Publications by authors named "Fumiaki Imamura"

121 Publications

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption May Modify Associations Between Genetic Variants in the CHREBP (Carbohydrate Responsive Element Binding Protein) Locus and HDL-C (High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol) and Triglyceride Concentrations.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2021 Aug 16;14(4):e003288. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology (R.L.G., D.O.M.-K., F.R.R., R.dM.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.

Background: ChREBP (carbohydrate responsive element binding protein) is a transcription factor that responds to sugar consumption. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and genetic variants in the locus have separately been linked to HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that SSB consumption would modify the association between genetic variants in the locus and dyslipidemia.

Methods: Data from 11 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium (N=63 599) and the UK Biobank (N=59 220) were used to quantify associations of SSB consumption, genetic variants, and their interaction on HDL-C and triglyceride concentrations using linear regression models. A total of 1606 single nucleotide polymorphisms within or near were considered. SSB consumption was estimated from validated questionnaires, and participants were grouped by their estimated intake.

Results: In a meta-analysis, rs71556729 was significantly associated with higher HDL-C concentrations only among the highest SSB consumers (β, 2.12 [95% CI, 1.16-3.07] mg/dL per allele; <0.0001), but not significantly among the lowest SSB consumers (=0.81; <0.0001). Similar results were observed for 2 additional variants (rs35709627 and rs71556736). For triglyceride, rs55673514 was positively associated with triglyceride concentrations only among the highest SSB consumers (β, 0.06 [95% CI, 0.02-0.09] ln-mg/dL per allele, =0.001) but not the lowest SSB consumers (=0.84; =0.0005).

Conclusions: Our results identified genetic variants in the locus that may protect against SSB-associated reductions in HDL-C and other variants that may exacerbate SSB-associated increases in triglyceride concentrations. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00005133, NCT00005121, NCT00005487, and NCT00000479.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.120.003288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8373451PMC
August 2021

Blood n-3 fatty acid levels and total and cause-specific mortality from 17 prospective studies.

Nat Commun 2021 04 22;12(1):2329. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, UK.

The health effects of omega-3 fatty acids have been controversial. Here we report the results of a de novo pooled analysis conducted with data from 17 prospective cohort studies examining the associations between blood omega-3 fatty acid levels and risk for all-cause mortality. Over a median of 16 years of follow-up, 15,720 deaths occurred among 42,466 individuals. We found that, after multivariable adjustment for relevant risk factors, risk for death from all causes was significantly lower (by 15-18%, at least p < 0.003) in the highest vs the lowest quintile for circulating long chain (20-22 carbon) omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids). Similar relationships were seen for death from cardiovascular disease, cancer and other causes. No associations were seen with the 18-carbon omega-3, alpha-linolenic acid. These findings suggest that higher circulating levels of marine n-3 PUFA are associated with a lower risk of premature death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22370-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062567PMC
April 2021

Associations of Total Legume, Pulse, and Soy Consumption with Incident Type 2 Diabetes: Federated Meta-Analysis of 27 Studies from Diverse World Regions.

J Nutr 2021 05;151(5):1231-1240

School of Public Health, Physiotherapy & Sports Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: The consumption of legumes is promoted as part of a healthy diet in many countries but associations of total and types of legume consumption with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are not well established. Analyses across diverse populations are lacking despite the availability of unpublished legume consumption data in prospective cohort studies.

Objective: To examine the prospective associations of total and types of legume intake with the risk of incident T2D.

Methods: Meta-analyses of associations between total legume, pulse, and soy consumption and T2D were conducted using a federated approach without physical data-pooling. Prospective cohorts were included if legume exposure and T2D outcome data were available and the cohort investigators agreed to participate. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and CIs of associations using individual participant data including ≤42,473 incident cases among 807,785 adults without diabetes in 27 cohorts across the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, and Western Pacific. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to combine effect estimates and estimate heterogeneity.

Results: Median total legume intake ranged from 0-140 g/d across cohorts. We observed a weak positive association between total legume consumption and T2D (IRR = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.04) per 20 g/d higher intake, with moderately high heterogeneity (I2 = 74%). Analysis by region showed no evidence of associations in the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, and Western Pacific. The positive association in Europe (IRR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10, I2 = 82%) was mainly driven by studies from Germany, UK, and Sweden. No evidence of associations was observed for the consumption of pulses or soy.

Conclusions: These findings suggest no evidence of an association of legume intakes with T2D in several world regions. The positive association observed in some European studies warrants further investigation relating to overall dietary contexts in which legumes are consumed, including accompanying foods which may be positively associated with T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8112771PMC
May 2021

n-3 Fatty Acid Biomarkers and Incident Type 2 Diabetes: An Individual Participant-Level Pooling Project of 20 Prospective Cohort Studies.

Diabetes Care 2021 05 3;44(5):1133-1142. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Objective: Prospective associations between n-3 fatty acid biomarkers and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk are not consistent in individual studies. We aimed to summarize the prospective associations of biomarkers of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with T2D risk through an individual participant-level pooled analysis.

Research Design And Methods: For our analysis we incorporated data from a global consortium of 20 prospective studies from 14 countries. We included 65,147 participants who had blood measurements of ALA, EPA, DPA, or DHA and were free of diabetes at baseline. De novo harmonized analyses were performed in each cohort following a prespecified protocol, and cohort-specific associations were pooled using inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis.

Results: A total of 16,693 incident T2D cases were identified during follow-up (median follow-up ranging from 2.5 to 21.2 years). In pooled multivariable analysis, per interquintile range (difference between the 90th and 10th percentiles for each fatty acid), EPA, DPA, DHA, and their sum were associated with lower T2D incidence, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of 0.92 (0.87, 0.96), 0.79 (0.73, 0.85), 0.82 (0.76, 0.89), and 0.81 (0.75, 0.88), respectively (all < 0.001). ALA was not associated with T2D (HR 0.97 [95% CI 0.92, 1.02]) per interquintile range. Associations were robust across prespecified subgroups as well as in sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions: Higher circulating biomarkers of seafood-derived n-3 fatty acids, including EPA, DPA, DHA, and their sum, were associated with lower risk of T2D in a global consortium of prospective studies. The biomarker of plant-derived ALA was not significantly associated with T2D risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-2426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132316PMC
May 2021

A cross-platform approach identifies genetic regulators of human metabolism and health.

