Publications by authors named "Fumio Nomura"

266 Publications

Fucosylated C4b-binding protein α-chain, a novel serum biomarker that predicts lymph node metastasis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Oncol Lett 2021 Feb 17;21(2):127. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of General Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

C4b-binding protein α-chain (C4BPA) was previously identified as a novel serum biomarker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). To apply this biomarker for clinical diagnosis, a lectin ELISA was established to measure serum fucosylated (Fuc)-C4BPA levels in 45 patients with PDAC, 20 patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and 50 healthy volunteers (HVs) in one training and three validation sets. The lecithin ELISA developed in the current study exhibited satisfactory within-run (2.6-6.7%) and between-day (1.8-3.6%) coefficient of variations. Serum Fuc-C4BPA levels in patients with PDAC (0.54±0.27 AU/ml) was significantly higher than that in HVs (0.21±0.06 AU/ml; P<0.0001) and patients with CP (0.25±0.03 AU/ml; P<0.0001). Additionally, serum Fuc-C4BPA levels in preoperative patients were significantly decreased compared with postoperative patient sera (P<0.0003). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses revealed that the area under the curve (AUC) of Fuc-C4BPA (0.985) was higher than that of carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9 (0.843), carcinoembryonic antigen (0.548) and total C4BPA (0.875) (P<0.001). To analyze the clinical significance of Fuc-C4BPA, the ability of Fuc-C4BPA to predict lymph node metastasis was compared with that of CA19-9. The AUC of serum Fuc-C4BPA levels (0.703) was significantly higher than that of serum CA19-9 levels (0.500) in patients with PDAC (P<0.001). The current study established a novel lectin ELISA for measuring serum Fuc-C4BPA levels. Thus, Fuc-C4BPA has potential clinical applications owing to its high diagnostic value in PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.12388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798032PMC
February 2021

Usefulness of the MALDI-TOF MS technology with membrane filter protocol for the rapid identification of microorganisms in perioperative drainage fluids of hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(2):e0246002. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of General Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Surgical site infections (SSIs) are significant and frequent perioperative complications, occurring due to the contamination of the surgical site. The late detection of SSIs, especially organ/space SSIs which are the more difficult to treat, often leads to severe complications. An effective method that can identify bacteria with a high accuracy, leading to the early detection of organ/space SSIs, is needed. Ninety-eight drainage fluid samples obtained from 22 patients with hepatobiliary pancreatic disease were analyzed to identify microorganisms using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with a new membrane filtration protocol and rapid BACpro® pretreatment compared to sole rapid BACpro® pretreatment. The levels of detail of rapid BACpro® pretreatment with or without filtration were also evaluated for the accuracy of bacterial identification. We found that reliable scores for E. coli and E. faecalis were obtained by inoculation with 1.0 × 104 CFU/ml after preparation of the membrane filter with rapid BACpro®, indicating approximately 10-folds more sensitive compared to sole rapid BACpro® pretreatment in drainage fluid specimens. Among 60 bacterial positive colonies in drainage fluid specimens, the MALDI-TOF MS and the membrane filtration with rapid BACpro® identified 53 isolates (88.3%) with a significantly higher accuracy, compared to 25 isolates in the rapid BACpro® pretreatment group (41.7%) (p < 0.001). Among the 78 strains, 14 enteric Gram-negative bacteria (93.0%) and 55 Gram-positive cocci (87.3%) were correctly identified by the membrane filtration with rapid BACpro® with a high reliability. This novel protocol could identify bacterial species within 30 min, at $2-$3 per sample, thus leading to cost and time savings. MALDI-TOF MS with membrane filter and rapid BACpro® is a quick and reliable method for bacterial identification in drainage fluids. The shortened analysis time will enable earlier selection of suitable antibiotics for treatment of organ/space SSIs to improve patients' outcomes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246002PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7861402PMC
February 2021

Anti-FIRΔexon2 autoantibody as a novel indicator for better overall survival in gastric cancer.

Cancer Sci 2021 Feb 2;112(2):847-858. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Laboratory Medicine & Division of Clinical Genetics, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

There is no clinically available biomarker for efficiently indicating the overall survival or therapy response of gastric cancer (GC). The autoantibodies (Abs) in the sera of anti-far-upstream element-binding protein-interacting repressor-lacking exon2 (FIRΔexon2), anti-sorting nexin 15, and anti-spermatogenesis and oogenesis-specific basic helix-loop-helix 1 were markedly higher in GC patients than in healthy donors (HDs). These Abs were identified by large-scale serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression cloning screenings and their expression levels were evaluated by amplified luminescence proximity homogeneous assay. In particular, compared with age-matched HDs, the level of anti-FIRΔexon2 Abs in GC patients was significantly higher (P < .001). The Spearman's rank correlation analysis between anti-FIRΔexon2 Abs and clinically available tumor markers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was statistically insignificant, indicating that FIRΔexon2 Abs is an independent biomarker. We performed receiver-operating curve analysis to evaluate the anti-FIRΔexon2 Ab as a candidate biomarker with CEA and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). The overall survival of GC patients with high anti-FIRΔexon2 Abs titer was significantly favorable (P = .04) than that of GC patients who were below detection level of anti-FIRΔexon2 Abs. However, clinical stages were not apparently correlated with the levels of anti-FIRΔexon2 Ab, CEA, and CA19-9. In conclusion, anti-FIRΔexon2 Abs detected in GC patients is a potential biomarker for monitoring a better prognosis. Hence, anti-FIRΔexon2 Abs is a promising biomarker for indicating better overall survival of gastric cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894018PMC
February 2021

Derivatization-based quadruplex LC/ESI-MS/MS method for high throughput quantification of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 Apr 24;35(4):e5027. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda-shi, Chiba, Japan.

