Publications by authors named "Fujian Li"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Tillage and seeding strategies for wheat optimizing production in harvested rice fields with high soil moisture.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 8;11(1):119. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology, and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Cultivation and Physiology, Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, Jiangsu, China.

Suitable tillage and seeding strategies for wheat can be used to combat excessive residues and poor soil conditions in harvested rice fields. This study investigated the effects of different tillage (zero tillage and rotary tillage) and seeding methods on wheat growth, grain yield, nitrogen (N) uptake and utilization, and economic benefit when the soil moisture was high during the tillage and seeding practices. In 2016-2017, three seeders were tested: SM1-1, SM2, and SM3; in 2017-2018, four seeders were tested: SM1-2, SM2, SM3, and SM4. Although the soil moisture was different between years, zero tillage could be used to reduce the sowing depth, which facilitated early-phase wheat growth and N uptake compared with rotary tillage, resulting in higher grain yield, NUpE, and net return. In 2016-2017 (high wet soil), a small-size seeder (SM1-1) with sowing near the soil surface facilitated higher grain yield, NUpE, and net returns compared with the other seeders; in 2017-2018 (low wet soil), medium-size seeders (SM3 and SM4) were more suitable than small-size seeders (SM1-2 and SM2). In both years, the seeders that performed the best mainly improved the spike numbers while increasing N uptake, especially after anthesis. Zero tillage lowered input costs, but small-size seeders did not reduce costs due to the higher labor costs associated with their low working efficiency. Improving net returns depends largely on increasing yield. In conclusion, zero tillage is recommended for wheat production in harvested rice fields with a high soil moisture content, but the suitable seeding method needs to be confirmed according to the soil moisture content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80256-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794509PMC
January 2021

High-power, low-coherence laser driver facility.

Opt Lett 2020 Dec;45(24):6839-6842

We report the first (to the best of our knowledge) high-power, low-coherence Nd:glass laser delivering kilojoule pulses with a coherent time of 249 fs and a bandwidth of 13 nm, achieving the 63%-efficiency second-harmonic conversion of the large-aperture low-coherence pulse and good beam smoothing effect. It provides a new type of laser driver for laser plasma interaction and high energy density physics research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.412197DOI Listing
December 2020

The prevalence and risks of major comorbidities among inpatients with pulmonary tuberculosis in China from a gender and age perspective: a large-scale multicenter observational study.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Apr 22;40(4):787-800. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Chang Chun Infectious Diseases Hospital, No. 2699, Sandao Section, Changji South Line, Erdao District, Changchun City, 130123, Jilin Province, China.

In clinical practice, PTB patients have concurrent many types of comorbidities such as pneumonia, liver disorder, diabetes mellitus, hematological disorder, and malnutrition. Detecting and treating specific comorbidities and preventing their development are important for PTB patients. However, the prevalence of most comorbid conditions in patients with PTB is not well described. We conducted a large-scale, multicenter, observational study to elucidate and illustrate the prevalence rates of major comorbidities in inpatients at 21 hospitals in China. The 19 specific comorbidities were selected for analysis in this patient cohort, and stratified the inpatient cohort according to age and gender. A total of 355,929 PTB inpatients were included, with a male:female ratio of 1.98 and the proportion of ≥ 65 years PTB inpatients was the most. Approximately 70% of PTB inpatients had at least one defined type of comorbidity. The prevalence of 19 specific comorbidities in inpatients with PTB was analyzed, with pneumonia being the most common comorbidity. The prevalence of most comorbidities was higher in males with PTB except thyroid disorders, mental health disorders, etc. The prevalence of defined most comorbidities in patients with PTB tended to increase with increasing age, although some specific comorbidities tended to increase initially then decrease with increasing age. Our study describes multiple clinically important comorbidities among PTB inpatients, and their prevalence between different gender and age groups. The results will enhance the clinical aptitude of physicians who treat patients with PTB to recognize, diagnose, and treat PTB comorbidities early.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-020-04077-2DOI Listing
April 2021

The epidemiology of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in China: A large-scale multi-center observational study.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(8):e0237753. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Chang Chun Infectious Diseases Hospital, Changchun City, Jilin Province, China.

