Publications by authors named "Fulai Liu"

49 Publications

Effects of Elevated CO and Heat on Wheat Grain Quality.

Authors:
Xizi Wang Fulai Liu

Plants (Basel) 2021 May 20;10(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Højbakkegård Allé 13, DK-2630 Tåstrup, Denmark.

Wheat is one of the most important staple foods in temperate regions and is in increasing demand in urbanizing and industrializing countries such as China. Enhancing yield potential to meet the population explosion around the world and maintaining grain quality in wheat plants under climate change are crucial for food security and human nutrition. Global warming resulting from greenhouse effect has led to more frequent occurrence of extreme climatic events. Elevated atmospheric CO concentration (eCO) along with rising temperature has a huge impact on ecosystems, agriculture and human health. There are numerous studies investigating the eCO and heatwaves effects on wheat growth and productivity, and the mechanisms behind. This review outlines the state-of-the-art knowledge regarding the effects of eCO and heat stress, individually and combined, on grain yield and grain quality in wheat crop. Strategies to enhance the resilience of wheat to future warmer and CO-enriched environment are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10051027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161111PMC
May 2021

Elevated CO2 modulates the effect of heat stress responses in Triticum aestivum by differential expression of isoflavone reductase-like (IRL) gene.

J Exp Bot 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Crop science, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Højbakkegård Allé, Taastrup, Denmark.

Two wheat genotypes forming high and low biomass (HB and LB), exhibiting differential expression of an isoflavone reductase-like (IRL) gene, and resulting in contrasting grain yield under heat stress field conditions, were analyzed in detail for their responses under controlled heat and elevated CO2 conditions. Significant differences in IRL expression between the two lines were hypothesized to be the basis of their differential performance under the tested conditions and their stress tolerance potential. By a holistic approach integrating advanced cell physiological phenotyping of the antioxidative and phytohormone system in spikes and leaves with measurements of ecophysiological and agronomic traits, the genetic differences of the genotypes in IRL expression were assessed. In response to heat and elevated CO2, the two genotypes showed opposite regulation of IRL expression, which was associated with cytokinin concentration, total flavonoid contents, activity of superoxide dismutase, antioxidant capacity and photosynthetic rate in leaves and cytokinin concentration and ascorbate peroxidase activity in spikes. Our study showed that IRL expression is associated with wheat yield performance under heat stress at anthesis, mediated by diverse physiological mechanisms. Hence, based on our results, the IRL gene is a promising candidate for developing genetic markers for breeding heat-tolerant wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erab247DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of biochar amendment and reduced irrigation on growth, physiology, water-use efficiency and nutrients uptake of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) on two different soil types.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 25;770:144769. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Plant and Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Højbakkegaard Alle 13, DK-2630 Taastrup, Denmark; Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

Biochar has shown beneficial effects in agricultural production, yet the combined effects of biochar and reduced irrigation on crop growth and water-use efficiency (WUE) in diverse soil types have not been fully explored. A split-root pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of addition of 2% softwood (SWB) and wheat straw biochar (WSB) on growth, physiology, WUE and nutrients uptake of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants grown in a Ferrosol and an Anthrosol, respectively, under three irrigation treatments. The plants were either irrigated daily to 90% of water-holding capacity (FI), or irrigated with 70% volume of water used for FI to the whole root-zone (DI) or alternately to half root-zone (PRD). The results showed that plants grown in Anthrosol possessed greater leaf gas exchange rates, dry biomass and WUE while lower nutrients content compared to those grown in Ferrosol. Despite a negative effect on plant N content and WUE, WSB addition increased water-holding capacity, consequently improved leaf gas exchange, water uptake, biomass and K content resulting in an improved in the leaf quality of tobacco as exemplified by an increased leaf K content and a more appropriate N to K stoichiometric ratio. However, these effects were not evident upon SWB addition. Moreover, these responses to biochar addition were stronger in Ferrosol than in Anthrosol might be associated with its lower pH. Compared to FI, PRD slightly reduced photosynthetic rate but significantly decreased stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and leaf area, leading to a significant increase in intrinsic, instantaneous and plant WUE. Additionally, PRD was superior over DI in improving yield, WUE, N uptake under a same irrigation volume. It was concluded that WSB combined with PRD could be a promising practice to synergistically improve tobacco yield, quality and WUE by improving soil hydro-physical properties and nutrients bioavailability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144769DOI Listing
May 2021

Relationship between endophytic microbial diversity and grain quality in wheat exposed to multi-generational CO elevation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 22;776:146029. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Science, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Højbakkegård Allé 13, DK-2630 Tåstrup, Denmark; Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education of China, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, China.