The quantification of the circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) might be of diagnostic help for several diseases. For the DHEAS quantification, LC/ESI-MS/MS has the advantage of a high specificity compared with immunoassay, whereas LC/ESI-MS/MS has room to improve the analysis throughput. One of the promising solutions to enhance the analysis throughput is sample-multiplexing in the same injection, which can reduce the total LC/ESI-MS/MS run time. In this study, a quadruplex LC/ESI-MS/MS method was developed to quantify DHEAS in four different serum samples in a single run. After the four samples were separately deproteinized and derivatized with one of four Girard reagents (Girard reagent T, P and their isotopologs), the resulting samples were mixed, then injected into the LC/ESI-MS/MS. The applicability and advantage of the developed method were evaluated based on the analysis of nine batches of serum samples from healthy subjects (total 36 samples). The limit of quantitation was 0.050 μg/ml, which was sensitive enough for clinical laboratory use. The method was precise (intra- and inter-assay RSDs ≤ 3.6%), accurate (94.4-108.1%) and robust for the matrix effects. The analysis time was also shortened by about 60% for 36 samples by the introduced method compared with the conventional method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.5027DOI Listing
April 2021

Attitudes toward and current status of disclosure of secondary findings from next-generation sequencing: a nation-wide survey of clinical genetics professionals in Japan.

J Hum Genet 2020 Dec 13;65(12):1045-1053. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Medical Ethics and Medical Genetics, Kyoto University School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan.

The management of secondary findings (SFs), which are beyond the intended purpose of the analysis, from clinical comprehensive genomic analysis using next generation sequencing (NGS) presents challenges. Policy statements regarding their clinical management have been announced in Japan and other countries. In Japan, however, the current status of and attitudes of clinical genetics professionals toward reporting them are unclear. We conducted a questionnaire survey of clinical genetics professionals at two time points (2013 and 2019) to determine the enforcement of the SF management policy in cases of comprehensive genetic analysis of intractable diseases and clinical cancer genome profiling testing. According to the survey findings, 40% and 70% of the respondents stated in the 2013 and 2019 surveys, respectively, that they had an SF policy in the field of intractable diseases, indicating that SF policy awareness in Japan has changed significantly in recent years. Furthermore, a total of 80% of respondents stated that their facility had established a policy for clinical cancer genome profiling testing in the 2019 survey. In both surveys, the policies included the selection criteria for genes to be disclosed and the procedure to return SFs, followed by recommendations and proposals regarding SFs in Japan and other countries. To create a better list of the genes to be disclosed, further examination is needed considering the characteristics of each analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-020-0802-2DOI Listing
December 2020

Mass spectrometry-based microbiological testing for blood stream infection.

Clin Proteomics 2020 13;17:14. Epub 2020 May 13.

2Division of Laboratory Medicine, Chiba University Hospital, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8677 Japan.

Background: The most successful application of mass spectrometry (MS) in laboratory medicine is identification (ID) of microorganisms using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in blood stream infection. We describe MALDI-TOF MS-based bacterial ID with particular emphasis on the methods so far developed to directly identify microorganisms from positive blood culture bottles with MALDI-TOF MS including our own protocols. We touch upon the increasing roles of Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) as well.

Main Body: Because blood culture bottles contain a variety of nonbacterial proteins that may interfere with analysis and interpretation, appropriate pretreatments are prerequisites for successful ID. Pretreatments include purification of bacterial pellets and short-term subcultures to form microcolonies prior to MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Three commercial protocols are currently available: the Sepsityper kit (Bruker Daltonics), the Vitek MS blood culture kit (bioMerieux, Inc.), and the rapid BACpro II kit (Nittobo Medical Co., Tokyo). Because these commercially available kits are costly and bacterial ID rates using these kits are not satisfactory, particularly for Gram-positive bacteria, various home-brew protocols have been developed: 1. Stepwise differential sedimentation of blood cells and microorganisms, 2. Combination of centrifugation and lysis procedures, 3. Lysis-vacuum filtration, and 4. Centrifugation and membrane filtration technique (CMFT). We prospectively evaluated the performance of this CMFT protocol compared with that of Sepsityper using 170 monomicrobial positive blood cultures. Although preliminary, the performance of the CMFT was significantly better than that of Sepsityper, particularly for Gram-positive isolates. MALDI-TOF MS-based testing of polymicrobial blood specimens, however, is still challenging. Also, its contribution to assessment of susceptibility and resistance to antibiotics is still limited. For this purpose, liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) should be more useful because this approach can identify as many as several thousand peptide sequences.

Conclusion: MALDI-TOF MS is now an essential tool for rapid bacterial ID of pathogens that cause blood stream infection. For the purpose of assessment of susceptibility and resistance to antibiotics of the pathogens, the roles of liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) will increase in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12014-020-09278-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222329PMC
May 2020

Monoamine oxidase B rs1799836 G allele polymorphism is a risk factor for early development of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease.

eNeurologicalSci 2020 Jun 6;19:100239. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Molecular Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

Background: Dopamine replacement therapy is an established treatment for motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but its long-term use is often limited by the eventual development of motor complications, including levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Genetic background, particularly polymorphisms of dopamine metabolism genes, may affect the occurrence of dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease patients.

Methods: We investigated polymorphisms of dopamine metabolism genes, including catechol--methyltransferase, monoamine oxidase B, dopamine beta-hydroxylasedopamine, dopamine receptors D1, D2, and D3, and dopamine transporter, in 110 patients with Parkinson's disease. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to detect associations between genotypes and levodopa-induced dyskinesia.

Results: Monoamine oxidase B rs1799836 was the only polymorphism correlated with risk of dyskinesia. Patients with an AG or GG genotype were more likely to have dyskinesia than those with an AA genotype (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-9.10). Also, Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated that patients with an AG or GG genotype developed dyskinesia earlier than those with an AA genotype (log-rank test,  = .004).

Conclusions: In Parkinson's disease patients, the monoamine oxidase B rs1799836 G allele is associated with a greater likelihood of developing dyskinesia than the A allele, possibly due to its association with lower monoamine oxidase B activity in the brain. Thus, detection of monoamine oxidase B polymorphisms may be useful for determining the optimal dosing of antiparkinson medications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2020.100239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183157PMC
June 2020

Post-transcriptional regulation of BRG1 by FIRΔexon2 in gastric cancer.