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious global public health problem in the present. TB also affects other sites (extrapulmonary tuberculosis, EPTB), and accounts for a significant proportion of tuberculosis cases worldwide. In order to comprehensively understand epidemiology of EBTB in China, and improve early diagnosis and treatment, we conducted a large-scale multi-center observational study to assess the demographic data and the prevalence of common EPTB inpatients, and further evaluate the prevalence of EPTB concurrent with Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and the associations between multiple EPTB types and gender-age group in China. All consecutive age≥15yr inpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of EPTB during the period from January 2011 to December 2017 were included in the study. The descriptive statistical analysis included median and quartile measurements for continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for categorical variables. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to compare the association of multiple EPTB types between age group and gender. The results showed that the proportion of 15-24 years and 25-34 years in EPTB inpatients were the most and the ratio of male: female was 1.51. Approximately 70% of EPTB inpatients were concurrent with PTB or other types of EPTB. The most common of EPTB was tuberculous pleurisy (50.15%), followed by bronchial tuberculosis (14.96%), tuberculous lymphadenitis of the neck (7.24%), tuberculous meningitis (7.23%), etc. It was found that many EPTB inpatients concurrent with PTB. The highest prevalence of EPTB concurrent with PTB was pharyngeal/laryngeal tuberculosis (91.31%), followed by bronchial tuberculosis (89.52%), tuberculosis of hilar lymph nodes (79.52%), tuberculosis of mediastinal lymph nodes (79.13%), intestinal tuberculosis (72.04%), tuberculous pleurisy (65.31%) and tuberculous meningitis (62.64%), etc. The results from EPTB concurrent with PTB suggested that females EPTB inpatients were less likely to be at higher risk of concurrent PTB (aOR = 0.819, 95%CI:0.803-0.835) after adjusted by age. As age increasing, the trend risk of concurrent PTB decreased (aOR = 0.994, 95%CI: 0.989-0.999) after adjusted by gender. Our study demonstrated that the common EPTB were tuberculous pleurisy, bronchial tuberculosis, tuberculous lymphadenitis of the neck, tuberculous meningitis, etc. A majority of patients with pharyngeal/laryngeal tuberculosis, bronchial tuberculosis, tuberculosis of hilar/mediastinal lymph nodes, intestinal tuberculosis, tuberculous pleurisy, tuberculous meningitis, etc. were concurrent with PTB. Female EPTB inpatients were less likely to be at higher risk of concurrent PTB, and as age increasing, the trend risk of concurrent PTB decreased. The clinicians should be alert to the presence of concurrent tuberculosis in EPTB, and all suspected cases of EPTB should be assessed for concomitant PTB to determine whether the case is infectious and to help for early diagnosis and treatment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0237753PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7446809PMC
October 2020

Experiment and theory of beam smoothing using induced spatial incoherence with a lens array.

Appl Opt 2020 Apr;59(10):2976-2982

The smoothing effect of induced spatial incoherence combined with a lens array on a large-bandwidth and short-coherence-time laser is reported. A theoretical model based on statistical optics is developed to describe the spatial and temporal characteristics of the focal spot. Theoretical simulation is consistent with the experimental results. A method was proposed to remove or reduce the residual interference fringes of the experimental focal spot, and both the simulation and analysis show that this method does not affect the smoothing speed of the focal spot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.383292DOI Listing
April 2020

High-efficiency second-harmonic generation of low-temporal-coherent light pulse.