To explore the potential association between the diversity of endophytic microorganisms and modifications of grain quality in wheat exposed to multi-generational elevated CO concentration, the grain quality attributes and microbial diversity were tested after five generations successively grown in ambient CO concentration (F5_A, 400 μmol L) and elevated CO concentration (F5_E, 800 μmol L). Elevated CO concentration significantly increased the grain number and starch concentration, while decreased the grain protein concentration. Multi-generational exposure to elevated CO concentration also led to significant changes in grain amino acid concentration. In response to the elevated CO concentration, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Ralstonia, and Klebsiella were the dominant bacterial genera, while Penicillium, Cutaneotrichosporon, Fusarium, Sarocladium, Acremonium and Aspergillus were the dominant fungal genera in wheat grain. A significantly positive correlation was found between Pseudomonas, Penicillium and ratio of starch to protein concentration, implying that the multi-generational CO elevation induced modifications in grain quality might be associated with the changes in grain microbial diversity. The results of this study suggest that the endophytic microbes may play an important role in modulating the grain nutritional quality in wheat under multi-generational e[CO] exposure, through regulating starch and N metabolism and production of secondary metabolites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146029DOI Listing
July 2021

Domestic wastewater infiltration process in desert sandy soil and its irrigation prospect analysis.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 16;208:111419. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of All Materials Flux in Rivers, The Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:

Although domestic wastewater and its reclaimed water are alternative water resources in arid region, investigation of their negative effect must be done to prevent environmental pollution. In this paper, a short-term column experiment was conducted to simulate the infiltration process of wastewater in desert soil. Alfalfa was planted and irrigated with fresh water for control (CK), tertiary treated domestic wastewater (TTW), secondary treated domestic wastewater (STW) and raw domestic wastewater untreated (RW). The effect of wastewater application on desert soil, drainage and plant properties was evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated that the tested desert soil has no soil structure, organic matter, nor microbial community while possess high infiltration rate. The use of wastewater significantly improved plant growth, and the biomass of TTW, RW, STW were 5.5, 4.3, 2.9 times of CK. The infiltration rate of water in bare soil was high (high to low: TTW, CK, RW, STW), while plant growth reduced infiltration rate (ca. 40% with TTW and RW). Wastewater irrigation and plant growth decreased soil zeta potential, while increased formation of aggregates and bacterial abundance and diversity in soil. Top soil (0-30 cm) accumulation of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), organic matter and E. coli was evidenced and all could go down to deep soil and drainage with constant wastewater use. It was concluded that domestic wastewater had big potential in desert soil vegetation recovering and function restoration. Nevertheless, the N, salt, P and organic matter and E. coli in wastewater could give rise to desert soil and groundwater contamination if improper treatment was used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111419DOI Listing
January 2021

Interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and interleukin-17A as indicators reflecting clinical response to celecoxib in ankylosing spondylitis patients.

Ir J Med Sci 2021 May 21;190(2):631-638. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Engineering University, Handan, China.

Background: This study was to investigate the value of 10 serum inflammatory cytokines for predicting clinical response to celecoxib in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients.

Methods: Totally, 103 active AS patients who underwent celecoxib treatment for 12 weeks were enrolled. Then, pre-treatment serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-23, IL-32, ICAM-1, and VEGF were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Besides, the ASAS 20 response was assessed at week 2 (W2), week 6 (W6), and week 12 (W12). Based on the ASAS 20 response at W12, patients were divided into responders and non-responders.

Results: After celecoxib treatment, 53 (51.3%), 58 (56.3%), and 60 (58.3%) patients achieved ASAS 20 response at W2, W6, and W12, respectively. Furthermore, IL-1β (P = 0.019), IL-6 (P = 0.004), and IL-17A (P = 0.007) levels were higher, while TNF-α (P = 0.086), IL-8 (P = 0.143), IL-21 (P = 0.687), IL-23 (P = 0.329), IL-32 (P = 0.216), ICAM-1 (P = 0.119), and VEGF (P = 0.732) levels were similar in responders compared with non-responders. Subsequent multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that among these inflammatory cytokines, only IL-6 (P = 0.019) independently predicted higher ASAS 20 response to celecoxib at W12, and it had a fair value for predicting ASAS 20 response to celecoxib at W12 (area under the curve: 0.666, 95% confidence interval: 0.561-0.771) by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis.

Conclusion: Serum IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17A serve as indicators for predicting clinical response to celecoxib in AS patients, which may assist with the optimization of personalized treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11845-020-02366-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Activities of leaf and spike carbohydrate-metabolic and antioxidant enzymes are linked with yield performance in three spring wheat genotypes grown under well-watered and drought conditions.

BMC Plant Biol 2020 Aug 31;20(1):400. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Crop Science, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Højbakkegård Allé 13, 2630, Taastrup, Denmark.

Background: To improve our understanding about the physiological mechanism of grain yield reduction at anthesis, three spring wheat genotypes [L (advanced line), L (Vorobey) and L (Punjab-11)] having contrasting yield potential under drought in field were investigated under controlled greenhouse conditions, drought stress was imposed at anthesis stage by withholding irrigation until all plant available water was depleted, while well-watered control plants were kept at 95% pot water holding capacity.

