Publications by authors named "Fulvio Ricceri"

197 Publications

Dietary Advanced Glycation End-Products and Colorectal Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

Nutrients 2021 Sep 8;13(9). Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Dietary advanced glycation end-products (dAGEs) have been hypothesized to be associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) by promoting inflammation, metabolic dysfunction, and oxidative stress in the colonic epithelium. However, evidence from prospective cohort studies is scarce and inconclusive. We evaluated CRC risk associated with the intake of dAGEs in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Dietary intakes of three major dAGEs: N-carboxy-methyllysine (CML), N-carboxyethyllysine (CEL), and N-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1) were estimated in 450,111 participants (median follow-up = 13 years, with 6162 CRC cases) by matching to a detailed published European food composition database. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of dAGEs with CRC were computed using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models. Inverse CRC risk associations were observed for CML (HR comparing extreme quintiles: HR. = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.85-1.00) and MG-H1 (HR. = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.85-1.00), but not for CEL (HR. = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.89-1.05). The associations did not differ by sex or anatomical location of the tumor. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, our findings suggest an inverse association between dAGEs and CRC risk. More research is required to verify these findings and better differentiate the role of dAGEs from that of endogenously produced AGEs and their precursor compounds in CRC development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13093132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8470201PMC
September 2021

A New Pipeline for the Normalization and Pooling of Metabolomics Data.

Metabolites 2021 Sep 17;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Pooling metabolomics data across studies is often desirable to increase the statistical power of the analysis. However, this can raise methodological challenges as several preanalytical and analytical factors could introduce differences in measured concentrations and variability between datasets. Specifically, different studies may use variable sample types (e.g., serum versus plasma) collected, treated, and stored according to different protocols, and assayed in different laboratories using different instruments. To address these issues, a new pipeline was developed to normalize and pool metabolomics data through a set of sequential steps: (i) exclusions of the least informative observations and metabolites and removal of outliers; imputation of missing data; (ii) identification of the main sources of variability through principal component partial R-square (PC-PR2) analysis; (iii) application of linear mixed models to remove unwanted variability, including samples' originating study and batch, and preserve biological variations while accounting for potential differences in the residual variances across studies. This pipeline was applied to targeted metabolomics data acquired using Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ kits in eight case-control studies nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Comprehensive examination of metabolomics measurements indicated that the pipeline improved the comparability of data across the studies. Our pipeline can be adapted to normalize other molecular data, including biomarkers as well as proteomics data, and could be used for pooling molecular datasets, for example in international consortia, to limit biases introduced by inter-study variability. This versatility of the pipeline makes our work of potential interest to molecular epidemiologists.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11090631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8467830PMC
September 2021

Transition to retirement impact on health and lifestyle habits: analysis from a nationwide Italian cohort.

BMC Public Health 2021 Sep 14;21(1):1670. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, via Forlanini, 2, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Retirement is a life-course transition likely to affect, through different mechanisms, behavioural risk factors' patterns and, ultimately, health outcomes. We assessed the impact of transitioning to retirement on lifestyle habits and perceived health status in a nationwide cohort of Italian adults.

Methods: We analysed data from a large cohort of Italian adults aged 55-70, derived from linking six waves of the Participation, Labour, Unemployment Survey (PLUS), a national survey representative of the Italian workforce population, conducted between 2010 and 2018. We estimated relative-risk ratios (RRR) of transition to retirement and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for selected behavioural risk factors and health outcomes using multivariable logistic regression models. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to account for potential confounders.

Results: We included 5169 subjects in the study population, of which 1653 retired between 2010 and 2018 (exposed, 32%). Transition to retirement was associated with a 36% increased probability of practising sports (RRR 1.36, 95% CI 1.12-1.64). No statistically significant changes were reported for smoking habit (current smoker RRR: 1.18, 95% CI 0.94-1.46) and BMI (overweight/obese RRR: 0.96, 95% CI 0.81-1.15). Overall, retiring was associated with improved self-rated health status (RRR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02-1.58).

Conclusion: Individual data-linkage of multiple waves of the PLUS can offer great insight to inform healthy ageing policies in Italy and Europe. Transition to retirement has an independent effect on perceived health status, physical activity and selected behavioural risk factors. It should be identified as a target moment for preventive interventions, with particular reference to primary prevention so as to promote health and wellbeing in older ages.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11670-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8439097PMC
September 2021

Polyphenol Intake and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Aug 4;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France.

Despite some epidemiological evidence on the protective effects of polyphenol intake on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk from case-control studies, the evidence is scarce from prospective studies and non-existent for several polyphenol classes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the associations between the intake of total, classes and subclasses of polyphenols and EOC risk in a large prospective study. The study was conducted in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which included 309,129 adult women recruited mostly from the general population. Polyphenol intake was assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 1469 first incident EOC cases (including 806 serous, 129 endometrioid, 102 mucinous, and 67 clear cell tumours) were identified. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, the hazard ratio in the highest quartile of total polyphenol intake compared with the lowest quartile (HR) was 1.14 (95% CI 0.94-1.39; -trend = 0.11). Similarly, the intake of most classes and subclasses of polyphenols were not related to either overall EOC risk or any EOC subtype. A borderline statistically significant positive association was observed between phenolic acid intake (HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.43; -trend = 0.02) and EOC risk, especially for the serous subtype and in women with obesity, although these associations did not exceed the Bonferroni correction threshold. The current results do not support any association between polyphenol intake and EOC in our large European prospective study. Results regarding phenolic acid intake need further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8389235PMC
August 2021

Pediatric admissions to emergency departments of North-Western Italy during COVID-19 pandemic: A retrospective observational study.

Lancet Reg Health Eur 2021 Jun 18;5:100081. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Pediatric Emergency, Regina Margherita Children's Hospital - A.O.U. Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Piazza Polonia 94, 10126 Turin, Italy.