Nat Genet 2021 01 7;53(1):54-64. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Metabolic Research Laboratories, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

In cross-platform analyses of 174 metabolites, we identify 499 associations (P < 4.9 × 10) characterized by pleiotropy, allelic heterogeneity, large and nonlinear effects and enrichment for nonsynonymous variation. We identify a signal at GLP2R (p.Asp470Asn) shared among higher citrulline levels, body mass index, fasting glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and type 2 diabetes, with β-arrestin signaling as the underlying mechanism. Genetically higher serine levels are shown to reduce the likelihood (by 95%) and predict development of macular telangiectasia type 2, a rare degenerative retinal disease. Integration of genomic and small molecule data across platforms enables the discovery of regulators of human metabolism and translation into clinical insights.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00751-5DOI Listing
January 2021

Prospective association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and hepatic steatosis: the Swiss CoLaus cohort study.

BMJ Open 2020 12 22;10(12):e040959. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, UK

Objective: The Mediterranean diet has been promoted as a healthy dietary pattern, but whether the Mediterranean diet may help to prevent hepatic steatosis is not clear. This study aimed to evaluate the prospective association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and risk of hepatic steatosis.

Design: Population-based prospective cohort study.

Setting: The Swiss CoLaus Study.

Participants: We evaluated 2288 adults (65.4% women, aged 55.8±10.0 years) without hepatic steatosis at first follow-up in 2009-2012. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was scaled as the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) based on the Mediterranean diet pyramid ascertained with responses to Food Frequency Questionnaires.

Outcome Measures: New onset of hepatic steatosis was ascertained by two indices separately: the Fatty Liver Index (FLI, ≥60 points) and the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) score (≥-0.640 points). Prospective associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and risk of hepatic steatosis were quantified using Poisson regression.

Results: During a mean 5.3 years of follow-up, hepatic steatosis was ascertained in 153 (6.7%) participants by FLI criteria and in 208 (9.1%) by NAFLD score. After multivariable adjustment, higher adherence to MDS was associated with lower risk of hepatic steatosis based on FLI: risk ratio 0.84 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.96) per 1 SD of MDS; 0.85 (0.73 to 0.99) adjusted for BMI; and 0.85 (0.71 to 1.02) adjusted for both BMI and waist circumference. When using NAFLD score, no significant association was found between MDS and risk of hepatic steatosis (0.95 (0.83 to 1.09)).

Conclusion: A potential role of the Mediterranean diet in the prevention of hepatic steatosis is suggested by the inverse association observed between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and incidence of hepatic steatosis based on the FLI. The inconsistency of this association when hepatic steatosis was assessed by NAFLD score points to the need for accurate population-level assessment of fatty liver and its physiological markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757450PMC
December 2020

Plasma Sulfur Amino Acids and Risk of Cerebrovascular Diseases: A Nested Case-Control Study in the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort.

Stroke 2021 01 22;52(1):172-180. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom (N.J.W., N.G.F., F.I.).

Background And Purpose: B-vitamin supplements lower circulating concentrations of homocysteine and may reduce stroke incidence. Homocysteine concentrations are associated with the incidence of stroke but other sulfur-containing compounds in the related metabolic pathway have not yet been investigated for an association with incident cerebrovascular diseases.

Methods: Nested within the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition)-Norfolk cohort, we established a case-control study with 480 incident cases of cerebrovascular diseases and 480 controls matched by age, sex, and year of baseline examination (1993-1997). Using baseline plasma samples, we assayed sulfur-containing compounds including methionine, homocysteine, cystathionine, cysteine, glutathione, and taurine with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We examined the association of concentrations of each of the compounds and the ratio of methionine to homocysteine (representing activity of one-carbon metabolism) with risk of incident cerebrovascular diseases, adjusted for potential confounders.

Results: Plasma methionine and the methionine/homocysteine ratio were inversely associated with risk of cerebrovascular diseases, with odds ratios per 1 SD of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.72-0.96) and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.71-0.95), respectively. The association of methionine remained significant after adjustment for homocysteine. None of the other examined compounds was significantly associated with incident cerebrovascular diseases.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that greater availability of methionine, an essential amino acid, may play a role in the prevention of cerebrovascular diseases and explain the previously recognized link between elevated homocysteine and stroke. Further research is needed to determine causation and the potential of circulating methionine as a target in cerebrovascular disease prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.029177DOI Listing
January 2021

Plasma Vitamin C and Type 2 Diabetes: Genome-Wide Association Study and Mendelian Randomization Analysis in European Populations.

Diabetes Care 2021 01 17;44(1):98-106. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program and Translational Research Laboratory; Catalan Institute of Oncology - ICO, Group of Research on Nutrition and Cancer, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet of Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: Higher plasma vitamin C levels are associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk, but whether this association is causal is uncertain. To investigate this, we studied the association of genetically predicted plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes.

Research Design And Methods: We conducted genome-wide association studies of plasma vitamin C among 52,018 individuals of European ancestry to discover novel genetic variants. We performed Mendelian randomization analyses to estimate the association of genetically predicted differences in plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes in up to 80,983 case participants and 842,909 noncase participants. We compared this estimate with the observational association between plasma vitamin C and incident type 2 diabetes, including 8,133 case participants and 11,073 noncase participants.

Results: We identified 11 genomic regions associated with plasma vitamin C ( < 5 × 10), with the strongest signal at , and 10 novel genetic loci including , , , , , , , , , and . Plasma vitamin C was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per SD 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94), but there was no association between genetically predicted plasma vitamin C (excluding variant due to its apparent pleiotropic effect) and type 2 diabetes (1.03; 95% CI 0.96, 1.10).