Opt Lett 2019 Sep;44(17):4359-4362

The nonlinear frequency conversion of low-temporal-coherent light holds a variety of applications and has attracted considerable interest. However, its physical mechanism remains relatively unexplored, and the conversion efficiency and bandwidth are extremely insufficient. Here, considering the instantaneous broadband characteristics, we establish a model of second-harmonic generation (SHG) of a low-temporal-coherent pulse and reveal its differences from the coherent conditions. It is found that the second-harmonic spectrum distribution is proportional to the self-convolution of that of a fundamental wave. Because of this, we propose a method for realizing low-temporal-coherent SHG with high efficiency and broad bandwidth, and experimentally demonstrate a conversion efficiency up to 70% with a bandwidth of 3.1 THz (2.9 nm centered at 528 nm). To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest efficiency and broadest bandwidth of low-temporal-coherent SHG to date. Our research opens the door for the study of low-coherent nonlinear optical processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.44.004359DOI Listing
September 2019

Efficacy and safety of magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate injection in patients with acute drug-induced liver injury: A phase II trial.

Liver Int 2019 11 21;39(11):2102-2111. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common reason for a drug to be withdrawn from the market. Apart from stopping the offending drug, no regimens are available for treating idiosyncratic DILI in clinical practice.

Methods: We carried out a randomized, double-blind, multidoses, active drug controlled, multicentre phase II trial to assess the safety and efficacy of the study drug, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG), as compared to tiopronin, a standard therapy for DILI in China. The primary outcome was the proportion of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization at week 4 after study drug administration. Logistic regression was used to examine the odds of ALT normalization between low dose (Group A) and high dose (Group B) vs active control (Group C).

Results: One hundred and seventy-four eligible subjects were randomized and enrolled into three groups: 59 in group A, 56 in group B and 59 in group C. It was shown that group A and group B lowered ALT level even at early stage of study drug administration; when compared with Group C (61.02%), the proportions of ALT normalization at week 4 were significantly greater in Group A (84.75%, P = .0029) and Group B (85.71%, P = .0037) respectively. The results from the univariate logistic model showed that the odds of ALT normalized among subjects in Group A were about 3.6 times greater (OR = 3.55, 95% CI: 1.47-8.57, P = .0049) than subjects in Group C. Similar effect was observed among subjects in Group B (OR = 3.83, 95% CI: 1.54-9.55, P = .0039).

Conclusions: This trial provided preliminary evidence that MgIG is an effective and safe treatment for patients with acute DILI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14204DOI Listing
November 2019

Enhancement of the denitrification activity by exoelectrogens in single-chamber air cathode microbial fuel cells.

Chemosphere 2019 Jun 11;225:548-556. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy, Department of Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, PR China.

Single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can efficiently treat wastewater containing nitrate, probably because the interaction between exoelectrogens and denitrifying bacteria may enhance the denitrification activity of MFCs. In this study, the denitrification of nitrate with a wide range of concentrations was investigated by using single-chamber air cathode MFCs. The maximum average denitrification rate of the MFCs inoculated and operated under closed-circuit conditions (Group N-CC) was up to 12.2 ± 0.6 kg NO-N m d at a high nitrate concentration of 2000 mg NO-N L, which was 74.3% higher than that of the MFCs inoculated and operated under open-circuit conditions and which was significantly higher than those of other MFC systems and many traditional bioreactors. The high denitrification activity of the MFCs of Group N-CC was attributed to the significant reduction of nitrite accumulation through the possible bioelectrochemical nitrite reduction by exoelectrogens that were only enriched at the anodes of the MFCs of Group N-CC. In addition, the MFCs of Group N-CC showed good stability (over 3.5 years) and low apparent activation energy (34.0 kJ mol) of the denitrification, indicating the good coexistence of exoelectrogens (Geobacter) and denitrifying bacteria (Thauera) with high performance on denitrification during the long-term operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.03.052DOI Listing
June 2019

Beam smoothing by a diffraction-weakened lens array combining with induced spatial incoherence.