Background: COVID-19 pandemic caused huge decrease of pediatric admissions to Emergency Department (ED), arising concerns about possible delays in diagnosis and treatment of severe disorders.

Methods: Impact of COVID-19 on Pediatric Emergency Room (ICOPER) was a retrospective multicentre observational study including 23 Italian EDs.All the children <18 years admitted, between March 9th and May 3rd 2020 stratified by age, priority code, cause of admission and outcome have been included and compared to those admitted in the same period of 2019.Our objectives were to assess the characteristics of pediatric admissions to EDs since COVID-19 outbreak until the end of lockdown, and to describe the features of critical children.

Findings: 16,426 children were admitted in 2020, compared to 55,643 in 2019 (-70·48%). Higher reduction was reported in hospitals without Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) (-73·38%) than in those with PICU (-64·08%) (<0·0001). Admissions with low priority decreased more than critical ones (-82·77% vs. 44·17% respectively; <0·0001). Reduction of discharged patients was observed both in hospitals with (-66·50%) and without PICU (-74·65%) (<0·0001). No difference in the duration of symptoms before admission was reported between 2019 and 2020, with the majority of children accessing within 24 h (55·08% vs. 57·28% respectively;  = 0·2344).

Interpretation: Admissions with low priority decreased significantly more than those with high priority; we suppose that the fear of being infected in hospital maybe overcame the concerns of caregivers. Compared to 2019, no significant referral delay by caregivers was reported. Our data suggest the need of adaptation of EDs and primary care services to different needs of children during COVID-9 pandemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lanepe.2021.100081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969147PMC
June 2021

Impact of different work organizational models on gender differences in exposure to psychosocial and ergonomic hazards at work and in mental and physical health.

Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2021 Nov 29;94(8):1889-1904. Epub 2021 May 29.

Epidemiology Unit, Piedmont Region, ASL TO3, Grugliasco, Turin, Italy.

Purpose: To examine differences between genders in exposure to psychosocial and ergonomic factors at work and in work-related health, according to different work organization models.

Methods: The study population included a sample of 9749 (women: 37.1%) and 10,374 (women: 39.9%) employees who participated in the 2010 and 2015 European Working Conditions Surveys, respectively. Multiple Correspondence Analysis was applied to work characteristics reported by workers to estimate principal components, followed by Hierarchical Clustering on principal components to identify clusters of work organization models. Gender differences in exposure to work hazards and health outcomes were assessed through Poisson robust regression. Differences of PRs across organizational models were tested through interaction between gender and type of work organization.

Results: Three organizational models were identified in 2010, including lean production, Tayloristic production, and a "reflexive production" model, whereas in 2015, a "simple" or traditional model was also found. In 2010, women employed in companies adopting the Tayloristic or the lean production models were more likely than men to be exposed to unfavourable psychosocial and physical work factors, and to report musculoskeletal pain, compared to those belonging to reflexive production. In 2015, a significantly higher female/male ratio persisted in lean production for exposure to high job strain and for carrying/moving heavy loads, whereas gender differences in Tayloristic and traditional production were quite similar to those of reflexive production.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that employment in workplaces characterized by lower monotony, repetitiveness, and production constraints may contribute to reduce exposure to job strain among working women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-021-01720-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8490231PMC
November 2021

Are antigenic tests useful for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infections in patients accessing to emergency departments? Results from a North-West Italy hospital.

J Infect 2021 08 21;83(2):237-279. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Clinical and Biological Science, University of Turin, Regione Gonzole 10, Orbassano 10043, Italy; Epidemiology Unit, Regional Health Service ASL TO3, Grugliasco. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2021.05.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139186PMC
August 2021

Novel Biomarkers of Habitual Alcohol Intake and Associations with Risk of Pancreatic and Liver Cancers and Liver Disease Mortality.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Alcohol is an established risk factor for several cancers, but modest alcohol-cancer associations may be missed due to measurement error in self-reported assessments. Biomarkers of habitual alcohol intake may provide novel insight into the relationship between alcohol and cancer risk.

Methods: Untargeted metabolomics was used to identify metabolites correlated with self-reported habitual alcohol intake in a discovery dataset from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; n = 454). Statistically significant correlations were tested in independent datasets of controls from case-control studies nested within EPIC (n = 280) and the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC; n = 438) study. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of alcohol-associated metabolites and self-reported alcohol intake with risk of pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver cancer, and liver disease mortality in the contributing studies.

Results: Two metabolites displayed a dose-response association with self-reported alcohol intake 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid and an unidentified compound. A 1-SD (log2) increase in levels of 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid was associated with risk of HCC (OR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.51-4.27) and pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.03-1.99) in EPIC and liver cancer (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.44-2.77) and liver disease mortality (OR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.63-2.86) in ATBC. Conversely, a 1-SD (log2) increase in questionnaire-derived alcohol intake was not associated with HCC or pancreatic cancer in EPIC or liver cancer in ATBC but was associated with liver disease mortality (OR = 2.19; 95% CI = 1.60-2.98) in ATBC.

Conclusions: 2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid is a candidate biomarker of habitual alcohol intake that may advance the study of alcohol and cancer risk in population-based studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab078DOI Listing
May 2021

A Prospective Diet-Wide Association Study for Risk of Colorectal Cancer in EPIC.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Background & Aims: Evidence regarding the association of dietary exposures with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is not consistent with a few exceptions. Therefore, we conducted a diet-wide association study (DWAS) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the associations between several dietary exposures with CRC risk.

Methods: The association of 92 food and nutrient intakes with CRC risk was assessed in 386,792 participants, 5069 of whom developed incident CRC. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate, and emerging associations were examined in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Multiplicative gene-nutrient interactions were also tested in EPIC based on known CRC-associated loci.