Results: Compared to genotype L and L, pronounced decrease in grain number (NGS), grain yield (GY) and harvest index (HI) were found in genotype L, mainly due to its greater kernel abortion (KA) under drought. A significant positive correlation of leaf monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) with both NGS and HI was observed. In contrast, significant negative correlations of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and vacuolar invertase (vacInv) both within source and sink were found with NGS and HI. Likewise, a significant negative correlation of leaf abscisic acid (ABA) with NGS was noticed. Moreover, leaf aldolase and cell wall peroxidase (cwPOX) activities were significantly and positively associated with thousand kernel weight (TKW).

Conclusion: Distinct physiological markers correlating with yield traits and higher activity of leaf aldolase and cwPOX may be chosen as predictive biomarkers for higher TKW. Also, higher activity of MDHAR within the leaf can be selected as a predictive biomarker for higher NGS in wheat under drought. Whereas, lower activity of vacInv and GST both within leaf and spike can be selected as biomarkers for higher NGS and HI. The results highlighted the role of antioxidant and carbohydrate-metabolic enzymes in the modulation of source-sink balance in wheat crops, which could be used as bio-signatures for breeding and selection of drought-resilient wheat genotypes for a future drier climate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-020-02581-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7457523PMC
August 2020

Molecular Markers Associated with Agro-Physiological Traits under Terminal Drought Conditions in Bread Wheat.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Apr 30;21(9). Epub 2020 Apr 30.

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) km, 45, Carretera Mex-Veracruz, El-Batan, Texcoco CP 56237, Mexico.

Terminal drought stress poses a big challenge to sustain wheat grain production in rain-fed environments. This study aimed to utilize the genetically diverse pre-breeding lines for identification of genomic regions associated with agro-physiological traits at terminal stage drought stress in wheat. A total of 339 pre-breeding lines panel derived from three-way crosses of 'exotics × elite × elite' lines were evaluated in field conditions at Obregon, Mexico for two years under well irrigated as well as drought stress environments. Drought stress was imposed at flowering by skipping the irrigations at pre and post anthesis stage. Results revealed that drought significantly reduced grain yield (Y), spike length (SL), number of grains spikes (NGS) and thousand kernel weight (TKW), while kernel abortion (KA) was increased. Population structure analysis in this panel uncovered three sub-populations. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay was observed at 2.5 centimorgan (cM). The haplotypes-based genome wide association study (GWAS) identified significant associations of Y, SL, and TKW on three chromosomes; 4A (HB10.7), 2D (HB6.10) and 3B (HB8.12), respectively. Likewise, associations on chromosomes 6B (HB17.1) and 3A (HB7.11) were found for NGS while on chromosome 3A (HB7.12) for KA. The genomic analysis information generated in the study can be efficiently utilized to improve Y and/or related parameters under terminal stage drought stress through marker-assisted breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247584PMC
April 2020

FMCH001 Increases Water Use Efficiency via Growth Stimulation in Both Normal and Drought Conditions.

Front Plant Sci 2020 7;11:297. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Taastrup, Denmark.

Increasing agricultural losses due to biotic and abiotic stresses caused by climate change challenge food security worldwide. A promising strategy to sustain crop productivity under conditions of limited water availability is the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Here, the effects of spore forming (FMCH001) on growth and physiology of maize ( L. cv. Ronaldinho) under well-watered and drought stressed conditions were investigated. Pot experiments were conducted in the automated high-throughput phenotyping platform PhenoLab and under greenhouse conditions. Results of the PhenoLab experiments showed that plants inoculated with FMCH001 exhibited increased root dry weight (DW) and plant water use efficiency (WUE) compared to uninoculated plants. In greenhouse experiments, root and shoot DW significantly increased by more than 15% in inoculated plants compared to uninoculated control plants. Also, the WUE increased in FMCH001 plants up to 46% in both well-watered and drought stressed plants. Root and shoot activities of 11 carbohydrate and eight antioxidative enzymes were characterized in response to FMCH001 treatments. This showed a higher antioxidant activity of catalase (CAT) in roots of FMCH001 treated plants compared to uninoculated plants. The higher CAT activity was observed irrespective of the water regime. These findings show that seed coating with Gram positive spore forming could be used as biostimulants for enhancing plant WUE under both normal and drought stress conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7155768PMC
April 2020

Nano-ZnO-Induced Drought Tolerance Is Associated with Melatonin Synthesis and Metabolism in Maize.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jan 25;21(3). Epub 2020 Jan 25.

Key Laboratory of Mollisols Agroecology, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102, China.

The applications of ZnO nanoparticles in agriculture have largely contributed to crop growth regulation, quality enhancement, and induction of stress tolerance, while the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Herein, the involvement of melatonin synthesis and metabolism in the process of nano-ZnO induced drought tolerance was investigated in maize. Drought stress resulted in the changes of subcellular ultrastructure, the accumulation of malondialdehyde and osmolytes in leaf. The nano-ZnO (100 mg L) application promoted the melatonin synthesis and activated the antioxidant enzyme system, which alleviated drought-induced damage to mitochondria and chloroplast. These changes were associated with upregulation of the relative transcript abundance of , , , , , , , and induced by nano-ZnO application. It was suggested that modifications in endogenous melatonin synthesis were involved in the nano-ZnO induced drought tolerance in maize.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7037681PMC
January 2020

ABA-mediated modulation of elevated CO on stomatal response to drought.