Oncogenesis 2020 Feb 18;9(2):26. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Laboratory Medicine & Division of Clinical Genetics and Proteomics, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), an ATPase subunit of the SWItch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex controls multipotent neural crest formation by regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes with adenosine triphosphate-dependent chromodomain-helicase DNA-binding protein 7 (CHD7). The expression of BRG1 engages in pre-mRNA splicing through interacting RNPs in cancers; however, the detailed molecular pathology of how BRG1and CHD7 relate to cancer development remains largely unveiled. This study demonstrated novel post-transcriptional regulation of BRG1 in EMT and relationship with FIRΔexon2, which is a splicing variant of the far-upstream element-binding protein (FUBP) 1-interacting repressor (FIR) lacking exon 2, which fails to repress c-myc transcription in cancers. Previously, we have reported that FIR complete knockout mice (FIR) was embryonic lethal before E9.5, suggesting FIR is crucial for development. FIRΔexon2 acetylated H3K27 on promoter of BRG1 by CHIP-sequence and suppressed BRG1 expression post-transcriptionally; herein BRG1 suppressed Snai1 that is a transcriptional suppressor of E-cadherin that prevents cancer invasion and metastasis. Ribosomal proteins, hnRNPs, splicing-related factors, poly (A) binding proteins, mRNA-binding proteins, tRNA, DEAD box, and WD-repeat proteins were identified as co-immunoprecipitated proteins with FIR and FIRΔexon2 by redoing exhaustive mass spectrometry analysis. Furthermore, the effect of FIRΔexon2 on FGF8 mRNA splicing was examined as an indicator of neural development due to impaired CHD7 revealed in CHARGE syndrome. Expectedly, siRNA of FIRΔexon2 altered FGF8 pre-mRNA splicing, indicated close molecular interaction among FIRΔexon2, BRG1 and CHD7. FIRΔexon2 mRNA was elevated in human gastric cancers but not in non-invasive gastric tumors in FIR mice (K19-Wnt1/C2mE x FIR). The levels of FIR family (FIR, FIRΔexon2 and PUF60), BRG1, Snai1, FBW7, E-cadherin, c-Myc, cyclin-E, and SAP155 increased in the gastric tumors in FIR mice compared to those expressed in wild-type mice. FIR family, Snai1, cyclin-E, BRG1, and c-Myc showed trends toward higher expression in larger tumors than in smaller tumors in Gan-mice (K19-Wnt1/C2mE). The expressions of BRG1 and Snai1 were positively correlated in the gastric tumors of the Gan-mice. Finally, BRG1 is a candidate substrate of F-box and WD-repeat domain-containing 7 (FBW7) revealed by three-dimensional crystal structure analysis that the U2AF-homology motif (UHM) of FIRΔexon2 interacted with tryptophan-425 and asparate-399 (WD)-like motif in the degron pocket of FBW7 as a UHM-ligand motif. Together, FIRΔexon2 engages in multi-step post-transcriptional regulation of BRG1, affecting EMT through the BRG1/Snai1/E-cadherin pathway and promoting tumor proliferation and invasion of gastric cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41389-020-0205-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028737PMC
February 2020

A simple method for sequencing the whole human mitochondrial genome directly from samples and its application to genetic testing.

Sci Rep 2019 11 22;9(1):17411. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Department of Molecular Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a revolutionary sequencing technology for analyzing genomes. However, preprocessing methods for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing remain complex, and it is required to develop an authenticated preprocessing method. Here, we developed a simple and easy preprocessing method based on isothermal rolling circle mtDNA amplification using commercially available reagents. Isothermal amplification of mtDNA was successfully performed using both nanoliter quantities of plasma directly and 25 ng of total DNA extracted from blood or tissue samples. Prior to mtDNA amplification, it was necessary to treat the extracted total DNA with Exonuclease V, but it was not required to treat plasma. The NGS libraries generated from the amplified mtDNA provided sequencing coverage of the entire human mitochondrial genome. Furthermore, the sequencing results successfully detected heteroplasmy in patient samples, with called mutations and variants matching those from previous, independent, Sanger sequencing analysis. Additionally, a novel single nucleotide variant was detected in a healthy volunteer. The successful analysis of mtDNA using very small samples from patients is likely to be valuable in clinical medicine, as it could reduce patient discomfort by reducing sampling-associated damage to tissues. Overall, the simple and convenient preprocessing method described herein may facilitate the future development of NGS-based clinical and forensic mtDNA tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-53449-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6874554PMC
November 2019

A novel caged Cookson-type reagent toward a practical vitamin D derivatization method for mass spectrometric analyses.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2020 Apr;34(7):e8648

Open Innovation Promotion Department, Management Strategy Planning Division, JEOL Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.

Rationale: 25-Hydroxylated vitamin D is the best marker for vitamin D (VD). Due to its low ionization efficiency, a Cookson-type reagent, 1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (TAD), is used to improve the detection/quantification of VD metabolites by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). However, the high reactivity of TAD makes its solution stability low and inconvenient for practical use. We here describe the development of a novel caged Cookson-type reagent, and we assess its performances in the quantitative and differential detection of four VD metabolites in serum using LC/MS/MS.

Methods: Caged 4-(4'-dimethylaminophenyl)-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (DAPTAD) analogues were prepared from 4-(4'-dimethylaminophenyl)-1,2,4-triazolidine-3,5-dione. Their stability and reactivity were examined. The optimized caged DAPTAD (14-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)-9-phenyl-9,10-dihydro-9,10-[1,2]epitriazoloanthracene-13,15-dione, DAP-PA) was used for LC/MS/MS analyses of VD metabolites.

Results: The solution stability of DAP-PA in ethyl acetate dramatically improved compared with that of the non-caged one. We measured the thermal retro-Diels-Alder reaction enabling the release of DAPTAD and found that the derivatization reaction was temperature-dependent. We also determined the detection limit and the lower limit of quantifications for four VD metabolites with DAPTAD derivatization.