Results: In EPIC, alcohol, liquor/spirits, wine, beer/cider, soft drinks, and pork were positively associated with CRC, whereas milk, cheese, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin B6, beta carotene, fruit, fiber, nonwhite bread, banana, and total protein intakes were inversely associated. Of these 20 associations, 13 were replicated in the NLCS, for which a meta-analysis was performed, namely alcohol (summary hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD increment in intake: 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.09), liquor/spirits (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), wine (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07), beer/cider (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08), milk (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), cheese (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), calcium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), phosphorus (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), magnesium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98), potassium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), riboflavin (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97), beta carotene (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), and total protein (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97). None of the gene-nutrient interactions were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons.

Conclusions: Our findings confirm a positive association for alcohol and an inverse association for dairy products and calcium with CRC risk, and also suggest a lower risk at higher dietary intakes of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, beta carotene, and total protein.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2021.04.028DOI Listing
April 2021

Psychological distress in the academic population and its association with socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown: Results from a large multicenter Italian study.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(3):e0248370. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Measures implemented in many countries to contain the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a change in lifestyle with unpredictable consequences on physical and mental health. We aimed at identifying the variables associated with psychological distress during the lockdown between April and May 2020 in the Italian academic population. We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional online survey (IO CONTO 2020) within five Italian universities. Among about 240,000 individuals invited to participate through institutional communications, 18 120 filled the questionnaire. Psychological distress was measured by the self-administered Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The covariates collected included demographic and lifestyle characteristics, trust in government, doctors and scientists. Associations of covariates with influenza-like symptoms or positive COVID-19 test and with psychological distress were assessed by multiple regression models at the local level; a meta-analysis of the results was then performed. Severe levels of anxiety or depression were reported by 20% of the sample and were associated with being a student or having a lower income, irrespective of their health condition and worries about contracting the virus. The probability of being severely anxious or depressed also depended on physical activity: compared to those never exercising, the highest OR being for those who stopped during lockdown (1.53; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.84) and the lowest for those who continued (0.78; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.95). Up to 21% of severe cases of anxiety or depression might have been avoided if during lockdown participants had continued to exercise as before. Socioeconomic insecurity contributes to increase mental problems related to the COVID-19 pandemic and to the measures to contain it. Maintaining or introducing an adequate level of physical activity is likely to mitigate such detrimental effects. Promoting safe practice of physical activity should remain a public health priority to reduce health risks during the pandemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248370PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946293PMC
April 2021

Lifetime alcohol intake, drinking patterns over time and risk of stomach cancer: A pooled analysis of data from two prospective cohort studies.

Int J Cancer 2021 06 22;148(11):2759-2773. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens, Greece.

Alcohol consumption is causally linked to several cancers but the evidence for stomach cancer is inconclusive. In our study, the association between long-term alcohol intake and risk of stomach cancer and its subtypes was evaluated. We performed a pooled analysis of data collected at baseline from 491 714 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for incident stomach cancer in relation to lifetime alcohol intake and group-based life course intake trajectories, adjusted for potential confounders including Helicobacter pylori infection. In all, 1225 incident stomach cancers (78% noncardia) were diagnosed over 7 094 637 person-years; 984 in 382 957 study participants with lifetime alcohol intake data (5 455 507 person-years). Although lifetime alcohol intake was not associated with overall stomach cancer risk, we observed a weak positive association with noncardia cancer (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06 per 10 g/d increment), with a HR of 1.50 (95% CI: 1.08-2.09) for ≥60 g/d compared to 0.1 to 4.9 g/d. A weak inverse association with cardia cancer (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-1.00) was also observed. HRs of 1.48 (95% CI: 1.10-1.99) for noncardia and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.26-1.03) for cardia cancer were observed for a life course trajectory characterized by heavy decreasing intake compared to light stable intake (P = .02). These associations did not differ appreciably by smoking or H pylori infection status. Limiting alcohol use during lifetime, particularly avoiding heavy use during early adulthood, might help prevent noncardia stomach cancer. Heterogeneous associations observed for cardia and noncardia cancers may indicate etiologic differences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33504DOI Listing
June 2021

"Journey of hope": a study on sexual gender-based violence reported by asylum-seeking women during their journey to Europe.

Epidemiol Prev 2020 Sep-Dec;44(5-6 Suppl 1):102-106

joint last authors.

Objectives: to describe sexual gender-based violence (SGBV) reported by asylum-seeking women during their journey from their country of origin to Italy, using data obtained from medical record of asylum seekers hosted between June 2016 and December 2017 at the "T. Fenoglio" Red Cross Reception Centre, one of the largest Italian regional hubs; to evaluate if, based on these data, it is possible to hypothesize an underreporting of SGBV from these women.

Design: cross-sectional study.

Setting And Participants: 2,484 asylum-seeking females hosted in the centre for initial-reception of Piedmont and Valle d'Aosta regions (Northern Italy) between June 2016 and December 2017.

Main Outcome Measures: prevalence of SGBV.

Results: among the women arrived at the centre, 46 reported being victim of SGBV during their journey to Italy (prevalence: 1.85%; 95%CI 1.39-2.46), 37 of which with reliable and verified data supported by health certification documentation (prevalence: 1.49%; 95%CI 1.08-2.05). Women who suffered SGBV have a higher prevalence of diseases than their counterpart (more blood, digestive, neurological, psychological, genital diseases, and AIDS), are more frequently pregnant, and asked more frequently for a voluntary interruption of pregnancy.

Conclusions: the low prevalence of SGBV identified suggests that underreporting and under-recognition of the phenomenon are possible. This highlights the need to offer a psychological support to all migrant women at their arrival in the Italian hubs, also when they do not report violence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19191/EP20.5-6.S1.P102.079DOI Listing
June 2021

[Health of vulnerable populations: a reading path].