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2020 08 11;56:174-180. Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Højbakkegaard Allé 13, DK-2630, Taastrup, Denmark; Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

Elevated atmospheric CO concentration (e[CO]) and soil water deficits have substantial effect on stomatal morphology and movement that regulate plant water relations and plant growth. e[CO] could alleviate the impact of drought stress, thus contributing to crop yield. Xylem-borne abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in regulating stomatal aperture serving as first line of defence against drought; whereas e[CO] may disrupt this fundamental drought adaptation mechanism by delaying the stomatal response to soil drying. We review the state-of-the-art knowledge on stomatal response to drought stress at e[CO] and discuss the role of ABA in mediating these responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2019.12.002DOI Listing
August 2020

Black Phosphorus-Based Semiconductor Heterojunctions for Photocatalytic Water Splitting.

Chemistry 2020 Apr 30;26(20):4449-4460. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials &, CAS-HKU Joint Laboratory on New Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, P.R. China.

Solar-to-hydrogen (H ) conversion has been regarded as a sustainable and renewable technique to address aggravated environmental pollution and global energy crisis. The most critical aspect in this technology is to develop highly efficient and stable photocatalysts, especially metal-free photocatalysts. Recently, black phosphorus (BP), as a rising star 2D nanomaterial, has captured enormous attention in photocatalytic water splitting owing to its widespread optical absorption, adjustable direct band gap, and superior carrier migration characteristics. However, the rapid charge recombination of pristine BP has seriously limited its practical application as photocatalyst. The construction of BP-based semiconductor heterojunctions has been proven to be an effective strategy for enhancing the separation of photogenerated carriers. This Minireview attempts to summarize the recent progress in BP-based semiconductor heterojunctions for photocatalytic water splitting, including type-I and type-II heterojunctions, Z-Scheme systems, and multicomponent heterojunctions. Finally, a brief summary and perspective on the challenges and future directions in this field are also provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201904594DOI Listing
April 2020

ABA-mediated regulation of leaf and root hydraulic conductance in tomato grown at elevated CO is associated with altered gene expression of aquaporins.

Hortic Res 2019 11;6:104. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

1Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Højbakkegaard Alle 13, 2630 Taastrup, Denmark.

Elevated CO concentration in the air ([CO]) decreases stomatal density (SD) and stomatal conductance () where abscisic acid (ABA) may play a role, yet the underlying mechanism remains largely elusive. We investigated the effects of [CO] (800 ppm) on leaf gas exchange and water relations of two tomato () genotypes, Ailsa Craig (WT) and its ABA-deficient mutant (). Compared to plants grown at ambient CO (400 ppm), [CO] stimulated photosynthetic rate in both genotypes, while depressed the only in WT. SD showed a similar response to [CO] as , although the change was not significant. [CO] increased leaf and xylem ABA concentrations and xylem sap pH, where the increases were larger in WT than in . Although leaf water potential was unaffected by CO growth environment, [CO] lowered osmotic potential, hence tended to increase turgor pressure particularly for WT. [CO] reduced hydraulic conductance of leaf and root in WT but not in , which was associated with downregulation of gene expression of aquaporins. It is concluded that ABA-mediated regulation of , SD, and gene expression of aquaporins coordinates the whole-plant hydraulics of tomato grown at different CO environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-019-0187-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6804533PMC
September 2019

Black/red phosphorus quantum dots for photocatalytic water splitting: from a type I heterostructure to a Z-scheme system.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2019 Oct 2;55(83):12531-12534. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials & HKU-CAS Joint Laboratory on New Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, People's Republic of China. and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, People's Republic of China.

By virtue of the quantum confinement effect, the junction between black phosphorus and red phosphorus changes from a type I heterostructure for bulk materials to a Z-scheme system for quantum dots. The Z-scheme system of black/red phosphorus quantum dots (BP/RP-QD) achieves H evolution from water splitting in the absence of sacrificial agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cc06146kDOI Listing
October 2019

Direct Z-Scheme Hetero-phase Junction of Black/Red Phosphorus for Photocatalytic Water Splitting.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2019 Aug 18;58(34):11791-11795. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials & HKU-CAS Joint Laboratory on New Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, P. R. China.

Black phosphorus (BP) has recently drawn attention in photocatalysis for its optical properties. However, limited by the rapid recombination of photogenerated carriers, the use of BP for photocatalytic water splitting still remains a huge challenge. Herein, we prepare a black/red phosphorus (BP/RP) hetero-phase junction photocatalyst by a wet-chemistry method to promote the interfacial charge separation and thus achieve Z-scheme photocatalytic water splitting without using sacrificial agents. The Z-scheme mechanism was confirmed by time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. This work provides a novel insight into the interface design of hetero-phase junction with atomic precision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201906416DOI Listing
August 2019

Optimization of pollutant reduction system for controlling agricultural non-point-source pollution based on grey relational analysis combined with analytic hierarchy process.