Conclusions: DAP-PA was stable enough for mid- to long-term storage in solution. This advantage shall contribute to the detection and quantification of VD in clinical laboratories, and as such to the broader use of clinical mass spectrometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.8648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064983PMC
April 2020

An in-house centrifugation and membrane filtration technique for identifying microorganisms from positive blood culture bottles with high identification rates using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-Time-of-flight mass spectrometry: A preliminary report.

J Infect Chemother 2020 Mar 31;26(3):266-271. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Division of Clinical Mass Spectrometry, Chiba University Hospital, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan; Division of Clinical Genetics, Chiba University Hospital, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan. Electronic address:

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is one of the most promising technologies for the identification of microbial pathogens directly from positive blood culture bottles. As blood culture bottle medium contains various nonbacterial proteins, including those derived from blood cells, pretreatment to effectively remove host cells is key for successful proteome-based identification of microorganisms. Although the Sepsityper® kit is the most widely used pretreatment protocol, its performance is not satisfactory, particularly for gram-positive isolates. We developed a new in-house protocol, the centrifugation and membrane filtration technique (CMFT), in which vacuum-filtration is coupled with differential centrifugation. We prospectively evaluated the performance of this novel method compared with that of the Sepsityper®. For gram-negative bacterial isolates, the species-level identification rates obtained with the CMFT and the Sepsityper® were comparable (98.8% vs 92.9%). By contrast, for gram-positive isolates, the performance of the CMFT was significantly better than that of the Sepsityper® (P < 0.05). Using our new protocol, 81 (95.3%) isolates were identified with a score >2.0, and 85 (100%) isolates were identified with a score >1.7, versus 46 (54.1%) and 69 (81.2%), respectively, for the Sepsityper®. These results are preliminary, but considering that this novel protocol provides notably high species-level identification rates for gram-positive isolates, it deserves assessment in a larger-scale study with a variety of platforms for MS-based identification of microorganisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2019.09.017DOI Listing
March 2020

Multiplex PCR and multicolor probes melting for the simultaneous detection of five UGT1A1 variants.

Anal Biochem 2019 12 21;587:113448. Epub 2019 Sep 21.

Division of Laboratory Medicine, Chiba University Hospital, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ward, Chiba-city, Chiba, 266-8677, Japan.

The multiplex PCR melting analysis method was developed for detecting the five UGT1A1 variants. Multiplexing was achieved using color probes and T. The probes for *28/*6, *27, *29, and *7 were discriminated by colors. Although the probes for *28 and *6 had the same colors, their variants were clearly discriminated by probe T. The allelic frequencies of each genotype were 0.12 for *28, 0.19 for *6, 0.02 for *27, 0.0 for *29, and 0.005 for *7. We developed a multiplex PCR melting analysis method, which will be useful in molecular diagnostics and pharmacogenetic analyses in clinical laboratories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2019.113448DOI Listing
December 2019

Attitudes of clinical geneticists and certified genetic counselors to genome editing and its clinical applications: A nation-wide questionnaire survey in Japan.

J Hum Genet 2019 Sep 5;64(9):945-954. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Medical Ethics and Medical Genetics, Kyoto University School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan.

Genome editing of the human embryo using CRISPR/Cas9 has the potential to prevent hereditary diseases from being transmitted to the next generation. However, attitudes to this technology have not been examined sufficiently among the genetic professionals who will use it in the near future. We conducted a questionnaire survey of Japanese clinical geneticists and certified genetic counselors. Differences were observed between them in their recognition of this technology and impressions on its difficulty and cost. Both groups worried about misuse of it, with insufficient information and rules. As key elements for such rules, they considered ethics, safety, and purpose. Most disapproved of modifying physical traits as an enhancement, though they hoped for the treatment of severe diseases. At current clinical sites, they tended to adopt a prudent attitude by mentioning only the possibility of genome editing in the future. Academic policies and legislation are required, especially for application in human embryos, through a consensus of professionals and general citizens. Furthermore, professionals should maintain awareness of new developments and regularly reexamine attitudes for the ongoing development of more suitable rules, education systems, and clinical protocols. As preparation for changes, opportunities to address ethical issues and initiate discussions are also required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-019-0635-zDOI Listing
September 2019

Evaluation of analytical factors associated with targeted MEFV gene sequencing using long-range PCR/massively parallel sequencing of whole blood DNA for molecular diagnosis of Familial Mediterranean fever.

Clin Chim Acta 2019 Aug 4;495:562-569. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Division of Laboratory Medicine, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan; Division of Clinical Genetics, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Long-range PCR (LR-PCR) is used to enrich the target regions of the genome. This study aimed to establish the pipeline of targeted gene sequencing using LR-PCR and massively parallel sequencing (MPS).

Methods: The 14-kb-long MEFV gene, including the entire coding exons, was selected as a target gene and amplified using LR-PCR. The evaluated analytical factors were as follows: LR-PCR conditions, three types of post-PCR cleanup methods, and two types of MPS library preparation methods.

Results: With regard to LR-PCR conditions, Tks Gflex DNA polymerase at 7-min (30-s/kb) annealing/extension with 100-ng genomic DNA input had the highest yield. Regarding post-PCR purification methods, the magnetic beads-based method had high recovery and purity. In the MPS library preparation methods, the ligation-based method had a higher base coverage in the target (94.58%), uniformity of base coverage (99.95%), and target bases with no strand bias (97.40%). The exonic variants determined by Sanger sequencing were detected by both ligation- and transposon-based methods.

Conclusions: Various analytical factors were evaluated, and the pipeline of targeted gene sequencing using LR-PCR and MPS was established. These data can enable the optimization of targeted gene sequencing using LR-PCR and MPS in the clinical laboratory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2019.06.001DOI Listing
August 2019

Anti-FIRΔexon2, a splicing variant form of PUF60, autoantibody is detected in the sera of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Cancer Sci 2019 Jun 20;110(6):2004-2013. Epub 2019 May 20.