Authors:
Fulvio Ricceri

Epidemiol Prev 2020 Sep-Dec;44(5-6 Suppl 1):5-7

Servizio sovrazonale di epidemiologia, ASL TO3, Grugliasco (TO).

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19191/EP20.5-6.S1.P005.065DOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical characteristics and management of COVID-19 patients accessing the emergency department in a hospital in Northern Italy in March and April 2020.

Epidemiol Prev 2020 Sep-Dec;44(5-6 Suppl 2):208-215

Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin (Italy);

Background: the emergency due to SARS-CoV-2 pandemic struck the national and regional health system that needed an effort to reorganise and increase resources to cope with a sudden, uncertain, and previously unknown situation. This study was conducted in the immediate aftermath of this difficult period.

Objectives: to describe clinical characteristics, short-term outcomes, and management of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients that accessed the emergency department (ED) of the San Luigi Gonzaga hospital of Orbassano (Turin district, Piedmont Region, Northern Italy) in March and April 2020. Furthermore, this study aimed at investigating if a difference in patients characteristics, clinical management, and outcomes was present during time.

Design: comparison of different periods in a clinical cohort.

Setting And Participants: for each patient who accessed the ED and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 swab, the ED medical record was collected and a descriptive analysis was performed on demographical characteristics, pre-existing comorbidities, parameters measured at triage, imaging exams results, lab tests results, separately for patients admitted at the ED in four different periods.

Main Outcome Measures: discharge from ED, admission to hospital wards (low and high intensity of care), short term in-hospital mortality, hospital length of stay. The association between patients' characteristics and the main outcomes was measured using multivariable logistic models.

Results: age of patients increased significantly from March to April, together with female prevalence and associated comorbid conditions. A significant difference in symptoms at presentation was not observed nor it was in laboratory test results. Severity at triage and need of intensive care resources were higher in the first weeks, together with the typical clinical presentation with respiratory failure and imaging with signs of bilateral interstitial pneumonia. Accordingly, in-hospital mortality was higher in the first period. Nevertheless, nearly half of patients in the first period were discharged directly from ED showing mild COVID-19 cases. On the contrary, in April an increasing need of hospitalisation in low intensity of care beds was observed, whereas mild cases stopped to access the ED.

Conclusions: the results of this study suggest that in few weeks of COVID-19 epidemic both management of the patients at the hospital level - and probably at territorial level resulting in a different population who accessed to the ED - and the clinical characteristics of the COVID-19 patients changed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19191/EP20.5-6.S2.120DOI Listing
January 2021

Risk Prediction for Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Prospective Cohort Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 03 17;30(3):507-512. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Early detection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has the potential to improve disease outcomes. No screening program for sporadic RCC is in place. Given relatively low incidence, screening would need to focus on people at high risk of clinically meaningful disease so as to limit overdiagnosis and screen-detected false positives.

Methods: Among 192,172 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (including 588 incident RCC cases), we evaluated a published RCC risk prediction model (including age, sex, BMI, and smoking status) in terms of discrimination (C-statistic) and calibration (observed probability as a function of predicted probability). We used a flexible parametric survival model to develop an expanded model including age, sex, BMI, and smoking status, with the addition of self-reported history of hypertension and measured blood pressure.

Results: The previously published model yielded well-calibrated probabilities and good discrimination (C-statistic [95% CI]: 0.699 [0.679-0.721]). Our model had slightly improved discrimination (0.714 [0.694-0.735], bootstrap optimism-corrected C-statistic: 0.709). Despite this good performance, predicted risk was low for the vast majority of participants, with 70% of participants having 10-year risk less than 0.0025.

Conclusions: Although the models performed well for the prediction of incident RCC, they are currently insufficiently powerful to identify individuals at substantial risk of RCC in a general population.

Impact: Despite the promising performance of the EPIC RCC risk prediction model, further development of the model, possibly including biomarkers of risk, is required to enable risk stratification of RCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1438DOI Listing
March 2021

Lifetime Duration of Exposure to Biomechanical Factors at Work as a Mediator of the Relationship Between Socioeconomic Position and Walking Speed.

Front Public Health 2020 12;8:412. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Inserm, Population-Based Epidemiologic Cohorts Unit, UMS 011, Paris, France.

The study aimed to assess the proportion mediated by the duration of exposure to ergonomic factors at work on the relationship between socioeconomic position (SEP) and low walking speed. This cross-sectional study was performed on data collected at baseline on 19,704 men and 20,273 women 45-70 years old, currently or previously employed, enrolled in the Constances cohort. SEP was assigned through current or last occupation, categorized in three classes, based on the European Socioeconomic Classification. Walking speed was assessed through one measurement of normal walking for 3 m and dichotomized at the lowest quintile of the sex- and age- (5-year) specific distribution. Self-reported workplace exposure throughout working life to repetitive work, intense physical work, and lifting/carrying heavy loads was used to assess the duration of exposure to each factor, categorized in four classes. Through Poisson regression models, adjusted for BMI, smoking, alcohol intake, hypertension, physical activity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and a cognitive score, the attenuation in the prevalence ratio (PR) of low walking speed by SEP produced by the inclusion of duration of exposure to each factor was evaluated. The mediating effect of work ergonomic exposures on the relationship between SEP and low walking speed was assessed using the weighted method by Vanderweele. In the fully adjusted model without ergonomic exposures, both men and women in the middle and the lowest SEP had a significantly increased risk of low walking speed compared with those in the highest SEP (men: PR = 1.30 and PR = 1.46, respectively; women: PR = 1.24 and PR = 1.45, respectively). The inclusion in separate regression models of exposure duration to repetitive work, intense physical work, and handling of heavy loads produced modest risk attenuations in both men and women, all smaller or around 10%. Mediation analysis revealed in both sexes significant mediation effects for most ergonomic exposures considered, although also with low mediation effects. Significant differences in walking speed by SEP were observed in this large sample, but the proportion of such differences explained by the duration of exposure to ergonomic factors at work was low using either the risk attenuation or the mediation analysis methods.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7689267PMC
May 2021

Plasma Vitamin C and Type 2 Diabetes: Genome-Wide Association Study and Mendelian Randomization Analysis in European Populations.