J Environ Manage 2019 Aug 16;243:370-380. Epub 2019 May 16.

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Crop Science Section, University of Copenhagen, Højbakkegaard Allé 13, DK-2630, Taastrup, Denmark.

Many technologies have been developed to control agricultural non-point-source pollution (ANPSP). However, most reduce pollution from only a single source instead of considering an entire region with multiple pollution sources as a control unit. A pollutant reduction system for controlling ANPSP at a regional scale could be built by integrating technologies and the reuse of treated wastewater (TWR) and nutrients (NR) to protect the environment and achieve agricultural sustainability. The present study proposes four systematic schemes involving TWR for irrigation and NR in a region with three sources of ANPSP (crop farming, livestock and aquaculture). Subsequently, a multi-objective evaluation model is established based on the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) combined with grey relational analysis (GRA) to identify the optimal scheme considering six indices, namely, pollutant reductions (total nitrogen, TN; total phosphorous, TP; ammonium-nitrogen, NH-N; and chemical oxygen demand, COD) and costs (construction and operational costs). The Taihu Lake Basin suffers from some of the worst ANPSP in China, and a case study was conducted in a town with three ANPSP sources. Four systems were developed on the basis of suggested technologies and the scenarios of TWR and NR (Scenario I: no reuse, Scenario II: reuse of all livestock wastewater and manure, Scenario III: reuse of some aquaculture wastewater, and Scenario IV: reuse of all livestock wastewater and manure and some aquaculture wastewater). Pollutant reductions were calculated based on removal efficiency and pollutant loads, which were estimated from the local pollutant export coefficients and agricultural information (crop farming, livestock, and aquaculture). The costs were determined on the basis of the total pollutant reductions and unit cost. The results showed that the optimal system was the Scenario IV because it had the highest grey correlation degree among the four proposed systems. The optimal system met the irrigation water demand in Xinjian. In the optimal system, the removal efficiencies of the pollutants TN, TP, NH-N, and COD were 84.3%, 94.2%, 89.6% and 94.0%, respectively. In addition, the implementation of NR in the optimal system reduced the use of chemical fertilizers by nearly 81.7 kg N ha and 39.9 kg P ha. The proposed methods provide a reference for the construction of a pollutant reduction system for controlling ANPSP in a multi-source region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.04.089DOI Listing
August 2019

Organic Carbon Sequestration in Soil Humic Substances As Affected by Application of Different Nitrogen Fertilizers in a Vegetable-Rotation Cropping System.

J Agric Food Chem 2019 Mar 5;67(11):3106-3113. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment , Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences , Beijing 100012 , China.

Little is known on the effect of application of different nitrogen (N) fertilizers on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in soil humic substances (HS). We investigated HS molecular characteristics in an Orthic Acrisol, southwestern China, under 2-year field fertilization of a urea (U), a polymer-coated urea (PCU) and a biochar-coated urea (BCU) using C-CPMAS-NMR spectroscopy. Results showed that N fertilization promoted SOC sequestration into HS and favored alkyl-C and aromatic-C rather than O-alkyl-C and carbonyl-C for humic acids and humin in soil. Application of PCU and BCU may better enhance vegetable yield, SOC sequestration, and HS stability than the U application, which may benefit from longer time of N existence and higher total N in soil. Among the N treatments, BCU application mostly affected the compositions and stability of SOC in the HS for the OC input and prime effect of biochar for SOC transformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b07114DOI Listing
March 2019

Cold Tolerance of Photosynthetic Electron Transport System Is Enhanced in Wheat Plants Grown Under Elevated CO.

Front Plant Sci 2018 4;9:933. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, China.

The effects of CO elevation on sensitivity of photosynthetic electron transport system of wheat in relation to low temperature stress are unclear. The performance of photosynthetic electron transport system and antioxidant system in chloroplasts was investigated in a temperature sensitive wheat cultivar Lianmai6 grown under the combination of low temperature (2 days at 2/-1°C in the day/night) and CO elevation (800 μmol l). It was found that CO elevation increased the efficiency of photosynthetic electron transport in wheat exposed to low temperature stress, which was related to the enhanced maximum quantum yield for electron transport beyond Q and the increased quantum yield for reduction of end electron acceptors at the PSI acceptor side in plants under elevated CO. Also, under low temperature, the activities of ATPases, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase in chloroplasts were enhanced in wheat under elevated CO. It suggested that the cold tolerance of photosynthetic electron transport system is enhanced by CO elevation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.00933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6039710PMC
July 2018

Cold Priming Induced Tolerance to Subsequent Low Temperature Stress is Enhanced by Melatonin Application during Recovery in Wheat.

Molecules 2018 May 4;23(5). Epub 2018 May 4.

Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jilin Academy of Agriculture Sciences/State Engineering Laboratory of Maize, Changchun 130033, China.

Cold priming can alleviate the effects of subsequent cold stress on wheat plant growth. Melatonin plays a key role in cold stress response in plants. In this study, the effects of foliar melatonin application during recovery on the cold tolerance of cold primed wheat plants were investigated. It was found that both melatonin and cold priming increased the photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and altered the related gene expressions in wheat under cold stress. Melatonin application is helpful for the photosynthetic carbon assimilation and membrane stability of the cold primed plants under cold stress. These results suggested that foliar melatonin application during recovery enhanced the cold priming induced tolerance to subsequent low temperature stress in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6100458PMC
May 2018

Simulation of Stomatal Conductance and Water Use Efficiency of Tomato Leaves Exposed to Different Irrigation Regimes and Air CO Concentrations by a Modified "Ball-Berry" Model.

Front Plant Sci 2018 9;9:445. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Taastrup, Denmark.

Stomatal conductance () and water use efficiency () of tomato leaves exposed to different irrigation regimes and at ambient CO ([CO], 400 ppm) and elevated CO ([CO], 800 ppm) environments were simulated using the "Ball-Berry" model (BB-model). Data obtained from a preliminary experiment (Exp. I) was used for model parameterization, where measurements of leaf gas exchange of potted tomatoes were done during progressive soil drying for 5 days. The measured photosynthetic rate () was used as an input for the model. Considering the effect of soil water deficits on , an equation modifying the slope () based on the mean soil water potential (Ψ) in the whole root zone was introduced. Compared to the original BB-model, the modified model showed greater predictability for both and of tomato leaves at each [CO] growth environment. The models were further validated with data obtained from an independent experiment (Exp. II) where plants were subjected to three irrigation regimes: full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI), and alternative partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) for 40 days at both [CO] and [CO] environment. The simulation results indicated that was independently acclimated to [CO] from . The modified BB-model performed better in estimating and , especially for PRI strategy at both [CO] environments. A greater could be seen in plants grown under [CO] associated with PRI regime. Conclusively, the modified BB-model was capable of predicting and of tomato leaves in various irrigation regimes at both [CO] and [CO] environments. This study could provide valuable information for better predicting plant adapted to the future water-limited and CO enriched environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.00445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5900028PMC
April 2018

Interactive Effects of Elevated CO and N Fertilization on Yield and Quality of Tomato Grown Under Reduced Irrigation Regimes.

Front Plant Sci 2018 27;9:328. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The interactive effects of CO elevation, N fertilization, and reduced irrigation regimes on fruit yield (FY) and quality in tomato ( L.) were investigated in a split-root pot experiment. The plants were grown in two separate climate-controlled greenhouse cells at atmospheric [CO] of 400 and 800 ppm, respectively. In each cell, the plants were fertilized at either 100 or 200 mg N kg soil and were either irrigated to full water holding capacity [i.e., a volumetric soil water content of 18%; full irrigation (FI)], or using 70% water of FI to the whole pot [deficit irrigation (DI)] or alternately to only half of the pot [partial root-zone irrigation (PRI)]. The yield and fruit quality attributes mainly from sugars (sucrose, fructose, and glucose) and organic acids (OAs; citric acid and malic acid) to various ionic (NH, K, Mg, Ca, NO, SO, and PO) concentrations in fruit juice were determined. The results indicated that lower N supply reduced fruit number and yield, whereas it enhanced some of the quality attributes of fruit as indicated by greater firmness and higher concentrations of sugars and OAs. Elevated [CO] ([CO]) attenuated the negative influence of reduced irrigation (DI and PRI) on FY. Principal component analysis revealed that the reduced irrigation regimes, especially PRI, in combination with [CO] could synergistically improve the comprehensive quality of tomato fruits at high N supply. These findings provide useful knowledge for sustaining tomato FY and quality in a future drier and CO-enriched environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.00328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5880949PMC
March 2018

Contrasting effects of biochar on phosphorus dynamics and bioavailability in different soil types.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Jun 3;627:963-974. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

University of Copenhagen, Department of Plant & Environmental Sciences, Højbakkegård allé 13, DK-2630 Tåstrup, Denmark; Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (SDC), University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 380 Huaibeizhuang, Huairou district, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