Conclusions: These findings indicate discordance between biochemically measured and genetically predicted plasma vitamin C levels in the association with type 2 diabetes among European populations. The null Mendelian randomization findings provide no strong evidence to suggest the use of vitamin C supplementation for type 2 diabetes prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783939PMC
January 2021

Topographically Distinct Projection Patterns of Early-Generated and Late-Generated Projection Neurons in the Mouse Olfactory Bulb.

eNeuro 2020 Nov/Dec;7(6). Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Pharmacology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033

In the mouse brain, olfactory information is transmitted to the olfactory cortex via olfactory bulb (OB) projection neurons known as mitral and tufted cells. Although mitral and tufted cells share many cellular characteristics, these cell types are distinct in their somata location and in their axonal and dendritic projection patterns. Moreover, mitral cells consist of heterogeneous subpopulations. We have previously shown that mitral cells generated at different embryonic days differentially localize within the mitral cell layer (MCL) and extend their lateral dendrites to different sublayers of the external plexiform layer (EPL). Here, we examined the axonal projection patterns from the subpopulations of OB projection neurons that are determined by the timing of neurogenesis (neuronal birthdate) to understand the developmental origin of the diversity in olfactory pathways. We separately labeled early-generated and late-generated OB projection neurons using electroporation performed at embryonic day (E)11 and E12, respectively, and quantitatively analyzed their axonal projection patterns in the whole mouse brain using high-resolution 3D imaging. In this study, we demonstrate that the axonal projection of late-generated OB projection neurons is restricted to the anterior portion of the olfactory cortex while those of the early-generated OB projection neurons innervate the entire olfactory cortex. Our results suggest that the late-generated mitral cells do not extend their axons to the posterior regions of the olfactory cortex. Therefore, the mitral cells having different birthdates differ, not only in cell body location and dendritic projections within the OB, but also in their axonal projection pattern to the olfactory cortex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0369-20.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716433PMC
June 2021

Mediterranean diet and risk of Sjögren's syndrome.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2020 Jul-Aug;38 Suppl 126(4):216-221. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, and National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Birmingham Biomedical Research Centre and Department of Rheumatology, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, UK.

Objectives: Non-genetic risk factors for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) are poorly understood. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has been associated with reduction in other autoimmune diseases. We examined the association of Mediterranean diet with SS.

Methods: New patients attending a single centre warranting investigation for primary SS (pSS) were recruited into the Optimising Assessment in Sjögren's Syndrome cohort established in Birmingham, UK (2014-2018). Participants were classified into pSS and non-SS sicca, considered as cases and non-cases, respectively, and asked to complete an optional food frequency questionnaire on their diet before onset of symptoms. A semi-quantitative Mediterranean diet score (MDS) was calculated (possible range=0 to 18). Using multivariate logistic regression, corrected for energy intake, body-mass index, sex, age, symptom duration, and smoking status, we examined the association of MDS with SS.

Results: Dietary data were available for 133/243 (55%) eligible patients (n=82 pSS and n=51 sicca). In the adjusted model, a higher total MDS (mean ± SD, 9.41±2.31 points) was associated with lower odds of pSS (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.66-0.99; p=0.038) per one unit of MDS. Among MDS components, the strongest association was seen with fish with OR 0.44 (95% CI 0.24-0.83; p=0.01) in the comparison between <1 portion/week and 1 to 2.5 portions/week. Higher galactose, vitamin A-retinol-equivalents and vitamin C showed associations with lower odds of pSS in multivariate analysis, where the association of vitamin C was attenuated when adjusted for MDS.

Conclusions: When adjusted for potential confounders, adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with lower likelihood of having pSS.
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October 2020

The association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites and type 2 diabetes in European populations: A meta-analysis and Mendelian randomisation analysis.

PLoS Med 2020 10 16;17(10):e1003394. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: Prior research suggested a differential association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) metabolites with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with total 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D3 inversely associated with T2D, but the epimeric form (C3-epi-25(OH)D3) positively associated with T2D. Whether or not these observational associations are causal remains uncertain. We aimed to examine the potential causality of these associations using Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis.

Methods And Findings: We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for total 25(OH)D (N = 120,618), 25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562), and C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562) in participants of European descent (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition [EPIC]-InterAct study, EPIC-Norfolk study, EPIC-CVD study, Ely study, and the SUNLIGHT consortium). We identified genetic variants for MR analysis to investigate the causal association of the 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D (including 80,983 T2D cases and 842,909 non-cases). We also estimated the observational association of 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D by performing random effects meta-analysis of results from previous studies and results from the EPIC-InterAct study. We identified 10 genetic loci associated with total 25(OH)D, 7 loci associated with 25(OH)D3 and 3 loci associated with C3-epi-25(OH)D3. Based on the meta-analysis of observational studies, each 1-standard deviation (SD) higher level of 25(OH)D was associated with a 20% lower risk of T2D (relative risk [RR]: 0.80; 95% CI 0.77, 0.84; p < 0.001), but a genetically predicted 1-SD increase in 25(OH)D was not significantly associated with T2D (odds ratio [OR]: 0.96; 95% CI 0.89, 1.03; p = 0.23); this result was consistent across sensitivity analyses. In EPIC-InterAct, 25(OH)D3 (per 1-SD) was associated with a lower risk of T2D (RR: 0.81; 95% CI 0.77, 0.86; p < 0.001), while C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (above versus below lower limit of quantification) was positively associated with T2D (RR: 1.12; 95% CI 1.03, 1.22; p = 0.006), but neither 25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.97; 95% CI 0.93, 1.01; p = 0.14) nor C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.98; 95% CI 0.93, 1.04; p = 0.53) was causally associated with T2D risk in the MR analysis. Main limitations include the lack of a non-linear MR analysis and of the generalisability of the current findings from European populations to other populations of different ethnicities.

Conclusions: Our study found discordant associations of biochemically measured and genetically predicted differences in blood 25(OH)D with T2D risk. The findings based on MR analysis in a large sample of European ancestry do not support a causal association of total 25(OH)D or 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D and argue against the use of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567390PMC
October 2020

Subpopulations of Projection Neurons in the Olfactory Bulb.

Front Neural Circuits 2020 28;14:561822. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Pharmacology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States.