Diabetes Care 2021 01 17;44(1):98-106. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program and Translational Research Laboratory; Catalan Institute of Oncology - ICO, Group of Research on Nutrition and Cancer, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet of Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: Higher plasma vitamin C levels are associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk, but whether this association is causal is uncertain. To investigate this, we studied the association of genetically predicted plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes.

Research Design And Methods: We conducted genome-wide association studies of plasma vitamin C among 52,018 individuals of European ancestry to discover novel genetic variants. We performed Mendelian randomization analyses to estimate the association of genetically predicted differences in plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes in up to 80,983 case participants and 842,909 noncase participants. We compared this estimate with the observational association between plasma vitamin C and incident type 2 diabetes, including 8,133 case participants and 11,073 noncase participants.

Results: We identified 11 genomic regions associated with plasma vitamin C ( < 5 × 10), with the strongest signal at , and 10 novel genetic loci including , , , , , , , , , and . Plasma vitamin C was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per SD 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94), but there was no association between genetically predicted plasma vitamin C (excluding variant due to its apparent pleiotropic effect) and type 2 diabetes (1.03; 95% CI 0.96, 1.10).

Conclusions: These findings indicate discordance between biochemically measured and genetically predicted plasma vitamin C levels in the association with type 2 diabetes among European populations. The null Mendelian randomization findings provide no strong evidence to suggest the use of vitamin C supplementation for type 2 diabetes prevention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783939PMC
January 2021

Exposure to occupational hazards and risk of sinonasal epithelial cancer: results from an extended Italian case-control study.

Occup Environ Med 2020 Oct 28. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

University of Oriental Piedmont, Department of Translational Medicine, Novara, Italy.

Objectives: There is sufficient evidence for a causal association of sinonasal epithelial cancers (SNEC) only for exposure to wood and leather dusts, nickel compounds and employment in isopropyl alcohol production. The aim of this study was to assess whether other occupational hazards are associated with the risk of SNEC for the main histologic types, namely adenocarcinoma (AD) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).

Methods: The study population included 375 incident SNEC cases collected from 1996 to 2014 (79% of all diagnosed SNEC) throughout the Piedmont region by the regional Sinonasal Cancer Registry, and 408 hospital controls. Exposure to 17 occupational agents was assigned through expert assessment based on interviews to the subjects on jobs held throughout their working life. The relationship of SNEC with ever and cumulative exposure to the hazards was assessed through unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, area of residence, smoking habit, year of enrolment and coexposures.

Results: AD was associated with both ever and cumulative exposure to wood dust, leather dust and organic solvents, and with cumulative exposure to textiles dusts. SCC risk was significantly increased by ever exposure to nickel, chromium and welding fumes, as well as by cumulative exposure to welding fumes, arsenic and organic solvents. A mixed group of other histological types was associated with both ever and cumulative exposure to wood dust and textile dusts.

Conclusions: The associations of SNEC with wood dust, leather dust and nickel were confirmed, while some new associations were observed for other hazards, which merit further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2020-106738DOI Listing
October 2020

Pregnancy outcomes and risk of endometrial cancer: A pooled analysis of individual participant data in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium.

Int J Cancer 2021 05 17;148(9):2068-2078. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Orbassano, Italy.

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969437PMC
May 2021

Macronutrient composition of the diet and long-term changes in weight and waist circumference in the EPIC-Italy cohort.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 01 15;31(1):67-75. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Background And Aims: The overall macronutrient composition of diet, rather than just calorie intake, may influence long-term changes of anthropometry. We investigated relationships between dietary macronutrient composition and long-term changes in weight and waist circumference in participants of the EPIC-Italy - the Italian section of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition - study.

Methods And Results: A total of 32,119 participants provided anthropometric measures at recruitment and 12 years later (mean). Diet at recruitment was assessed using validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Weight and waist changes associated with replacing 10% of energy from one macronutrient with 10% of energy from another macronutrient were assessed by multivariable linear regression. Increased energy from total protein at the expense of any other macronutrient was significantly associated with increased weight and waist circumference. Increased starch at the expense of sugar and total protein was associated with significantly decreased weight and waist circumference; when starch replaced total fat, weight significantly decreased. Increased sugar at the expense of starch and total fat was significantly associated with increased weight and waist circumference; but increase at the expense of total protein was significantly associated with decreased weight and waist circumference.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that increasing protein at the expense of fat or carbohydrates, and reducing starch by increasing other macronutrients, might be associated with increased weight and waist gain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2020.08.007DOI Listing
January 2021

Blood polyphenol concentrations and differentiated thyroid carcinoma in women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Oct 6. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Background: Polyphenols are natural compounds with anticarcinogenic properties in cellular and animal models, but epidemiological evidence determining the associations of these compounds with thyroid cancer (TC) is lacking.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations between blood concentrations of 36 polyphenols and TC risk in EPIC (the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition).

Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted on 273 female cases (210 papillary, 45 follicular, and 18 not otherwise specified TC tumors) and 512 strictly matched controls. Blood polyphenol concentrations were analyzed by HPLC coupled to tandem MS after enzymatic hydrolysis.