Appl Opt 2019 Mar;58(8):2121-2126

The smoothing scheme combining a diffraction-weakened lens array with the induced spatial incoherence method is proposed and demonstrated to be an efficient smoothing scheme for broadband laser systems. In our simulation, the RMS illumination nonuniformity of the target spot is reduced to 2% after sufficient smoothing time. The temporal characteristics and spatial power spectral density of the scheme are theoretically analyzed. When the incident light has intensity fluctuations, the uniformity of the target spot is stable, which means a robust smoothing scheme, and which predicts practical applications to the smoothing of broadband laser systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.58.002121DOI Listing
March 2019

Intra-Aortic Balloon Occlusion Decreases Blood Loss During Open Reduction and Internal Fixation for Delayed Acetabular Fractures: A Retrospective Study of 43 Patients.

J Invest Surg 2020 Jun 5;33(5):468-473. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

It is difficult to treat delayed acetabular fractures due to massive blood loss during operation. Temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta was introduced into sacral tumor surgery to reduce intraoperative hemorrhage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of this method on reduction of intraoperative blood loss and analyze the complications of this technique in the treatment of delayed acetabular fracture. We retrospectively reviewed 43 patients with delayed acetabular fracture who were surgically treated through combined approaches. Nineteen patients underwent temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta; 10 patients had type B fracture and 9 patients had type C fracture according to the Müller AO classification. The remaining 24 patients were classified into a control group; 14 patients had type B fracture and 10 patients had type C fracture. Surgical time, intraoperative blood loss, blood transfusion, satisfactory reduction rate, and functional recovery were recorded and compared between two groups. Merle d'Aubigné and Postel scoring was applied to evaluate the patients. The patients treated with intra-aortic balloon occlusion had a shorter surgical time ( = 0.008), less intraoperative blood loss ( = 0.005), and less transfused blood units ( = 0.001). No complications caused by balloon occlusion. No significant difference were observed in the outcomes and the complications related to acetabular fractures between two groups. Temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta is a reliable technique to control bleeding for the surgery of delayed acetabular fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08941939.2018.1516837DOI Listing
June 2020

Is there a nitrogen fertilizer threshold emitting less N2O with the prerequisite of high wheat production?

PLoS One 2018 28;13(8):e0202343. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology of Jiangsu Province / Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops / Wheat Research Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

Excessive use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer and lower nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) are threatening the wheat production in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. Excess input of N fertilizers also results in severe environmental pollution, climate change and biodiversity loss. However, the study on reasonable nitrogen application and NUE improvement with the prerequisite of stable and high yield remains unexplored. In our study, the four different levels of nitrogen were applied to find out the nitrogen threshold which could be both friendly to environment and promise the stable and high yield. The experiment was carried out in Yangzhou University (Yangzhou, China). The wheat cultivar Yangmai 23 was selected as the research material. The four nitrogen levels were as follows: 0, 189, 229.5, and 270 kg ha-1. The results showed that the grain yield under the application of 229.5 kg ha-1 N was as high as that under 270 kg ha-1 N level, with the observation of 20.3% increase in agronomic efficiency. The N2O emission of 229.5 kg ha-1 N application was as low as that of 189 kg ha-1 N, but the grain yield and agronomic efficiency were significantly higher (11.9%) under 229.5 kg ha-1 treatment than the lower one. Taken together, this indicated the nitrogen level at 229.5 kg ha-1 could be identified as the fertilizer threshold, which will be beneficial for the future fieldwork.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0202343PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6112623PMC
February 2019

Clofazimine for Treatment of Extensively Drug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis in China.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 04 27;62(4). Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Department of Tuberculosis, Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Research Institute, Beijing, People's Republic of China