Generation of neuronal diversity is a biological strategy widely used in the brain to process complex information. The olfactory bulb is the first relay station of olfactory information in the vertebrate central nervous system. In the olfactory bulb, axons of the olfactory sensory neurons form synapses with dendrites of projection neurons that transmit the olfactory information to the olfactory cortex. Historically, the olfactory bulb projection neurons have been classified into two populations, mitral cells and tufted cells. The somata of these cells are distinctly segregated within the layers of the olfactory bulb; the mitral cells are located in the mitral cell layer while the tufted cells are found in the external plexiform layer. Although mitral and tufted cells share many morphological, biophysical, and molecular characteristics, they differ in soma size, projection patterns of their dendrites and axons, and odor responses. In addition, tufted cells are further subclassified based on the relative depth of their somata location in the external plexiform layer. Evidence suggests that different types of tufted cells have distinct cellular properties and play different roles in olfactory information processing. Therefore, mitral and different types of tufted cells are considered as starting points for parallel pathways of olfactory information processing in the brain. Moreover, recent studies suggest that mitral cells also consist of heterogeneous subpopulations with different cellular properties despite the fact that the mitral cell layer is a single-cell layer. In this review, we first compare the morphology of projection neurons in the olfactory bulb of different vertebrate species. Next, we explore the similarities and differences among subpopulations of projection neurons in the rodent olfactory bulb. We also discuss the timing of neurogenesis as a factor for the generation of projection neuron heterogeneity in the olfactory bulb. Knowledge about the subpopulations of olfactory bulb projection neurons will contribute to a better understanding of the complex olfactory information processing in higher brain regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncir.2020.561822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7485133PMC
October 2021

Using nutritional survey data to inform the design of sugar-sweetened beverage taxes in low-resource contexts: a cross-sectional analysis based on data from an adult Caribbean population.

BMJ Open 2020 09 10;10(9):e035981. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Centre for Diet and Activity Research, MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Objective: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes have been implemented widely. We aimed to use a pre-existing nutritional survey data to inform SSB tax design by assessing: (1) baseline consumption of SSBs and SSB-derived free sugars, (2) the percentage of SSB-derived free sugars that would be covered by a tax and (3) the extent to which a tax would differentiate between high-sugar SSBs and low-sugar SSBs. We evaluated these three considerations using pre-existing nutritional survey data in a developing economy setting.

Methods: We used data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Barbados (2012-2013, prior to SSB tax implementation). Data were available on 334 adults (25-64 years) who completed two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. We estimated the prevalence of SSB consumption and its contribution to total energy intake, overall and stratified by taxable status. We assessed the percentage of SSB-derived free sugars subject to the tax and identified the consumption-weighted sugar concentration of SSBs, stratified by taxable status.

Findings: Accounting for sampling probability, 88.8% of adults (95% CI 85.1 to 92.5) reported SSB consumption, with a geometric mean of 2.4 servings/day (±2 SD, 0.6, 9.2) among SSB consumers. Sixty percent (95% CI 54.6 to 65.4) of SSB-derived free sugars would be subject to the tax. The tax did not clearly differentiate between high-sugar beverages and low-sugar beverages.

Conclusion: Given high SSB consumption, targeting SSBs was a sensible strategy in this setting. A substantial percentage of free sugars from SSBs were not covered by the tax, reducing possible health benefits. The considerations proposed here may help policymakers to design more effective SSB taxes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-035981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7485232PMC
September 2020

Replacement of Red and Processed Meat With Other Food Sources of Protein and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in European Populations: The EPIC-InterAct Study.

Diabetes Care 2020 11 31;43(11):2660-2667. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Objective: There is sparse evidence for the association of suitable food substitutions for red and processed meat on the risk of type 2 diabetes. We modeled the association between replacing red and processed meat with other protein sources and the risk of type 2 diabetes and estimated its population impact.

Research Design And Methods: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-InterAct case cohort included 11,741 individuals with type 2 diabetes and a subcohort of 15,450 participants in eight countries. We modeled the replacement of self-reported red and processed meat with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, cheese, cereals, yogurt, milk, and nuts. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for incident type 2 diabetes were estimated by Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.

Results: There was a lower hazard for type 2 diabetes for the modeled replacement of red and processed meat (50 g/day) with cheese (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.97) (30 g/day), yogurt (0.90, 0.86-0.95) (70 g/day), nuts (0.90, 0.84-0.96) (10 g/day), or cereals (0.92, 0.88-0.96) (30 g/day) but not for replacements with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, or milk. If a causal association is assumed, replacing red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, or nuts could prevent 8.8%, 8.3%, or 7.5%, respectively, of new cases of type 2 diabetes.

Conclusions: Replacement of red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, nuts, or cereals was associated with a lower rate of type 2 diabetes. Substituting red and processed meat by other protein sources may contribute to the prevention of incident type 2 diabetes in European populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576430PMC
November 2020

Prospective association of soft drink consumption with depressive symptoms.

Nutrition 2021 01 16;81:110860. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Center for Clinical Sciences, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: Consumption of soft drinks has become a serious public health issue worldwide. However, prospective evidence is limited regarding the relationship between soft drink consumption and depression, especially in Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prospective association between soft drink consumption and the development of depressive symptoms.

Methods: We evaluated an occupational cohort of 935 adults in Japan (2012-2016), who were free from depressive symptoms at baseline and attended a 3-y follow-up assessment. Soft drink consumption was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for sociodemographic, lifestyle, dietary, and occupational covariates.

Results: Over the 3-y study period, 16.9% (158 cases) of the study participants reported depressive symptoms. Higher soft drink consumption was associated with higher odds of depressive symptoms. The multivariable-adjusted OR was 1.91 (95% CI, 1.11-3.29; P = 0.015) when comparing soft drink consumption of ≥4 cups/wk with consumption of <1 cup/wk.

Conclusion: The present results suggested that greater consumption of soft drinks would increase the likelihood of exhibiting depressive symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2020.110860DOI Listing
January 2021

Erythrocyte n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Gut Microbiota, and Incident Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Diabetes Care 2020 10 28;43(10):2435-2443. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Zhejiang Provincial Laboratory of Life Sciences and Biomedicine, Key Laboratory of Growth Regulation and Translation Research of Zhejiang Province, School of Life Sciences, Westlake University, Hangzhou, China

Objective: To examine the association of erythrocyte n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biomarkers with incident type 2 diabetes and explore the potential role of gut microbiota in the association.