Results: Using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models, caffeic acid (ORlog2: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.93) and its dehydrogenated metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (ORlog2: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.99), were inversely associated with differentiated TC risk. Similar results were observed for papillary TC, but not for follicular TC. Ferulic acid was also inversely associated only with papillary TC (ORlog2: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.91). However, none of these relations was significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. No association was observed for any of the remaining polyphenols with total differentiated, papillary, or follicular TC.

Conclusions: Blood polyphenol concentrations were mostly not associated with differentiated TC risk in women, although our study raises the possibility that high blood concentrations of caffeic, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic, and ferulic acids may be related to a lower papillary TC risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7779226PMC
October 2020

Comparing Calculated Nutrient Intakes Using Different Food Composition Databases: Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohort.

Nutrients 2020 Sep 23;12(10). Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Nutrition and Metabolism Section, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, CEDEX 08, 69372 Lyon, France.

This study aimed to compare calculated nutrient intakes from two different food composition databases using data from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Dietary intake data of the EPIC cohort was recently matched to 150 food components from the U.S. nutrient database (USNDB). Twenty-eight of these nutrients were already included in the EPIC nutrient database (ENDB-based upon country specific food composition tables), and used for comparison. Paired sample t-tests, Pearson's correlations (r), weighted kappa's (κ) and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare the dietary intake of 28 nutrients estimated by the USNDB and the ENDB for 476,768 participants. Small but significant differences were shown between the USNDB and the ENDB for energy and macronutrient intakes. Moderate to very strong correlations (r = 0.60-1.00) were found for all macro- and micronutrients. A strong agreement (κ > 0.80) was found for energy, water, total fat, carbohydrates, sugar, alcohol, potassium and vitamin C, whereas a weak agreement (κ < 0.60) was found for starch, vitamin D and vitamin E. Dietary intakes estimated via the USNDB compare adequately with those obtained via the ENDB for most macro- and micronutrients, although the agreement was weak for starch, vitamin D and vitamin E. The USNDB will allow exposure assessments for 150 nutrients to investigate associations with disease outcomes within the EPIC cohort.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12102906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7650652PMC
September 2020

Segmental Colonic Resection Is a Safe and Effective Treatment Option for Colon Cancer of the Splenic Flexure: A Nationwide Retrospective Study of the Italian Society of Surgical Oncology-Colorectal Cancer Network Collaborative Group.

Dis Colon Rectum 2020 10;63(10):1372-1382

Colon and Rectal Surgery Division, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

Background: Global experience with splenic flexure cancer is limited because of its low incidence. Both limited (segmental) and extended resections are performed, because agreement on which is the adequate procedure has not been reached.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether segmental resection is as safe and effective as extended resection.

Design: This nationwide retrospective cohort study included all consecutive resections of splenic flecure cancer between January 2006 and December 2016 using data from the National Colorectal Cancer Network of the Italian Society of Surgical Oncology following the guidelines set out in the STROBE statement.

Setting: Data were obtained for 31 Italian Referral Centers for Colorectal Surgery.

Patients: A total of 1304 patients were submitted to resection of the splenic flexure (n = 791, 60.7%) or extended procedures (extended right and left colectomies; n = 513, 39.3%).

Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated Clavien-Dindo ≥3 postoperative complications and oncological (number of lymph nodes removed, length of free proximal and distal margins, rate of R0 resections) and survival outcomes.

Results: The 2 arms were well balanced in regard to sex, BMI, ASA and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scores, and disease stage. Limited resection was performed more frequently using a minimally invasive approach (62.1% vs 50.9%, p < 0.001) and with shorter operation times than extended procedures (165 vs 189 minutes, p < 0.001), but the same Clavien-Dindo ≥3 postoperative complications (6.44% vs 6.43%, p = 0.99), 30-day mortality (0.63% vs 0.38%), oncological outcomes, and survival rates (5-year overall survival 0.84 vs 0.83, 5-year progression-free survival 0.85 vs 0.84).

Limitations: There are limitations inherent to the retrospective nature of the study and a potential lack of consistency in treatment across centers over time. Indications as to why a specific operation was chosen were based mostly on surgeons' beliefs.

Conclusions: Segmental resection is a safe and effective treatment option for cancer of the splenic flexure. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B307. LA RESECCIÓN DE COLON SEGMENTARIA ES UNA OPCIÓN DE TRATAMIENTO SEGURA Y EFICAZ PARA EL CÁNCER DE COLON DE LA FLEXIÓN ESPLÉNICA: UN ESTUDIO RETROSPECTIVO A NIVEL NACIONAL DE LA SOCIEDAD ITALIANA DE ONCOLOGÍA QUIRÚRGICA - GRUPO COLABORATIVO RED DE CÁNCER COLORRECTAL: La experiencia global con el cáncer de flexión esplénica es limitada debido a su baja incidencia. Se realizan resecciones limitadas (segmentarias) y extendidas, ya que no se ha llegado a un acuerdo sobre cuál es el procedimiento adecuado.El propósito de este estudio fue investigar si la resección segmentaria es tan segura y efectiva como la resección extendida.Este estudio de cohorte retrospectivo a nivel nacional incluyó todas las resecciones consecutivas de cáncer de flecura esplénica entre enero de 2006 y diciembre de 2016 utilizando datos de la Red Nacional de Cáncer Colorrectal de la Sociedad Italiana de Oncología Quirúrgica siguiendo las pautas establecidas en la declaración STROBE.Se obtuvieron datos para 31 centros de referencia italianos para cirugía colorrectal.Un total de 1304 pacientes fueron sometidos a resección de la flexión esplénica (n = 791, 60.7%) o procedimientos extendidos (colectomías extendidas derecha e izquierda; n = 513, 39.3%).Evaluamos Clavien-Dindo ≥3 complicaciones postoperatorias y oncológicas (número de ganglios linfáticos extirpados, longitud de márgenes proximales y distales libres, tasa de resecciones R0) y resultados de supervivencia.Los dos brazos estaban bien equilibrados en cuanto a sexo, IMC, ASA y puntajes ECOG, y etapa de la enfermedad. La resección limitada se realizó con mayor frecuencia utilizando un enfoque mínimamente invasivo (62.1% versus 50,9%, p < 0.001) y con tiempos de operación más cortos que los procedimientos extendidos (165 min versus 189 min, p <0.001), pero el mismo Clavien-Dindo ≥3 complicaciones postoperatorias (6,44% versus 6,43%, p = 0.99), mortalidad a los 30 días (0,63% versus 0,38%), resultados oncológicos y tasas de supervivencia (5-y OS 0,84 versus 0,83, 5-PFS 0,85 versus 0,84).Existen limitaciones inherentes a la naturaleza retrospectiva del estudio y una posible falta de consistencia en el tratamiento entre centros a lo largo del tiempo. Las indicaciones de por qué se eligió una operación específica se basaron principalmente en crieterios de los cirujanos.La resección segmentaria es una opción de tratamiento segura y efectiva para el cáncer de la flexión esplénica. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B307. (Traducción-Dr. Adrian Ortega).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000001743DOI Listing
October 2020