We performed a multicenter, prospective, randomized study to investigate the efficacy and safety of clofazimine (CLO) for treatment of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in China. Forty-nine patients infected with XDR-TB were randomly assigned to either the control group or the CLO group, both of which received 36 months of individually customized treatment. The primary endpoint was the time to sputum culture conversion on solid medium. Clinical outcomes of patients were evaluated at the time of treatment completion. Of the 22 patients in the experimental group, 7 (31.8%) met the treatment criterion of "cure" and 1 (4.5%) "complete treatment," for a total of 8 (36.4%) exhibiting successful treatment outcomes without relapse. In the control group, 6 patients (22.2%) were cured and 6 (22.2%) completed treatment by the end of the study. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in successful outcome rates between the CLO group and the control group. The average sputum culture conversion time for the experimental group was 19.7 months, which was not statistically different from that for the control group (20.3 months; = 0.57). Of the 22 patients in the CLO group, 12 (54.5%) experienced adverse events after starting CLO treatment. The most frequently observed adverse event was liver damage, with 31.8% of patients (7/22 patients) in the CLO group versus 11.1% (3/27 patients) in the control group exhibiting this adverse event. Our study demonstrates that inclusion of CLO in background treatment regimens for XDR-TB is of limited benefit, especially since hepatic disorders arise as major adverse events with CLO treatment. (This study is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry [ChiCTR, www.chictr.org.cn] under identifier ChiCTR1800014800.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02149-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5913945PMC
April 2018

Characterization of the 3D structure of a cultivated land surface and its influence on wheat seedlings growth using Kinect.

Sci Rep 2017 06 20;7(1):3927. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China.

The quality of wheat emergence has a significant impact on the subsequent growth and development of seedlings. The structure of cultivated land surfaces is an important factor influencing wheat seedlings growth. However, few studies have investigated this. In this study, three-dimensional structural parameters of cultivated land surfaces were collected using 3D imaging equipment, and the effects of different grades of lands on the emergence and growth of wheat were evaluated. The evaluation criteria for the soil blocks was designed according to the ISO-25178-2 standard, and the wheat emergence rate, speed, tillering capacity per plant, dry weight per plant, and final yields of different grades of cultivated land were investigated. The results indicated that the three-dimensional information obtained through the Kinect sensors was reliable. The deviation of measured values from the factual values was trivial. The value of R was greater than 0.99. The value of RMSE was less than 2 mm. These results describe a method for obtaining three-dimensional structures of land surfaces using 3D cameras and the evaluation of wheat emergence capacity. It can be used as a reference for obtaining three-dimensional cultivated land structures or other similar objects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-04392-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5478624PMC
June 2017

Temporal-spatial changes in viabilities and electrochemical properties of anode biofilms.

Environ Sci Technol 2015 Apr 7;49(8):5227-35. Epub 2015 Apr 7.

†State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Department of Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, P.R. China.

Sustained current generation by anodic biofilms is a key element for the longevity and success of bioelectrochemical systems. Over time, however, inactive or dead cells can accumulate within the anode biofilm, which can be particularly detrimental to current generation. Mixed and pure culture (Geobacter anodireducens) biofilms were examined here relative to changes in electrochemical properties over time. An analysis of the three-dimensional metabolic structure of the biofilms over time showed that both types of biofilms developed a live outer-layer that covered a dead inner-core. This two-layer structure appeared to be mostly a result of relatively low anodic current densities compared to other studies. During biofilm development, the live layer reached a constant thickness, whereas dead cells continued to accumulate near the electrode surface. This result indicated that only the live outer-layer of biofilm was responsible for current generation and suggested that the dead inner-layer continued to function as an electrically conductive matrix. Analysis of the electrochemical properties and biofilm thickness revealed that the diffusion resistance measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy might not be due to acetate or proton diffusion limitations to the live layer, but rather electron-mediator diffusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b00175DOI Listing
April 2015

Clofazimine for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled study in China.

Clin Infect Dis 2015 May 20;60(9):1361-7. Epub 2015 Jan 20.

Tuberculosis Center for Diagnosis and Treatment, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine.

Background: Clofazimine (Cfz) has shown activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains in vitro and in animal studies. Here we evaluate the clinical efficacy and tolerability of using Cfz to treat MDR tuberculosis in China.

Methods: We enrolled 105 patients who had sputum culture-positive MDR tuberculosis in 6 major tuberculosis specialty hospitals in China. Patients were randomly assigned to either the Cfz therapy group (n = 53) or control group (n = 52). Patients in the 2 groups were given 21 months of individual-based chemotherapy regimens based on medication history and drug susceptibility test results. The Cfz therapy group regimens incorporated 100 mg of Cfz once daily for 21 months.