Department of Laboratory Medicine & Division of Clinical Genetics and Proteomics, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

Anti-PUF60 autoantibodies are reportedly detected in the sera of patients with dermatomyositis and Sjögren's syndrome; however, little is known regarding its existence in the sera of cancer patients. FIR, a splicing variant of the PUF60 gene, is a transcriptional repressor of c-myc. In colorectal cancer, there is an overexpression of the dominant negative form of FIR, in which exon 2 is lacking (FIRΔexon2). Previously, large-scale SEREX (serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression cloning) screenings have identified anti-FIR autoantibodies in the sera of cancer patients. In the present study, we revealed the presence and significance of anti-FIR (FIR/FIRΔexon2) Abs in the sera of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Our results were validated by an amplified luminescence proximity homogeneous assay using sera of patients with various cancer types. We revealed that anti-FIRΔexon2 Ab had higher sensitivity than anti-FIR Ab. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied for evaluating the use of anti-FIRΔexon2 Ab as candidate markers such as anti-p53 Ab and carcinoembryonic antigen, and the highest area under the ROC curve was observed in the combination of anti-FIRΔexon2 Ab and anti-p53 Ab. In summary, our results suggest the use of anti-FIRΔexon2 Ab in combination with the anti-p53 Ab as a predictive marker for ESCC. The area under the ROC curve was further increased in the advanced stage of ESCC. The value of anti-FIRΔexon2 autoantibody as novel clinical indicator against ESCC and as a companion diagnostic tool is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6549911PMC
June 2019

Identification of conjugation positions of urinary glucuronidated vitamin D metabolites by LC/ESI-MS/MS after conversion to MS/MS-fragmentable derivatives.

Biomed Chromatogr 2019 Jul 17;33(7):e4538. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda-shi, Chiba, Japan.

A liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry-based method was developed for the identification of the conjugation positions of the monoglucuronides of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D ] and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [24,25(OH) D ] in human urine. The method employed derivatization with 4-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione to convert the glucuronides into fragmentable derivatives, which provided useful product ions for identifying the conjugation positions during the MS/MS. The derivatization also enhanced the assay sensitivity and specificity for urine sample analysis. The positional isomeric monoglucuronides, 25(OH)D -3- and -25-glucuronides, or 24,25(OH) D -3-, -24- and -25-glucuronides, were completely separated from each other under the optimized LC conditions. Using this method, the conjugation positions were successfully determined to be the C3 and C24 positions for the glucuronidated 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH) D , respectively. The 3-glucuronide was not present for 24,25(OH) D , unlike 25(OH)D , thus we found that selective glucuronidation occurs at the C24-hydroxy group for 24,25(OH) D .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.4538DOI Listing
July 2019

Current Status of Proteomic Technologies for Discovering and Identifying Gingival Crevicular Fluid Biomarkers for Periodontal Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 26;20(1). Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Division of Clinical Mass Spectrometry, Chiba University Hospital, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8677, Japan.

Periodontal disease is caused by bacteria in dental biofilms. To eliminate the bacteria, immune system cells release substances that inflame and damage the gums, periodontal ligament, or alveolar bone, leading to swollen bleeding gums, which is a sign of gingivitis. Damage from periodontal disease can cause teeth to loosen also. Studies have demonstrated the proteomic approach to be a promising tool for the discovery and identification of biochemical markers of periodontal diseases. Recently, many studies have applied expression proteomics to identify proteins whose expression levels are altered by disease. As a fluid lying in close proximity to the periodontal tissue, the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is the principal target in the search for periodontal disease biomarkers because its protein composition may reflect the disease pathophysiology. Biochemical marker analysis of GCF is effective for objective diagnosis in the early and advanced stages of periodontal disease. Periodontal diseases are also promising targets for proteomics, and several groups, including ours, have applied proteomics in the search for GCF biomarkers of periodontal diseases. This search is of continuing interest in the field of experimental and clinical periodontal disease research. In this article, we summarize the current situation of proteomic technologies to discover and identify GCF biomarkers for periodontal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6337088PMC
December 2018

Application of the biocopolymer preparation system, rapid BACpro® II kit, for mass-spectrometry-based bacterial identification from positive blood culture bottles by the MALDI Biotyper system.

J Microbiol Methods 2018 09 1;152:86-91. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Division of Clinical Mass Spectrometry, Chiba University Hospital, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan; Division of Clinical Genetics, Chiba University Hospital, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan. Electronic address:

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is increasingly used for identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures. Pretreatments to effectively remove non-bacterial components and selectively collect microorganisms are a prerequisite for successful identification, and a variety of home-brew and commercial protocols have been reported. Although commercially available kits, mainly the Sepsityper Kit, are increasingly used, the identification rates reported often are not satisfactory, particularly for Gram-positive isolates. We recently developed a method to collect bacteria from positive blood culture bottles using a polyallylamine-polystyrene copolymer that has been used in wastewater processing. This pretreatment protocol is now commercially available as the rapid BACpro® II kit (Nittobo Medical Co., Tokyo, Japan). The operation time required for processing using this novel kit is approximately 10 min, and the entire procedure can be completed within a biosafety cabinet. Since the performance of the rapid BACpro® II kit has not been tested using the MALDI Biotyper system, we prospectively evaluated the performance of the rapid BACpro® II kit as compared with the Sepsityper® kit. Performance of the rapid BACpro® II kit was evaluated using a total of 193 monomicrobial cases of positive blood culture. Medium from blood culture bottles was pretreated by the rapid BACpro® II kit or the Sepsityper® Kit, and isolated cells were subjected to direct identification by MS fingerprinting in parallel with conventional subculturing for reference identification. The overall MALDI-TOF MS-based identification rates with >1.7 score and >2.0 score obtained using the rapid BACpro® II kit were 99.5% and 80.8%, respectively, whereas those obtained using the Sepsityper® Kit were 89.1% and 68.4%, respectively (P < 0.05 for >1.7 and P < 0.05 for >2.0 by Pearsons's chi-square). In Gram-positive cases, the rapid BACpro® II kit gave identification rate of 100% with >1.7 score and 69.4% with >2.0 score, whereas there were 84.7% and 56.8%, respectively by the Sepsityper® Kit (P < 0.05 for >1.7). These results are preliminary, but considering that this new kit is easy to perform and the identification rates are promising, the rapid BACpro® II kit deserves assessment in a larger-scale study with a variety of platforms for MS-based bacterial identification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2018.07.017DOI Listing
September 2018

Determination of serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin by a nephelometric immunoassay for differential diagnosis of alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver diseases.