Patterning of educational attainment across inflammatory markers: Findings from a multi-cohort study.

Brain Behav Immun 2020 11 10;90:303-310. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

UMR1027, Université de Toulouse, UPS, Inserm, Toulouse, France. Electronic address:

Background: Evidence suggests that the inflammatory reaction, an adaptive response triggered by a variety of harmful stimuli and conditions involved in the risk and development of many chronic diseases, is a potential pathway through which the socioeconomic environment is biologically embedded. Difficulty in interpreting the role of the inflammatory system in the embodiment dynamic arises because of heterogeneity across studies that use a limited but varied number of inflammatory markers. There is no consensus in the literature as to which inflammatory markers beyond the C-reactive protein and to a lesser extent interleukin 6 are related to the social environment. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate the association between educational attainment, and several markers of inflammation - C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin 6, interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α- in 6 European cohort studies.

Methods: Up to 17,470 participants from six European cohort studies with data on educational attainment, health behaviors and lifestyle factors, and at least two different inflammatory markers. Four sub-datasets were drawn with varying numbers of participants to allow pairwise comparison of the social patterning of C-reactive protein and any other inflammatory markers. To evaluate within each sub-dataset the importance of the context and cohort specificities, linear regression-based analyses were performed separately for each cohort and combined in a random effect meta-analysis to determine the relationship between educational attainment and inflammation.

Results: We found that the magnitude of the relationship between educational attainment and five inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin 6 and 1β and tumor necrosis factor α) was variable. By far the most socially patterned biomarker was C-reactive protein, followed by fibrinogen and to lesser extent interleukin 6, where a low educational attainment was associated with higher inflammation even after adjusting for health behaviours and body mass index. No association was found with interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α.

Conclusions: Our study suggests different educational patterning of inflammatory biomarkers. Further large-scale research is needed to explore social differences in the inflammatory cascade in greater detail and the extent to which these differences contribute to social inequalities in health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.09.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140486PMC
November 2020

Mediating effect of soluble B-cell activation immune markers on the association between anthropometric and lifestyle factors and lymphoma development.

Sci Rep 2020 08 14;10(1):13814. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80178, 3508 TD, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Sustained B-cell activation is an important mechanism contributing to B-cell lymphoma (BCL). We aimed to validate four previously reported B-cell activation markers predictive of BCL risk (sCD23, sCD27, sCD30, and CXCL13) and to examine their possible mediating effects on the association between anthropometric and lifestyle factors and major BCL subtypes. Pre-diagnostic serum levels were measured for 517 BCL cases and 525 controls in a nested case-control study. The odds ratios of BCL were 6.2 in the highest versus lowest quartile for sCD23, 2.6 for sCD30, 4.2 for sCD27, and 2.6 for CXCL13. Higher levels of all markers were associated with increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Following mutual adjustment for the other immune markers, sCD23 remained associated with all subtypes and CXCL13 with FL and DLBCL. The associations of sCD23 with CLL and DLBCL and CXCL13 with DLBCL persisted among cases sampled > 9 years before diagnosis. sCD23 showed a good predictive ability (area under the curve = 0.80) for CLL, in particular among older, male participants. sCD23 and CXCL13 showed a mediating effect between body mass index (positive) and DLBCL risk, while CXCL13 contributed to the association between physical activity (inverse) and DLBCL. Our data suggest a role of B-cell activation in BCL development and a mediating role of the immune system for lifestyle factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70790-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429856PMC
August 2020

Is caregiver quality of life predicted by their perceived burden? A cross-sectional study of family caregivers of people with spinal cord injuries.

Spinal Cord 2021 Feb 4;59(2):185-192. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Department of Public Health and Paediatric Sciences, University of Torino, Turin, Italy.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Objective: To identify predictors of quality of life (QoL) among family caregivers of people with spinal cord injuries (SCI), considering caregiver and care recipient characteristics, and to evaluate the predictive value of caregiver burden (CB) on the QoL of family caregivers.

Setting: Multicenter study in four spinal units across Italy.

Methods: Secondary analysis of the data obtained during the validation of the Italian version of the Caregiver Burden Inventory in Spinal Cord Injuries (CBI-SCI) questionnaire. In all, 176 family caregivers completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Short Form-36, the CBI-SCI, and the Modified Barthel Index. A first linear regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of each domain of caregiver QoL. A second linear regression analysis including CBI-SCI was then performed to evaluate the predictive value of CB on caregiver QoL.

