower antimicrobial activity than these sealers (p < 0.05). Time had no effect on the antibacterial activity of the tested sealers (p > 0.05). The antibacterial efficiency of the materials varied according to the tests used. It was concluded that the technique, time, and ingredients of the tested material can affect the results of the microbiological studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004770-200401000-00013DOI Listing
January 2004

The effect of two different root canal sealers and smear layer on resistance to root fracture.

J Endod 2002 Aug;28(8):606-9

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey.

The purpose of this in vitro study was to test the effect of Ketac-Endo (KE) and AH 26 on resistance to root fracture and also to evaluate the effect of smear layer. Seventy-two human maxillary canine teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 12) and were prepared using six different methods: group 1: KE, without smear layer (smear -); group 2: KE, with smear layer (smear +); group 3: AH 26, smear (-); group 4: AH 26, smear (+); group 5 (negative control): nonprepared; group 6 (positive control): prepared but unfilled. After storing 1 week in 100% humidity at 37 degrees C, the coronal lingual walls and root canal spaces were lowered 2 mm below the buccal walls of the roots. The samples were placed into acrylic resin blocks so that 10 mm of buccal roots were exposed and were placed in a specially designed steel pad at an angle of 15 degrees to the long axis of the root. A slowly increasing force was applied at the junction of the buccal wall and root canal space until fracture occurred. The force required to fracture each tooth was recorded as kg and statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Duncan tests. The results indicated that instrumentation of the root canals significantly weakened the tooth structure to fracture (p < 0.05). The canals obturated with either sealer were significantly stronger than roots whose canals were instrumented but not obturated (p < 0.05), and there was no difference between the sealers. The presence or absence of the smear layer did not cause any significant effect on the root fracture resistance of the teeth (p > 0.05).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004770-200208000-00011DOI Listing
August 2002
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