Clin Chim Acta 2018 Oct 27;485:181-186. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center, Kanagawa, Japan.

Background: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is a biological marker of excessive drinking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of a direct nephelometric immunoassay for the differential diagnosis of alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver diseases in comparison with gamma glutamyl transferase.

Methods: Serum samples were obtained from 305 subjects, including 122 patients with alcoholic and 102 cases with non-alcoholic liver diseases. Serum levels of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin were expressed as a percentage of total transferrin.

Results: Serum % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin levels were significantly higher in patients with alcoholic than with non-alcoholic liver diseases. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin had better specificity than gamma glutamyl transferase to differentiate between alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver diseases.There were 8 alcoholic liver disease patients with normal gamma glutamyl transferase levels, and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin was significantly elevated in 6 of them. On the other hand, there were 25 non-alcoholic liver disease patients with elevated gamma glutamyl transferase levels; their carbohydrate-deficient transferrin levels were within the reference intervals in all cases.

Conclusion: This simple carbohydrate-deficient transferrin immunoassay is useful to detect so-called gamma glutamyl transferase non-responding drinkers and also to exclude the possible role of excessive drinking in apparently non-alcoholic liver diseases. A large-scale prospective study is needed to further confirm the diagnostic utility of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2018.06.040DOI Listing
October 2018

Disturbed alternative splicing of FIR (PUF60) directed cyclin E overexpression in esophageal cancers.

Oncotarget 2018 May 1;9(33):22929-22944. Epub 2018 May 1.

Department of Laboratory Medicine & Division of Clinical Genetics and Proteomics, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

Overexpression of alternative splicing of far upstream element binding protein 1 (FUBP1) interacting repressor (FIR; poly(U) binding splicing factor 60 [PUF60]) and cyclin E were detected in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC). Accordingly, the expression of FBW7 was examined by which cyclin E is degraded as a substrate via the proteasome system. Expectedly, FBW7 expression was decreased significantly in ESCC. Conversely, gene transcriptional repressor FIR (alias PUF60; U2AF-related protein) and its alternative splicing variant form (FIRΔexon2) were overexpressed in ESCC. Further, anticancer drugs (cis-diaminedichloroplatinum/cisplatin [CDDP] or 5-fluorouracil [5-FU]) and knockdown of FIR by small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased cyclin E while knockdown of FIRΔexon2 by siRNA decreased cyclin E expression in ESCC cell lines (TE1, TE2, and T.Tn) or cervical SCC cells (HeLa cells). Especially, knockdown of SAP155 (SF3b1), a splicing factor required for proper alternative splicing of FIR pre-mRNA, decreased cyclin E. Therefore, disturbed alternative splicing of FIR generated FIR/FIRΔexon2 with cyclin E overexpression in esophageal cancers, indicating that SAP155 siRNA potentially rescued FBW7 function by reducing expression of FIR and/or FIRΔexon2. Remarkably, Three-dimensional structure analysis revealed the hypothetical inhibitory mechanism of FBW7 function by FIR/FIRΔexon2, a novel mechanism of cyclin E overexpression by FIR/FIRΔexon2-FBW7 interaction was discussed. Clinically, elevated FIR expression potentially is an indicator of the number of lymph metastases and anti-FIR/FIRΔexon2 antibodies in sera as cancer diagnosis, indicating chemical inhibitors of FIR/FIRΔexon2-FBW7 interaction could be potential candidate drugs for cancer therapy. In conclusion, elevated cyclin E expression was, in part, induced owing to potential FIR/FIRΔexon2-FBW7 interaction in ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.25149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5955432PMC
May 2018

Paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis associated with pleomorphic lung carcinoma: An autopsy case report.

Neuropathology 2018 May 20. Epub 2018 May 20.

Department of Neuropathology, Institute for Medical Science of Aging, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Japan.

A 64-year-old man was admitted with acute onset disturbed consciousness. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis and elevated protein, with negative cultures and PCR. Serum antibodies for autoimmune encephalitis were also negative. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was unremarkable, but whole-body CT scan showed a tumor in the left lower lung lobe. Bronchial brush cytology demonstrated clusters of malignant cells, and F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed multiple lesions and increased uptake in the lung tumor. Clinically the patient had a stage IV lung carcinoma, graded as T3N3M1b (OSS). Steroid therapy had limited efficacy, but chemotherapy dramatically improved his neurological symptoms. Therefore, he was diagnosed with paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis based on the diagnostic criteria for paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. He died due to disease progression 14 months later. Subsequent postmortem examination revealed white ill-defined nodules in the left lung, with similar nodules in other organs. The brain weighed 1500 g before fixation, and a nodule was observed in the right precentral gyrus. Microscopically, the lung tumor was a pleomorphic carcinoma with an adenocarcinoma component. Multiple areas of micro-softening (≤500 μm) were identified in the cerebral cortex, gray-white matter junction and basal ganglia, and were distributed diffusely in both the limbic and non-limbic systems. Mild lymphocytic infiltrates were observed involving few intraparenchymal vessels. Few tumor metastases were observed in the right precentral gyrus. The multiple micro-softenings may reflect a chronic neuropathologic change of paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis. They were too small to be detected by brain MRI. However, these lesions may have the potential to cause the neurological symptoms in the acute phase because they were observed in many anatomical regions. We should pay attention to subtle findings such as micro-softenings when estimating the neuropathology of autoimmune encephalitis. Further investigations are needed to understand the characteristic neuropathology of this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/neup.12477DOI Listing
May 2018

Identification of specific and common diagnostic antibody markers for gastrointestinal cancers by SEREX screening using testis cDNA phage library.

Oncotarget 2018 Apr 1;9(26):18559-18569. Epub 2018 Jan 1.