Results: Participants reported reduced physical and mental QoL. Significant predictors of lower scores in physical dimensions of QoL were older age and female gender. Contextual factors following SCI, such as economic difficulties and the presence of a formal caregiver, significantly predicted emotional QoL in family caregivers. Identified predictors explained 13-32% of variance. CB was a significant predictor (p < 0.001) when added to all proposed models, increasing the explained variance from 7 to 26%.

Conclusion: Neither the clinical characteristics of, nor the relationship with care recipients predicted a worse caregiver QoL, whereas the CB did. The CB was a strong predictor of QoL among family caregivers and should be kept to a minimum to promote caregiver well-being.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41393-020-0528-1DOI Listing
February 2021

Citrus intake and risk of skin cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (EPIC).

Eur J Epidemiol 2020 Nov 24;35(11):1057-1067. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Citrus intake has been suggested to increase the risk of skin cancer. Although this relation is highly plausible biologically, epidemiologic evidence is lacking. We aimed to examine the potential association between citrus intake and skin cancer risk. EPIC is an ongoing multi-center prospective cohort initiated in 1992 and involving ~ 520,000 participants who have been followed-up in 23 centers from 10 European countries. Dietary data were collected at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During a mean follow-up of 13.7 years, 8448 skin cancer cases were identified among 270,112 participants. We observed a positive linear dose-response relationship between total citrus intake and skin cancer risk (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.18 in the highest vs. lowest quartile; P = 0.001), particularly with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (HR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.20, P = 0.007) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.47, P = 0.01). Citrus fruit intake was positively associated with skin cancer risk (HR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16, P = 0.01), particularly with melanoma (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48; P = 0.01), although with no heterogeneity across skin cancer types (P = 0.21). Citrus juice was positively associated with skin cancer risk (P = 0.004), particularly with BCC (P = 0.008) and SCC (P = 0.004), but not with melanoma (P = 0.02). Our study suggests moderate positive linear dose-response relationships between citrus intake and skin cancer risk. Studies with available biomarker data and the ability to examine sun exposure behaviors are warranted to clarify these associations and examine the phototoxicity mechanisms of furocoumarin-rich foods.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-020-00666-9DOI Listing
November 2020

Association of plasma biomarkers of fruit and vegetable intake with incident type 2 diabetes: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study in eight European countries.

BMJ 2020 07 8;370:m2194. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Objective: To investigate the association of plasma vitamin C and carotenoids, as indicators of fruit and vegetable intake, with the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Design: Prospective case-cohort study.

Setting: Populations from eight European countries.

Participants: 9754 participants with incident type 2 diabetes, and a subcohort of 13 662 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort of 340 234 participants: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

Main Outcome Measure: Incident type 2 diabetes.

Results: In a multivariable adjusted model, higher plasma vitamin C was associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 0.89). A similar inverse association was shown for total carotenoids (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.75, 0.68 to 0.82). A composite biomarker score (split into five equal groups), comprising vitamin C and individual carotenoids, was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes with hazard ratios 0.77, 0.66, 0.59, and 0.50 for groups 2-5 compared with group 1 (the lowest group). Self-reported median fruit and vegetable intake was 274 g/day, 396 g/day, and 508 g/day for participants in categories defined by groups 1, 3, and 5 of the composite biomarker score, respectively. One standard deviation difference in the composite biomarker score, equivalent to a 66 (95% confidence interval 61 to 71) g/day difference in total fruit and vegetable intake, was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.75 (0.67 to 0.83). This would be equivalent to an absolute risk reduction of 0.95 per 1000 person years of follow up if achieved across an entire population with the characteristics of the eight European countries included in this analysis.

Conclusions: These findings indicate an inverse association between plasma vitamin C, carotenoids, and their composite biomarker score, and incident type 2 diabetes in different European countries. These biomarkers are objective indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption, and suggest that diets rich in even modestly higher fruit and vegetable consumption could help to prevent development of type 2 diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341350PMC
July 2020

Special Report: The Biology of Inequalities in Health: The Lifepath Consortium.

Front Public Health 2020 12;8:118. Epub 2020 May 12.

Unit of Population Epidemiology, Division of Primary Care, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

Funded by the European Commission Horizon 2020 programme, the research consortium aimed to investigate the effects of socioeconomic inequalities on the biology of healthy aging. The main research questions included the impact of inequalities on health, the role of behavioral and other risk factors, the underlying biological mechanisms, the efficacy of selected policies, and the general implications of our findings for theories and policies. The project adopted a life-course and comparative approach, considering lifetime effects from childhood and adulthood, and pooled data on up to 1.7 million participants of longitudinal cohort studies from Europe, USA, and Australia. These data showed that socioeconomic circumstances predicted mortality and functional decline as strongly as established risk factors currently targeted by global prevention programmes. Analyses also looked at socioeconomically patterned biological markers, allostatic load, and DNA methylation using richly phenotyped cohorts, unraveling their association with aging processes across the life-course. studies suggest that socioeconomic circumstances are embedded in our biology from the outset-i.e., disadvantage influences biological systems from molecules to organs. Our findings have important implications for policy, suggesting that (a) intervening on unfavorable socioeconomic conditions is complementary and as important as targeting well-known risk factors, such as tobacco and alcohol consumption, low fruit and vegetable intake, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle, and that (b) effects of preventive interventions in early life integrate interventions in adulthood. The report has an executive summary that refers to the different sections of the main paper.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235337PMC
May 2021

Therapy With Agents Acting on the Renin-Angiotensin System and Risk of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 11;71(16):2291-2293

Epidemiology Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Locale TO3  , Regione Piemonte, Grugliasco, Italy.

Exposure to agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system was not associated with a risk increase of COVID-19 infection in 2 Italian matched case-control studies, 1 nested in hypertensive patients and the other in patients with cardiovascular diseases or diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7543878PMC
November 2020
-->