We investigated how two different biochars (wood biochar - WBC and straw biochar - SBC) affected P dynamics and bioavailability in five different soils differing in pH, C%, texture, Fe, Al, Ca, and Mg giving a range of soils with low (S1 and S2), intermediate (S4), and high (S3 and S5) P sorption capacities. Langmuir and Freundlich equations were fitted to the sorption data of soil and soil/biochar mixtures. P fertilizer applied to all treatments was fractioned into strongly sorbed P (qS), easily available sorbed P (qA) and solution P (c) by determining the anion exchange resin (AER)-extractable P in samples from the sorption experiment. A pot experiment was conducted to measure P uptake by maize grown in S1, S2 and S3 amended with WBC or SBC at two P fertilizer levels (0 or 70mgPkg). Only WBC could sorb P from solution partly due to a high content of calcite. SBC did not have any effect on P sorption isotherms, whereas WBC increased the P sorption in S1, S2, and S4, yet decreased P sorption in acidic soil S5. qS increased in S1, S2, and S4, and decreased in S5 in WBC treatments, whereas, qS decreased in SBC treatments in soils S2, S4, and S5. Accordingly, there was a significant interaction between soil type and biochar on maize growth and P uptake. Biochar had no effect in an alkaline soil (S3), whereas, WBC and SBC had positive effects on maize growth in slightly acidic soils S1 and S2, depending on the soil P status, however, the P uptake was lower in WBC compared to SBC treatments. Biochar and soil properties and the P status of the soil affect P bioavailability. The study provides useful information for optimizing the use of biochar in agricultural P management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.283DOI Listing
June 2018

Melatonin alleviates low PS I-limited carbon assimilation under elevated CO and enhances the cold tolerance of offspring in chlorophyll b-deficient mutant wheat.

J Pineal Res 2018 Jan 4;64(1). Epub 2017 Dec 4.

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Tåstrup, Denmark.

Melatonin is involved in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and induction of cold tolerance in plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of melatonin in modulation of carbon assimilation of wild-type wheat and the Chl b-deficient mutant ANK32B in response to elevated CO concentration ([CO ]) and the transgenerational effects of application of exogenous melatonin (hereafter identified as melatonin priming) on the cold tolerance in offspring. The results showed that the melatonin priming enhanced the carbon assimilation in ANK32B under elevated [CO ], via boosting the activities of ATPase and sucrose synthesis and maintaining a relatively higher level of total chlorophyll concentration in leaves. In addition, melatonin priming in maternal plants at grain filling promoted the seed germination in offspring by accelerating the starch degradation and improved the cold tolerance of seedlings through activating the antioxidant enzymes and enhancing the photosynthetic electron transport efficiency. These findings suggest the important roles of melatonin in plant response to future climate change, indicating that the melatonin priming at grain filling in maternal plants could be an effective approach to improve cold tolerance of wheat offspring at seedling stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12453DOI Listing
January 2018

Combined effects of soil salinity and high temperature on photosynthesis and growth of quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa).

Funct Plant Biol 2017 Jun;44(7):665-678

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Højbakkegård Allé 13, 2630 Taastrup, Denmark.

The halophytic crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is adapted to soil salinity and cold climate, but recent investigations have shown that quinoa can be grown in significantly warmer latitudes, i.e. the Mediterranean region, where high temperature and soil salinity can occur in combination. In this greenhouse study, effects of saltwater irrigation and high temperature on growth and development of the Bolivian cultivar 'Achachino' were determined. Development was slightly delayed in response to saltwater treatment, but significantly faster at high temperature. Biomass and seed yield decreased in response to salt, but not to high temperature. Plants increased their number of stomata in response to salt stress, but reduced its size on both sides of the leaf, whereas high temperature treatment significantly increased the stomata size on the abaxial leaf surface. When salt and high temperature was combined, the size of stomata was reduced only on the abaxial side of the leaf, and the number of epidermal bladder cells significantly increased on the abaxial leaf surface, resulting in preservation of photosynthetic quantum yields. We hypothesise that this morphological plasticity improves the partition of water and CO2 resulting in maintenance of photosynthesis in quinoa under adverse environmental conditions. We present a GLM-model that predicts yield parameters of quinoa grown in regions affected by soil salinity, high temperature and the factors combined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP16370DOI Listing
June 2017

Variations in Protein Concentration and Nitrogen Sources in Different Positions of Grain in Wheat.

Front Plant Sci 2016 28;7:942. Epub 2016 Jun 28.

National Engineering and Technology Center for Information Agriculture/Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology in Southern China, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University Nanjing, China.

The distribution patterns of total protein and protein components in different layers of wheat grain were investigated using the pearling technique, and the sources of different protein components and pearling fractions were identified using (15)N isotope tracing methods. It was found that N absorbed from jointing to anthesis (JA) and remobilized to the grain after anthesis was the principal source of grain N, especially in the outer layer. For albumin and globulin, the amount of N absorbed during different stages all showed a decreasing trend from the surface layer to the center part. Whereas, for globulin and glutenin, the N absorbed after anthesis accounted for the main part indicating that for storage protein, the utilization of N assimilated after anthesis is greater than that of the stored N assimilated before anthesis. It is concluded that manipulation of the N application rate during different growth stages could be an effective approach to modulate the distribution of protein fractions in pearled grains for specific end-uses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00942DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4923140PMC
July 2016

Melatonin enhances cold tolerance in drought-primed wild-type and abscisic acid-deficient mutant barley.

J Pineal Res 2016 Oct 8;61(3):328-39. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Tåstrup, Denmark.