Department of Laboratory Medicine & Division of Clinical Genetics and Proteomics, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

The present study was planned to identify novel serum antibody markers for digestive organ cancers. We have used screening by phage expression cloning and identified novel fourteen antigens in this experiment. The presence of auto-antibodies against these antigens in serum specimens was confirmed by western blotting. As for auto-antibodies against fourteen antigens, AlphaLISA (amplified luminescence proximity homogeneous assay) assay was performed in the sera of gastrointestinal cancers patients to confirm the results. Serum antibody levels against these fourteen recombinant proteins as antigens between healthy donors (HD) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients, gastric cancer (GC), or colon cancer (CC) were compared. The serum levels of all fourteen auto-antibodies were significantly higher in ESCC and GC than those of HD. Among those auto-antibodies, except ECSA2 and CCNL2, were also detected significantly higher levels in CC than those of HD. Receiver operating curve (ROC) revealed similar results except CCNL2 in CC. AUC values calculated by ROC were higher than 0.7 in auto-antibodies against TPI1, HOOK2, PUF60, PRDX4, HS3ST1, TUBA1B, TACSTD2, AKR1C3, BAMBI, DCAF15 in ESCC, auto-antibodies against TPI1, HOOK2, PUF60, PRDX4, TACSTD2, AKR1C3, BAMBI, DCAF15 in GC, and auto-antibodies against TPI1, HOOK2, PUF60 in CC. AUC of the combination of HOOK2 and anti-p53 antibodies in ESCC was observed to be as high as 0.8228. Higher serum antibody levels against ten antigens could be potential diagnostic tool for ESCC. Higher serum antibody levels against eight antigens could be potential diagnostic tool for GC, and serum antibody levels against three antigens could be potential diagnostic tool for CC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.24963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915093PMC
April 2018

Search for a Novel Allergen in Hen's Egg Allergy Using an IgE Immunoblotting Assay.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2018 18;176(3-4):189-197. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Food allergy is a serious health issue affecting roughly 4% of children, with a substantial effect on quality of life. Chicken egg allergy is frequently observed in infants. Therefore, some of them have to exclude hen's eggs from their daily diet to avoid allergenic symptoms. Hen's egg is composed of 2 soluble parts; one is egg white, which has been characterized as the major source of allergenicity, while the other is egg yolk, which is estimated as a miner source. Only 2 allergens from egg yolk, α-livetin (Gal d 5) and YGP42 (Gal d 6), have been described to date.

Methods: Sera from 53 patients allergic to hen's eggs and 2 patients allergic to sesame were obtained from the Department of Pediatrics, Chiba University Hospital. The study was performed using SDS-PAGE, IgE immunoblotting, and dot blotting.

Results: Seven bands of egg yolk were detected by IgE immunoblotting. Out of these bands, a possible new allergen was further characterized by LC-MS/MS. The 33-kDa band was identified as yolk glycoprotein (YGP40) by LC-MS/MS. A total of 21 of the 53 patients (47%) had YGP40 detected by dot blotting.

Conclusions: We identified YGP40 as a new hen's egg yolk allergen and detected 4 sites of YGP40 as linear epitopes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000488144DOI Listing
July 2018

An improved in-house lysis-filtration protocol for bacterial identification from positive blood culture bottles with high identification rates by MALDI-TOF MS.

J Microbiol Methods 2018 05 31;148:40-45. Epub 2018 Mar 31.

Division of Clinical Mass Spectrometry, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan; Division of Clinical Genetics, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan. Electronic address:

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is now a well-established method for identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures. Pretreatments to effectively remove non-bacterial proteins are a prerequisite for successful identification, and a variety of protocols have been reported. Although commercially available kits, mainly the Sepsityper Kit, are increasingly used, the identification rates reported often are not satisfactory, particularly for Gram-positive isolates. We developed a new, in-house lysis-filtration protocol and prospectively evaluated its performance compared to the Sepsityper kit. The in-house protocol consists of three simple steps: lysis by ammonium chloride, aspiration with a syringe fitted with a 0.45-μm membrane, and centrifugation to collect microbes. The novel protocol requires only 20 min. Performance of the in-house protocol was evaluated using a total of 117 monomicrobial cases of positive blood culture. Medium from blood culture bottles was pretreated by the in-house protocol or the commercial kit, and isolated cells were subjected to direct identification by mass spectrometry fingerprinting in parallel with conventional subculturing for reference identification. The overall MALDI-TOF MS-based identification rates with score > 1.7 and > 2.0 obtained using the in-house protocol were 99.2% and 85.5%, respectively, whereas those obtained using the Sepsityper Kit were 85.4% and 61.5%, respectively. For Gram-positive cases, the in-house protocol yielded scores >1.7 and > 2.0 at 98.5% and 76.1%, respectively, whereas the commercial kit yielded these scores at 76.1% and 43.3%, respectively. Although these are preliminary results, these values suggest that this easy lysis-filtration protocol deserves assessment in a larger-scale test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2018.03.014DOI Listing
May 2018

Capsular serotyping of Haemophilus influenzae by using matrix-associated laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

J Infect Chemother 2018 Jul 10;24(7):510-514. Epub 2018 Mar 10.

Division of Clinical Mass Spectrometry, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

Haemophilus influenzae is a major pathogenic bacteria causing invasive disease, which is classified into six capsular serotypes (a-f) and non-typeable (NT) strains. Capsular serotyping of H. influenzae is traditionally determined by serological methods and more recently by PCR methods. However, these methods are time-consuming and expensive. In the present study, matrix-associated laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was evaluated as an alternative method for capsular serotyping of H. influenzae clinical strains. We created an in-house database of all six serotypes and NT H. influenzae strains using the main spectrum creation standard method set to the default parameters in MADI-TOF MS. We evaluated the performance of the in-house database using 79 clinical strains already identified by PCR and 58 prospectively collected clinical strains. Measurements were performed using the Bruker MALDI BioTyper system. The peak list was matched against the reference library using the integrated pattern algorithm of the software. The best-matched spectrum was considered the serotyping result. All 137 test strains were correctly identified as H. influenzae using MALDI-TOF MS. The sensitivity and specificity for identification for type b, type e, and type f capsular serotypes and NT H. influenzae using MALDI-TOF MS were 100%/94.3%, 94.7%/97.9%, 97.4%/97.9%, and 85.5%/99.2%, respectively. Our findings indicate that MALDI-TOF MS is a useful alternative method for capsular serotyping of H. influenzae strains. This method is faster and more cost-effective than traditional methods and will therefore be useful for routine applications in clinical laboratories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2018.02.007DOI Listing
July 2018

Surveillance evaluation of the standardization of assay values for serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in Japan.