Research Design And Methods: We evaluated 2,731 participants without type 2 diabetes recruited between 2008 and 2013 in the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study (Guangzhou, China). Case subjects with type 2 diabetes were identified with clinical and biochemical information collected at follow-up visits. Using stool samples collected during the follow-up in the subset ( = 1,591), 16S rRNA profiling was conducted. Using multivariable-adjusted Poisson or linear regression, we examined associations of erythrocyte n-6 PUFA biomarkers with incident type 2 diabetes and diversity and composition of gut microbiota.

Results: Over 6.2 years of follow-up, 276 case subjects with type 2 diabetes were identified (risk 0.10). Higher levels of erythrocyte γ-linolenic acid (GLA), but not linoleic or arachidonic acid, were associated with higher type 2 diabetes incidence. Comparing the top to the bottom quartile groups of GLA levels, relative risk was 1.72 (95% CI 1.21, 2.44) adjusted for potential confounders. Baseline GLA was inversely associated with gut microbial richness and diversity (α-diversity, both < 0.05) during follow-up and significantly associated with microbiota β-diversity ( = 0.002). α-Diversity acted as a potential mediator in the association between GLA and type 2 diabetes ( < 0.05). Seven genera (, , , , , , and ) were enriched in quartile 1 of GLA and in participants without type 2 diabetes.

Conclusions: Relative concentrations of erythrocyte GLA were positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population and also with gut microbial profiles. These results highlight that gut microbiota may play an important role linking n-6 PUFA metabolism and type 2 diabetes etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-0631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7510039PMC
October 2020

Insights into genetic variants associated with NASH-fibrosis from metabolite profiling.

Hum Mol Genet 2020 12;29(20):3451-3463

MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0SL, UK.

Several genetic discoveries robustly implicate five single-nucleotide variants in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis (NASH-fibrosis), including a recently identified variant in MTARC1. To better understand these variants as potential therapeutic targets, we aimed to characterize their impact on metabolism using comprehensive metabolomics data from two population-based studies. A total of 9135 participants from the Fenland study and 9902 participants from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort were included in the study. We identified individuals with risk alleles associated with NASH-fibrosis: rs738409C>G in PNPLA3, rs58542926C>T in TM6SF2, rs641738C>T near MBOAT7, rs72613567TA>T in HSD17B13 and rs2642438A>G in MTARC1. Circulating levels of 1449 metabolites were measured using targeted and untargeted metabolomics. Associations between NASH-fibrosis variants and metabolites were assessed using linear regression. The specificity of variant-metabolite associations were compared to metabolite associations with ultrasound-defined steatosis, gene variants linked to liver fat (in GCKR, PPP1R3B and LYPLAL1) and gene variants linked to cirrhosis (in HFE and SERPINA1). Each NASH-fibrosis variant demonstrated a specific metabolite profile with little overlap (8/97 metabolites) comprising diverse aspects of lipid metabolism. Risk alleles in PNPLA3 and HSD17B13 were both associated with higher 3-methylglutarylcarnitine and three variants were associated with lower lysophosphatidylcholine C14:0. The risk allele in MTARC1 was associated with higher levels of sphingomyelins. There was no overlap with metabolites that associated with HFE or SERPINA1 variants. Our results suggest a link between the NASH-protective variant in MTARC1 to the metabolism of sphingomyelins and identify distinct molecular patterns associated with each of the NASH-fibrosis variants under investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddaa162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116726PMC
December 2020

Association of plasma biomarkers of fruit and vegetable intake with incident type 2 diabetes: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study in eight European countries.

BMJ 2020 07 8;370:m2194. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Objective: To investigate the association of plasma vitamin C and carotenoids, as indicators of fruit and vegetable intake, with the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Design: Prospective case-cohort study.

Setting: Populations from eight European countries.

Participants: 9754 participants with incident type 2 diabetes, and a subcohort of 13 662 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort of 340 234 participants: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

Main Outcome Measure: Incident type 2 diabetes.

Results: In a multivariable adjusted model, higher plasma vitamin C was associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 0.89). A similar inverse association was shown for total carotenoids (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.75, 0.68 to 0.82). A composite biomarker score (split into five equal groups), comprising vitamin C and individual carotenoids, was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes with hazard ratios 0.77, 0.66, 0.59, and 0.50 for groups 2-5 compared with group 1 (the lowest group). Self-reported median fruit and vegetable intake was 274 g/day, 396 g/day, and 508 g/day for participants in categories defined by groups 1, 3, and 5 of the composite biomarker score, respectively. One standard deviation difference in the composite biomarker score, equivalent to a 66 (95% confidence interval 61 to 71) g/day difference in total fruit and vegetable intake, was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.75 (0.67 to 0.83). This would be equivalent to an absolute risk reduction of 0.95 per 1000 person years of follow up if achieved across an entire population with the characteristics of the eight European countries included in this analysis.

Conclusions: These findings indicate an inverse association between plasma vitamin C, carotenoids, and their composite biomarker score, and incident type 2 diabetes in different European countries. These biomarkers are objective indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption, and suggest that diets rich in even modestly higher fruit and vegetable consumption could help to prevent development of type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341350PMC
July 2020

Genetic study of the Arctic CPT1A variant suggests that its effect on fatty acid levels is modulated by traditional Inuit diet.