Melatonin is involved in multiple plant developmental processes and various stress responses. To explore the roles of melatonin played as well as its association with abscisic acid (ABA) in a process of drought priming-induced cold tolerance (DPICT), a wild-type barley and its ABA-deficient mutant Az34 counterpart were selected for comparison, in which the effects of melatonin application (either foliarly or rhizospherically) and/or drought priming on the cold tolerance of both types of barleys were systematically investigated. It was demonstrated that the early drought priming induced an increase of endogenous melatonin production, which is not ABA dependent. In addition, exogenously applied melatonin resulted in higher ABA concentration in the drought-primed plants than in the nonprimed plants when exposed to cold stress, indicating that ABA responded in a drought-dependent manner. The interplay of melatonin and ABA leads to plants maintaining better water status. Drought priming-induced melatonin accumulation enhanced the antioxidant capacity in both chloroplasts and mitochondria, which sustained the photosynthetic electron transport in photosynthetic apparatus of the plants under cold stress. These results suggest that the exogenous melatonin application enhances the DPICT by modulating subcellular antioxidant systems and ABA levels in barley.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12350DOI Listing
October 2016

Soil warming enhances the hidden shift of elemental stoichiometry by elevated CO2 in wheat.

Sci Rep 2016 Mar 22;6:23313. Epub 2016 Mar 22.

University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Science, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Højbakkegaard Allé 13, 2630 Tåstrup, Denmark.

Increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and associated soil warming along with global climate change are expected to have large impacts on grain mineral nutrition in wheat. The effects of CO2 elevation (700 μmol l(-1)) and soil warming (+2.4 °C) on K, Ca and Mg concentrations in the xylem sap and their partitioning in different organs of wheat plant during grain filling were investigated. Results showed that the combination of elevated [CO2] and soil warming improved wheat grain yield, but decreased plant K, Ca and Mg accumulation and their concentrations in the leaves, stems, roots and grains. The reduced grain mineral concentration was attributed to the lowered mineral uptake as exemplified by both the decreased stomatal conductance and mineral concentration in the xylem sap. These findings suggest that future higher atmospheric [CO2] and warmer soil conditions may decrease the dietary availability of minerals from wheat crops. Breeding wheat cultivars possessing higher ability of mineral uptake at reduced xylem flux in exposure to climate change should be a target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep23313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4802340PMC
March 2016

Mechano-stimulated modifications in the chloroplast antioxidant system and proteome changes are associated with cold response in wheat.

BMC Plant Biol 2015 Sep 11;15:219. Epub 2015 Sep 11.

National Engineering and Technology Center for Information Agriculture / Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology in Southern China, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

Background: Mechanical wounding can cause morphological and developmental changes in plants, which may affect the responses to abiotic stresses. However, the mechano-stimulation triggered regulation network remains elusive. Here, the mechano-stimulation was applied at two different times during the growth period of wheat before exposing the plants to cold stress (5.6 °C lower temperature than the ambient temperature, viz., 5.0 °C) at the jointing stage.

Results: Results showed that mechano-stimulation at the Zadoks growth stage 26 activated the antioxidant system, and substantially, maintained the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species. In turn, the stimulation improved the electron transport and photosynthetic rate of wheat plants exposed to cold stress at the jointing stage. Proteomic and transcriptional analyses revealed that the oxidative stress defense, ATP synthesis, and photosynthesis-related proteins and genes were similarly modulated by mechano-stimulation and the cold stress.

Conclusions: It was concluded that mechano-stimulated modifications of the chloroplast antioxidant system and proteome changes are related to cold tolerance in wheat. The findings might provide deeper insights into roles of reactive oxygen species in mechano-stimulated cold tolerance of photosynthetic apparatus, and be helpful to explore novel approaches to mitigate the impacts of low temperature occurring at critical developmental stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-015-0610-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4566287PMC
September 2015

Arbuscular mycorrhiza improve growth, nitrogen uptake, and nitrogen use efficiency in wheat grown under elevated CO2.

Mycorrhiza 2016 Feb 7;26(2):133-40. Epub 2015 Jul 7.

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Taastrup, DK-2630, Denmark.

Effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis on plant growth, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) accumulation, and partitioning was investigated in Triticum aestivum L. plants grown under elevated CO2 in a pot experiment. Wheat plants inoculated or not inoculated with the AM fungus were grown in two glasshouse cells with different CO2 concentrations (400 and 700 ppm) for 10 weeks. A (15)N isotope labeling technique was used to trace plant N uptake. Results showed that elevated CO2 increased AM fungal colonization. Under CO2 elevation, AM plants had higher C concentration and higher plant biomass than the non-AM plants. CO2 elevation did not affect C and N partitioning in plant organs, while AM symbiosis increased C and N allocation into the roots. In addition, plant C and N accumulation, (15)N recovery rate, and N use efficiency (NUE) were significantly higher in AM plants than in non-AM controls under CO2 enrichment. It is concluded that AM symbiosis favors C and N partitioning in roots, increases C accumulation and N uptake, and leads to greater NUE in wheat plants grown at elevated CO2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00572-015-0654-3DOI Listing
February 2016