Results: Three patients in each group discontinued therapy because of side effects or other reasons. Sputum culture conversion to negative was earlier in patients who received Cfz compared with controls (P = .042 by log-rank test). Chest computed tomography showed cavitary changes in 46 patients in the Cfz therapy group and 45 in the control group. Cavity closure was earlier in patient who received Cfz compared with controls (P = .047 by log-rank test). The treatment success rate in the Cfz group was 73.6%, higher than that in control group (53.8%; P = .035). Side effects in skin only occurred in the Cfz group. The rates of skin discoloration and ichthyosis were 94.3% and 47.2%, respectively.

Conclusions: Using Cfz to treat MDR tuberculosis promotes cavity closure, accelerates sputum culture conversion, and improves treatment success rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/civ027DOI Listing
May 2015

Effects of hydraulic pressure on the performance of single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

Biosens Bioelectron 2014 Jun 25;56:264-70. Epub 2014 Jan 25.

State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy, Department of Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, PR China.

Scaling up of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) without losing power density requires a thorough understanding of the effect of hydraulic pressure on MFC performance. In this work, the performance of an activated carbon air-cathode MFC was evaluated under different hydraulic pressures. The MFC under 100 mmH2O hydraulic pressure produced a maximum power density of 1260 ± 24 mW m(-2), while the power density decreased by 24.4% and 44.7% as the hydraulic pressure increased to 500 mmH2O and 2000 mmH2O, respectively. Notably, the performance of both the anode and the cathode had decreased under high hydraulic pressures. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests of the cathode indicated that both charge transfer resistance and diffusion transfer resistance increased with the increase in hydraulic pressure. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the similarity among anodic biofilm communities under different hydraulic pressures was ≥ 90%, and the communities of all MFCs were dominated by Geobacter sp. These results suggested that the reduction in power output of the single chamber air-cathode MFC under high hydraulic pressures can be attributed to water flooding of the cathode and suppression the metabolism of anodic exoelectrogenic bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2014.01.036DOI Listing
June 2014

Risk factors for poor treatment outcomes in patients with MDR-TB and XDR-TB in China: retrospective multi-center investigation.

PLoS One 2013 5;8(12):e82943. Epub 2013 Dec 5.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background: The treatment of patients with MDR- and XDR-TB is usually more complex, toxic and costly and less effective than treatment of other forms of TB. However, there is little information available on risk factors for poor outcomes in patients with MDR- and XDR-TB in China.

Methodology/principal Findings: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of HIV-negative TB Patients with culture-proven MDR- or XDR-TB who were registered from July 2006 to June 2011 at five large-scale Tuberculosis Specialized Hospitals in China. Among 1662 HIV-seronegative TB cases which were culture-positive for M. tuberculosis complex and had positive sputum-smear microscopy results, 965 cases (58.1%) were DR-TB, and 586 cases (35.3%) were classified as having MDR-TB, accounting for 60.7% of DR-TB. 169 cases (10.2%) were XDR-TB, accounting for 17.5% of DR-TB, 28.8% of MDR-TB. The MDR-TB patients were divided into XDR-TB group (n=169) and other MDR-TB group (non-XDR MDR-TB) (n=417). In total, 240 patients (40.95%) had treatment success, and 346 (59.05%) had poor treatment outcomes. The treatment success rate in other MDR-TB group was 52.2%, significantly higher than that in the XDR-TB group (13%, P<0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, poor outcomes were associated with duration of previous anti-TB treatment of more than one year (OR, 0.077; 95% CI, 0.011-0.499, P<0.001), a BMI less than 18.5 kg/m(2) (OR, 2.185; 95% CI, 1.372-3.478, P<0.001), XDR (OR, 13.368; 95% CI, 6.745-26.497, P<0.001), retreatment (OR, 0.171; 95% CI, 0.093-0.314, P<0.001), diabetes (OR, 0.305; 95% CI, 0.140-0.663, P=0.003), tumor (OR, 0.095; 95% CI, 0.011-0.795, P=0.03), decreased albumin (OR, 0.181; 95% CI, 0.118-0.295, P<0.001), cavitation (OR, 0.175; 95% CI, 0.108-0.286, P<0.001).