Eur J Hum Genet 2020 11 19;28(11):1592-1601. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Biology, Bioinformatics Centre, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Several recent studies have found signs of recent selection on the carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1A (CPT1A) gene in the ancestors of Arctic populations likely as a result of their traditional diet. CPT1A is involved in fatty acid transportation and is known to affect circulating fatty acid profiles in Inuit as does the unique traditional diet rich in marine animals. We aimed to assess which fatty acids may have driven the selection of rs80356779, a c.1436C>T (p.(Pro479Leu)) variant in CPT1A, by analyzing a potential interaction between the variant and traditional Inuit diet. We included 3005 genome-wide genotyped individuals living in Greenland, who had blood cell membrane fatty acid levels measured. Consumption of 25 traditional food items was expressed as percentage of total energy intake. We tested for CPT1A × traditional diet interaction while taking relatedness and admixture into account. Increasing intakes of traditional diet was estimated to attenuate the effect of 479L on 20:3 omega-6 levels (p = 0.000399), but increase the effect of the variant on 22:5 omega-3 levels (p = 0.000963). The 479L effect on 22:5 omega-3 more than doubled in individuals with a high intake of traditional diet (90% percentile) compared with individuals with a low intake (10% percentile). Similar results were found when assessing interactions with marine foods. Our results suggest that the association between traditional diet and blood cell fatty acid composition is affected by the CPT1A genotype, or other variants in linkage disequilibrium, and support the hypothesis that omega-3 fatty acids may have been important for adaptation to the Arctic diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-020-0674-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576585PMC
November 2020

Fatty acids in the de novo lipogenesis pathway and incidence of type 2 diabetes: A pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies.

PLoS Med 2020 06 12;17(6):e1003102. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: De novo lipogenesis (DNL) is the primary metabolic pathway synthesizing fatty acids from carbohydrates, protein, or alcohol. Our aim was to examine associations of in vivo levels of selected fatty acids (16:0, 16:1n7, 18:0, 18:1n9) in DNL with incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Methods And Findings: Seventeen cohorts from 12 countries (7 from Europe, 7 from the United States, 1 from Australia, 1 from Taiwan; baseline years = 1970-1973 to 2006-2010) conducted harmonized individual-level analyses of associations of DNL-related fatty acids with incident T2D. In total, we evaluated 65,225 participants (mean ages = 52.3-75.5 years; % women = 20.4%-62.3% in 12 cohorts recruiting both sexes) and 15,383 incident cases of T2D over the 9-year follow-up on average. Cohort-specific association of each of 16:0, 16:1n7, 18:0, and 18:1n9 with incident T2D was estimated, adjusted for demographic factors, socioeconomic characteristics, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, menopausal status, and adiposity. Cohort-specific associations were meta-analyzed with an inverse-variance-weighted approach. Each of the 4 fatty acids positively related to incident T2D. Relative risks (RRs) per cohort-specific range between midpoints of the top and bottom quintiles of fatty acid concentrations were 1.53 (1.41-1.66; p < 0.001) for 16:0, 1.40 (1.33-1.48; p < 0.001) for 16:1n-7, 1.14 (1.05-1.22; p = 0.001) for 18:0, and 1.16 (1.07-1.25; p < 0.001) for 18:1n9. Heterogeneity was seen across cohorts (I2 = 51.1%-73.1% for each fatty acid) but not explained by lipid fractions and global geographical regions. Further adjusted for triglycerides (and 16:0 when appropriate) to evaluate associations independent of overall DNL, the associations remained significant for 16:0, 16:1n7, and 18:0 but were attenuated for 18:1n9 (RR = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.94-1.13). These findings had limitations in potential reverse causation and residual confounding by imprecisely measured or unmeasured factors.

Conclusions: Concentrations of fatty acids in the DNL were positively associated with T2D incidence. Our findings support further work to investigate a possible role of DNL and individual fatty acids in the development of T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7292352PMC
June 2020

Genomic analysis of diet composition finds novel loci and associations with health and lifestyle.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 06 11;26(6):2056-2069. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen, The Netherlands.

We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of relative intake from the macronutrients fat, protein, carbohydrates, and sugar in over 235,000 individuals of European ancestries. We identified 21 unique, approximately independent lead SNPs. Fourteen lead SNPs are uniquely associated with one macronutrient at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10), while five of the 21 lead SNPs reach suggestive significance (P < 1 × 10) for at least one other macronutrient. While the phenotypes are genetically correlated, each phenotype carries a partially unique genetic architecture. Relative protein intake exhibits the strongest relationships with poor health, including positive genetic associations with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease (r ≈ 0.15-0.5). In contrast, relative carbohydrate and sugar intake have negative genetic correlations with waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and neighborhood deprivation (|r| ≈ 0.1-0.3) and positive genetic correlations with physical activity (r ≈ 0.1 and 0.2). Relative fat intake has no consistent pattern of genetic correlations with poor health but has a negative genetic correlation with educational attainment (r ≈-0.1). Although our analyses do not allow us to draw causal conclusions, we find no evidence of negative health consequences associated with relative carbohydrate, sugar, or fat intake. However, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that relative protein intake plays a role in the etiology of metabolic dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0697-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767645PMC
June 2021

Differential Effects of Nasal Inflammation and Odor Deprivation on Layer-Specific Degeneration of the Mouse Olfactory Bulb.

eNeuro 2020 Mar/Apr;7(2). Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Pathology Research Team, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kyorin University, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8612, Japan.

Harmful environmental agents cause nasal inflammation, and chronic nasal inflammation induces a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and reversible atrophy of the olfactory bulb (OB). Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying this inflammation-induced OB atrophy by histologically and biochemically comparing the OB changes in mouse models of nasal inflammation and odor deprivation. In addition, we examined whether odor stimulation is necessary for OB recovery from atrophy. One group of adult male C57BL/6 mice was administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS) unilaterally for 10 weeks to induce nasal inflammation (control animals received saline), and a second group received unilateral naris closures (NCs) for 10 weeks of odor deprivation. The OBs atrophied in both models, but odor deprivation shrank the glomerular, external plexiform, mitral, and granule cell layers (GCLs), whereas the olfactory nerve, glomerular, and external plexiform layers (EPLs) atrophied as a result of nasal inflammation. Additionally, nasal inflammation, but not odor deprivation, caused neuroinflammation in the OB, inducing glial activation and elevated expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and TNFα. After 10 weeks of nasal inflammation, mice were housed for another 10 weeks with no additional treatment or with unilateral NC. Nasal inflammation and glial activation subsided in both groups, but glomerular and EPLs recovered only in those with no additional treatment. Our findings demonstrate that nasal inflammation and odor deprivation differentially induce layer-specific degeneration in the OB, that loss of OSN activity rather than neuroinflammation is a major cause of inflammation-induced OB atrophy, and that odor stimulation is required for OB recovery from atrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0403-19.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7168263PMC
June 2021

Kcnn2 blockade reverses learning deficits in a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

Nat Neurosci 2020 04 16;23(4):533-543. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's Research Institute, Children's National Hospital, Washington, DC, USA.