Ann Clin Biochem 2018 Nov 28;55(6):647-656. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

8 Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Human Arts and Sciences, Saitama, Japan.

Background To assess the vitamin D nutritional status, serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is measured. We used six automated 25(OH)D immunoassays (AIAs) available in Japan and certified by the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) at the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention to assess the concordance of the assay results. Methods Serum total 25(OH)D concentrations in SRM 972a and 20 serum samples from patients were determined using three liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and six AIAs (pilot study), and an additional 110 serum samples were assessed by the six AIAs (surveillance study). The assay bias from the results of LC-MS/MS by Chiba University or consensus values (i.e. average of six AIAs) was estimated using the procedure described in CLSI document EP09-A3. Results LC-MS/MS at Chiba University could completely separate 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3, and the observed values including total 25(OH)D in SRM 972a were all within ±1·SD of the assigned values. All AIAs produced results greater than ±3·SD. In the pilot study, four of the six AIAs had an average percentage bias, as estimated by confidence interval (CI), larger than ±5% (acceptance criterion in CLSI); the bias converged from -6.5% to 3.2% after adjustment by LC-MS/MS. In the surveillance study, 25(OH)D concentrations in AIAs all adjusted to LC-MS/MS converged within ±5% from consensus values. However, some AIAs showed negative or positive bias from the consensus values. Conclusions Current AIAs in Japan continue to lack standardization. Manufacturers should implement quality assurance strategies so that their values more closely align to those of standard reference material 972a.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0004563218765570DOI Listing
November 2018

Assessment by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry of the Effects of Preanalytical Variables on Serum Peptidome Profiles Following Long-Term Sample Storage.

Proteomics Clin Appl 2018 05 2;12(3):e1700047. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Division of Clinical Mass Spectrometry, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

Purpose: Human serum and plasma are often used as clinical specimens in proteomics analyses, and peptidome profiling of human serum is a promising tool for identifying novel disease-associated biomarkers. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is widely used for peptidomic biomarker discovery. Careful sample collection and handling are required as either can have a profound impact on serum peptidome patterns, yet the effects of preanalytical variables on serum peptidome profiles have not been completely elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of preanalytical variables, including storage temperature, duration (up to 12 months), and thawing methods, on MALDI-TOF MS-based serum peptidome patterns.

Experimental Design: Aliquots of serum samples were pretreated with weak cation exchanger magnetic beads using an automated ClinProtRobot system and then analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS.

Results: A number of significant differences in peak intensities were observed depending on sample processing variables.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: These peaks can be used as sample quality markers to assess the effects of long-term storage on serum peptidome profiles using MALDI-TOF MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prca.201700047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5947747PMC
May 2018

Variant in C-terminal region of intestinal alkaline phosphatase associated with benign familial hyperphosphatasaemia.

J Med Genet 2018 10 13;55(10):701-704. Epub 2018 Jan 13.

Division of Clinical Genetics, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

Background: A genetic diagnosis has been rarely performed in benign familial hyperphosphatasaemia, and molecular mechanism largely remains unclear.

Objectives: We encountered a case with benign familial hyperphosphatasaemia of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP). To elucidate the molecular mechanism, we performed gene sequencing and in vitro protein expression analysis.

Methods: gene was sequenced by long-range PCR and massively parallel sequencing. The soluble and membrane-bound ALP activities of the cultured cell line, transfected with the wild-type or variant-type gene were analysed by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-cleaving assay.

Results: We identified a deletion-insertion variant in the C-terminal end of the gene. This variant causes the attenuation of the hydrophobicity in GPI-anchor signal of IAP. An in vitro GPI-cleaving assay demonstrated that the membrane-bound IAP was greatly decreased, whereas the soluble IAP was increased, in the variant IAP.

Conclusions: The C-terminal variant in causes the benign familial hyperphosphatasaemia of IAP by the attenuation of the membrane-binding capability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2017-104964DOI Listing
October 2018

A phase II trial of Ifosfamide combination with recommended supportive therapy for recurrent SCLC in second-line and heavily treated setting.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2018 02 12;81(2):339-345. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

Purpose: The response rate of ifosfamide (IFM) monotherapy for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is reported as 42.4% in Japanese package insert. However, these efficacy data are based on clinical studies conducted in 1970s. This phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of IFM combination with recommended current supportive therapy for recurrent SCLC in second-line and heavily treated setting.

Methods: Recurrent SCLC patients pretreated with one to three prior regimens received IFM monotherapy (1.5 g/m for 3 days every 3 weeks). Treatment was continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was objective response rate.

Results: Twelve patients were enrolled in the study from June 2009 to January 2013. The study was early terminated at interim analysis due to futility stop. Patient characteristics were as follows: median age was 65 years, 11 were males (91.7%) and eight (66.7%) and four (33.3%) were Performance Status 0 and 1, respectively. Four patients (33.3%) enrolled in second-line setting were all refractory relapse SCLC and 8 (66.7%) were heavily treated patients. No patient showed objective response. Stable disease was observed in 3 patients. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 0.9 months (95% CI, 0.3-1.5) and 4.8 months (95% CI, 1.6-9.9), respectively. Although one grade 4 amylase increase possibly related to IFM was observed, toxicity profile was totally favorable.

Conclusions: IFM monotherapy should not be used for refractory relapse or heavily treated SCLC, and no further investigation is required in these populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-017-3497-0DOI Listing
February 2018