Conclusions/significance: The patients with MDR-TB and XDR-TB have poor treatment outcomes in China.The presence of extensive drug resistance, low BMI, hypoalbuminemia, comorbidity, cavitary disease and previous anti-TB treatment are independent prognostic factors for poor outcome in patients with MDR-TB.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0082943PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3857781PMC
March 2015

The novel human MRC1 gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in Chinese Uygur and Kazak populations.

Mol Biol Rep 2013 Aug 8;40(8):5073-83. Epub 2013 May 8.

Institute of Cell Biology, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

The MRC1 gene, encoding the human mannose receptor (MR), is a member of the C-type lectin receptors family. MR can recognize and bind to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the extracellular structure, and play a role in antigen-presenting and maintaining a stable internal environment. This study aimed to investigate potential associations of SNPs in exon 7 of the MRC1 gene with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). G1186A, G1195A, T1212C, C1221G, C1303T and C1323T were genotyped using PCR and DNA sequencing in 595 Chinese Uygur and 513 Kazak subjects. In the Uygur, the frequency of allele G (P=0.031, OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.02-1.62) and AA genotype (P=0.033, OR=1.64, 95% CI=1.04-2.60) for G1186A was lower in the pulmonary TB than healthy control and were significantly correlated with pulmonary TB. After adjustment for age and gender, G1186A was found to be additive models in association with pulmonary TB (P=0.04, OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.01-1.60). By calculating linkage disequilibrium, the frequency of haplotype GGTCCT (P=0.032, OR=0.75, 95% CI=0.57-0.97) and GGTCCC (P=0.044, OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.33-0.99) was significantly associated with pulmonary TB. No association was found between other SNPs and pulmonary TB. In the Kazak, all SNPs were not associated with pulmonary TB. Our results suggest that genetic factors play an important role in susceptibility to pulmonary TB at the individual level, and provide an experimental basis to clarify the pathogenesis of pulmonary TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-013-2610-7DOI Listing
August 2013

Association of CTLA4 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility and pathology correlation to pulmonary tuberculosis in Southern Han Chinese.

Int J Biol Sci 2012 10;8(7):945-52. Epub 2012 Jul 10.

Institute of Cell Biology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, PR China.

The cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) gene is a key negative regulator of the T lymphocyte immune response. It has been found that CTLA4 +49A>G (rs231775), +6230G>A (rs3087243), and 11430G>A (rs11571319) polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to many autoimmune diseases, and can down-regulate the inhibition of cellular immune response of CTLA4. Three SNPs in CTLA4 were genotyped by using the PCR and DNA sequencing methods in order to reveal the susceptibility and pathology correlation to pulmonary tuberculosis in Southern Han Chinese. We found that the frequency of CTLA4 +49AG genotype in the pulmonary tuberculosis patients (38.42%) was significantly lower than that of the healthy controls (49.77%), (P(cor)=0.038, OR 0.653, 95% CI 0.436-0.978). But, no associations were found between the other 2 SNPs (+6230G>A, 11430G>A) and tuberculosis (P>0.05). Haplotype analysis showed that the frequency of haplotype AGG in the healthy controls group (6.9%) was significantly higher than the pulmonary tuberculosis patients group (1.4%), (global P=0.005, P(cor)=0.0002, OR 0.183, 95% CI 0.072-0.468). In addition, haplotype GGA was found to be significantly related to tuberculosis with double lung lesion rather than single lung lesion (P(cor)=0.042). This study is the first to report that genetic variants in the CTLA4 gene can be associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in Southern Han Chinese, and CTLA4 +49AG genotype as well as haplotype AGG may reduce the risk of being infected with pulmonary tuberculosis. The GGA haplotype was related to tuberculosis with double lung lesion, which provides a new experimental basis to clarify the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.4390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3399317PMC
November 2012

A novel single nucleotide polymorphism within the NOD2 gene is associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in the Chinese Han, Uygur and Kazak populations.