Learning disabilities are hallmarks of congenital conditions caused by prenatal exposure to harmful agents. These include fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) with a wide range of cognitive deficiencies, including impaired motor skill development. Although these effects have been well characterized, the molecular effects that bring about these behavioral consequences remain to be determined. We previously found that the acute molecular responses to alcohol in the embryonic brain are stochastic, varying among neural progenitor cells. However, the pathophysiological consequences stemming from these heterogeneous responses remain unknown. Here we show that acute responses to alcohol in progenitor cells altered gene expression in their descendant neurons. Among the altered genes, an increase of the calcium-activated potassium channel Kcnn2 in the motor cortex correlated with motor learning deficits in a mouse model of FASD. Pharmacologic blockade of Kcnn2 improves these learning deficits, suggesting Kcnn2 blockers as a new intervention for learning disabilities in FASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-020-0592-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7131887PMC
April 2020

The associations of major foods and fibre with risks of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke: a prospective study of 418 329 participants in the EPIC cohort across nine European countries.

Eur Heart J 2020 07;41(28):2632-2640

Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden.

Aim: To investigate the associations between major foods and dietary fibre with subtypes of stroke in a large prospective cohort.

Methods And Results: We analysed data on 418 329 men and women from nine European countries, with an average of 12.7 years of follow-up. Diet was assessed using validated country-specific questionnaires which asked about habitual intake over the past year, calibrated using 24-h recalls. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke associated with consumption of red and processed meat, poultry, fish, dairy foods, eggs, cereals, fruit and vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds, and dietary fibre. For ischaemic stroke (4281 cases), lower risks were observed with higher consumption of fruit and vegetables combined (HR; 95% CI per 200 g/day higher intake, 0.87; 0.82-0.93, P-trend < 0.001), dietary fibre (per 10 g/day, 0.77; 0.69-0.86, P-trend < 0.001), milk (per 200 g/day, 0.95; 0.91-0.99, P-trend = 0.02), yogurt (per 100 g/day, 0.91; 0.85-0.97, P-trend = 0.004), and cheese (per 30 g/day, 0.88; 0.81-0.97, P-trend = 0.008), while higher risk was observed with higher red meat consumption which attenuated when adjusted for the other statistically significant foods (per 50 g/day, 1.07; 0.96-1.20, P-trend = 0.20). For haemorrhagic stroke (1430 cases), higher risk was associated with higher egg consumption (per 20 g/day, 1.25; 1.09-1.43, P-trend = 0.002).

Conclusion: Risk of ischaemic stroke was inversely associated with consumption of fruit and vegetables, dietary fibre, and dairy foods, while risk of haemorrhagic stroke was positively associated with egg consumption. The apparent differences in the associations highlight the importance of examining ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke subtypes separately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7377582PMC
July 2020

The associations of longitudinal changes in consumption of total and types of dairy products and markers of metabolic risk and adiposity: findings from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk study, United Kingdom.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 05;111(5):1018-1026

Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: The consumption of some types of dairy products has been associated with lower cardiometabolic disease incidence. Knowledge remains limited about habitual dairy consumption and the pathways to cardiometabolic risk.

Objective: We aimed to investigate associations of habitual consumption of total and types of dairy products with markers of metabolic risk and adiposity among adults in the United Kingdom.

Methods: We examined associations of changes in dairy consumption (assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire) with parallel changes in cardiometabolic markers using multiple linear regression among 15,612 adults aged 40-78 y at baseline (1993-1997) and followed up over 1998-2000 (mean ± SD: 3.7±0.7 y) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk study.

Results: For adiposity, an increase in fermented dairy products [yogurt (total or low-fat) or low-fat cheese] consumption was associated with a lower increase in body weight and body mass index (BMI). For example, over 3.7 y, increasing yogurt consumption by 1 serving/d was associated with a smaller increase in body weight by 0.23 kg (95% CI: -0.46, -0.01 kg). An increase in full-fat milk, high-fat cheese, and total high-fat dairy was associated with greater increases in body weight and BMI [e.g., for high-fat dairy: β = 0.13 (0.05, 0.21) kg and 0.04 (0.01, 0.07) kg/m2, respectively]. For lipids, an increase in milk (total and low-fat) or yogurt consumption was positively associated with HDL cholesterol. An increase in total low-fat dairy was negatively associated with LDL cholesterol (-0.03 mmol/L; -0.05, -0.01 mmol/L), whereas high-fat dairy (total, butter, and high-fat cheese) consumption was positively associated [e.g., 0.04 (0.02, 0.06) mmol/L for total high-fat dairy]. For glycemia, increasing full-fat milk consumption was associated with a higher increase in glycated hemoglobin (P = 0.027).

Conclusions: The habitual consumption of different dairy subtypes may differently influence cardiometabolic risk through adiposity and lipid pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198306PMC
May 2020

A Combination of Metabolites Predicts Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Pattern and Its Associations with Insulin Sensitivity and Lipid Homeostasis in the General Population: The Fenland Study, United Kingdom.

J Nutr 2020 03;150(3):568-578

MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: Cardiometabolic benefits of the Mediterranean diet have been recognized, but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate how the Mediterranean diet could influence circulating metabolites and how the metabolites could mediate the associations of the diet with cardiometabolic risk factors.

Methods: Among 10,806 participants (58.9% women, mean age = 48.4 y) in the Fenland Study (2004-2015) in the United Kingdom, we assessed dietary consumption with FFQs and conducted a targeted metabolomics assay for 175 plasma metabolites (acylcarnitines, amines, sphingolipids, and phospholipids). We examined cross-sectional associations of the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and its major components with each metabolite, modeling multivariable-adjusted linear regression. We used the regression estimates to summarize metabolites associated with the MDS into a metabolite score as a marker of the diet. Subsequently, we assessed how much metabolite subclasses and the metabolite score would mediate the associations of the MDS with circulating lipids, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and other metabolic factors by comparing regression estimates upon adjustment for the metabolites.