BMC Infect Dis 2012 Apr 14;12:91. Epub 2012 Apr 14.

Institute of Cell Biology, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Background: The present study aimed to investigate the genetic polymorphisms in exon 4 of the NOD2 gene in tuberculosis patients and healthy controls, in order to clarify whether polymorphisms in the NOD2 gene is associated with tuberculosis.

Methods: A case-control study was performed on the Chinese Han, Uygur and Kazak populations. Exon 4 of the NOD2 gene was sequenced in 425 TB patients and 380 healthy controls to identify SNPs.

Results: The frequency of T/G genotypes for the Arg587Arg (CGT → CGG) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in NOD2 was found to be significantly higher in the Uygur (34.9%) and Kazak (37.1%) populations than the Han population (18.6%). Also, the frequency of G/G genotypes for the Arg587Arg SNP was significantly higher in the Uyghur (8.3%) and Kazak (5.4%) populations than the Han population (0.9%). Meanwhile, no significant difference was found in the Arg587Arg polymorphism between the tuberculosis patients and healthy controls in the Uyghur and Kazak populations (P > 0.05) whereas, a significant difference was observed in the Arg587Arg polymorphism between the tuberculosis patients and healthy controls in the Han population (P < 0.01). The odd ratio of 2.16 (95% CI = 1.31-3.58; P < 0.01) indicated that the Arg587Arg SNP in NOD2 may be associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis in the Chinese Han population.

Conclusions: Our study is the first to demonstrate that the Arg587Arg SNP in NOD2 is a new possible risk factor for tuberculosis in the Chinese Han population, but not in the Uyghur and Kazak populations. Our results may reflect racial differences in genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-12-91DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3379957PMC
April 2012

Polymorphic allele of human MRC1 confer protection against tuberculosis in a Chinese population.

Int J Biol Sci 2012 23;8(3):375-82. Epub 2012 Feb 23.

Institute of Cell Biology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, PR China.

Mannose receptor is a member of the C-type lectin receptor family involved in pathogen molecular-pattern recognition, and plays a critical role in shaping host immune response. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MRC1 gene may affect expression levels and differences in the structure and function of proteins in different individuals, thereby affecting individual susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis. However, to date, MRC1 polymorphisms associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis have not yet been reported. The present study aimed to investigate potential associations of SNPs in the MRC1 gene with pulmonary tuberculosis in a Chinese population. Six SNPs (G1186A, G1195A, T1212C, C1221G, C1303T and C1323T) in exon 7 of the MRC1 gene were genotyped using the PCR and DNA sequencing methods in the pulmonary tuberculosis patients and the healthy controls. Linkage disequilibrium analysis was performed between polymorphic sites. The study found that the allele frequency of G1186A (rs34039386) of the MRC1 gene in a Chinese population was higher in the pulmonary tuberculosis group than the healthy control group. There was a significant difference in frequency distribution between the two groups (P = 0.037; OR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58-0.98). Genotypic analysis also indicated that the AG genotypes in a Chinese population were significantly correlated with pulmonary tuberculosis (P < 0.01; OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.37-0.87). After adjustment for age and gender, G1186A sites were found to be dominant (P < 0.01; OR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.40-0.87), over-dominant (P = 0.045; OR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.47-0.99) and additive models (P = 0.041; OR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-0.99) in association with pulmonary tuberculosis. But, no association was found between the other 5 SNPs (G1195A, T1212C, C1221G, C1303T and C1323T) and tuberculosis (P > 0.05). This study is the first to report that genetic variants in the MRC1 gene can be associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in a Chinese population, and may reduce the risk of infecting pulmonary tuberculosis. This also provides a new experimental basis to clarify the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.4047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3291854PMC
July 2012