Results: Sixty-six metabolites were significantly associated with the MDS (P ≤ 0.003, corrected for false discovery rate) (Spearman correlations, r: -0.28 to +0.28). The metabolite score was moderately correlated with the MDS (r = 0.43). Of MDS components, consumption of nuts, cereals, and meats contributed to variations in acylcarnitines; fruits, to amino acids and amines; and fish, to phospholipids. The metabolite score was estimated to explain 37.2% of the inverse association of the MDS with HOMA-IR (P for mediation < 0.05). The associations of the MDS with cardiometabolic factors were estimated to be mediated by acylcarnitines, sphingolipids, and phospholipids.

Conclusions: Multiple metabolites relate to the Mediterranean diet in a healthy general British population and highlight the potential to identify a set of biomarkers for an overall diet. The associations may involve pathways of phospholipid metabolism, carnitine metabolism, and development of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315099PMC
March 2020

Validity and reliability of an online self-report 24-h dietary recall method (Intake24): a doubly labelled water study and repeated-measures analysis.

J Nutr Sci 2019 30;8:e29. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.

Online self-reported 24-h dietary recall systems promise increased feasibility of dietary assessment. Comparison against interviewer-led recalls established their convergent validity; however, reliability and criterion-validity information is lacking. The validity of energy intakes (EI) reported using Intake24, an online 24-h recall system, was assessed against concurrent measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE) using doubly labelled water in ninety-eight UK adults (40-65 years). Accuracy and precision of EI were assessed using correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. Test-retest reliability of energy and nutrient intakes was assessed using data from three further UK studies where participants (11-88 years) completed Intake24 at least four times; reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations (ICC). Compared with TEE, participants under-reported EI by 25 % (95 % limits of agreement -73 % to +68 %) in the first recall, 22 % (-61 % to +41 %) for average of first two, and 25 % (-60 % to +28 %) for first three recalls. Correlations between EI and TEE were 0·31 (first), 0·47 (first two) and 0·39 (first three recalls), respectively. ICC for a single recall was 0·35 for EI and ranged from 0·31 for Fe to 0·43 for non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES). Considering pairs of recalls (first two third and fourth recalls), ICC was 0·52 for EI and ranged from 0·37 for fat to 0·63 for NMES. EI reported with Intake24 was moderately correlated with objectively measured TEE and underestimated on average to the same extent as seen with interviewer-led 24-h recalls and estimated weight food diaries. Online 24-h recall systems may offer low-cost, low-burden alternatives for collecting dietary information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jns.2019.20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6722486PMC
July 2020

Association of alcohol consumption with prevalence of fatty liver after adjustment for dietary patterns: Cross-sectional analysis of Japanese middle-aged adults.

Clin Nutr 2020 05 26;39(5):1580-1586. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan; The Institute for Human Life Innovation, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Moderate alcohol intake is associated with reduced prevalence or incidence of fatty liver. However, whether or not the association is independent of dietary patterns remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the cross-sectional association of alcohol intake with fatty liver after accounting for dietary patterns and obesity.

Methods: We assessed 4579 adults aged 30-79 years who participated in routine clinical examinations in St. Luke's International Hospital, Japan (January to March, 2015). We assessed their habitual diet using diet-history questionnaire, estimated alcohol intake, and derived dietary pattern variables using factor analysis. Fatty liver was ascertained using ultrasonography. Linear and U-shaped associations of alcohol intake with fatty liver were evaluated using Poisson regression, and a post hoc analysis was conducted after detecting potential outliers for alcohol intake and excluding them using sex-specific statistics (median plus 2 × interquartile range).

Results: Fatty liver was ascertained in 1120 participants (24.5%). Whereas no significant association of alcohol intake with fatty liver was observed when potential outliers of alcohol intake were included (p = 0.25), a significant U-shaped association was observed after excluding the outliers with and without adjustment for dietary patterns (p = 0.003 and 0.02, respectively). The lowest prevalence was estimated when alcohol consumption was approximately 7% of energy, with a prevalence ratio of 0.72 (95% confidence interval = 0.59-0.86) compared to non-drinkers. The association became imprecise and attenuated toward the null after further adjustment for body mass index (p = 0.06).

Conclusions: Alcohol intake showed a U-shaped association with fatty liver prevalence. This association was independent of underlying dietary patterns, while it was sensitive to excessive alcohol intake and obesity status, providing clinical implications for the prevention of fatty liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2019.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218709PMC
May 2020

Estimated Substitution of Tea or Coffee for Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Was Associated with Lower Type 2 Diabetes Incidence in Case-Cohort Analysis across 8 European Countries in the EPIC-InterAct Study.

J Nutr 2019 11;149(11):1985-1993

CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Beverage consumption is a modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but there is insufficient evidence to inform the suitability of substituting 1 type of beverage for another.

Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of T2D when consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was replaced with consumption of fruit juice, milk, coffee, or tea.

Methods: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study of 8 European countries (n = 27,662, with 12,333 cases of incident T2D, 1992-2007), beverage consumption was estimated at baseline by dietary questionnaires. Using Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusting for other beverages and potential confounders, we estimated associations of substituting 1 type of beverage for another on incident T2D.

Results: Mean ± SD of estimated consumption of SSB was 55 ± 105 g/d. Means ± SDs for the other beverages were as follows: fruit juice, 59 ± 101 g/d; milk, 209 ± 203 g/d; coffee, 381 ± 372 g/d; and tea, 152 ± 282 g/d. Substituting coffee for SSBs by 250 g/d was associated with a 21% lower incidence of T2D (95% CI: 12%, 29%). The rate difference was -12.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -5.0) per 10,000 person-years among adults consuming SSBs ≥250 g/d (absolute rate = 48.3/10,000). Substituting tea for SSBs was estimated to lower T2D incidence by 22% (95% CI: 15%, 28%) or -11.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -2.6) per 10,000 person-years, whereas substituting fruit juice or milk was estimated not to alter T2D risk significantly.

Conclusions: These findings indicate a potential benefit of substituting coffee or tea for SSBs for the primary prevention of T2D and may help formulate public health recommendations on beverage consumption in different populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6825826PMC
November 2019
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