Publications by authors named "Fuat Demirkıran"

46 Publications

Impact of cytoreductive surgery on survival of patients with low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma: A multicentric study of Turkish Society of Gynecologic Oncology (TRSGO-OvCa-001).

J Surg Oncol 2021 May 3;123(8):1801-1810. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, School of Medicine, Ankara Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey.

Background And Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the factors affecting recurrence-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of women diagnosed with low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSOC).

Methods: Databases from 13 participating centers in Turkey were searched retrospectively for women who had been treated for stage I-IV LGSOC between 1997 and 2018.

Results: Overall 191 eligible women were included. The median age at diagnosis was 49 years (range, 21-84 years). One hundred seventy-five (92%) patients underwent primary cytoreductive surgery. Complete and optimal cytoreduction was achieved in 148 (77.5%) and 33 (17.3%) patients, respectively. The median follow-up period was 44 months (range, 2-208 months). Multivariate analysis showed the presence of endometriosis (p = .012), lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) (p = .022), any residual disease (p = .023), and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage II-IV disease (p = .045) were negatively correlated with RFS while the only presence of residual disease (p = .002) and FIGO stage II-IV disease (p = .003) significantly decreased OS.

Conclusions: The maximal surgical effort is warranted for complete cytoreduction as achieving no residual disease is the single most important variable affecting the survival of patients with LGSOC. The prognostic role of LVSI and endometriosis should be evaluated by further studies as both of these parameters significantly affected RFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26450DOI Listing
May 2021

Is the extent of lymphadenectomy a prognostic factor in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage II endometrioid endometrial cancer?

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 Mar 10;47(3):1134-1144. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey.

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of adequate lymph node dissection (LND) (≥10 pelvic lymph nodes (LNs) and ≥ 5 paraaortic LNs removed) in patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage II endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC).

Methods: A multicenter department database review was performed to identify patients who had been operated and diagnosed with stage II EEC at seven centers in Turkey retrospectively. Demographic, clinicopathological, and survival data were collected and analyzed.

Results: We identified 284 women with stage II EEC. There were 170 (59.9%) patients in the adequate lymph node dissection (LND) group and 114 (40.1%) in the inadequate LND group. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of the inadequate LND group was significantly lower than that of the adequate LND group (84.1% vs. 89.1%, respectively; p = 0.028). In multivariate analysis, presence of lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-4.63; p = 0.009), age ≥ 60 (HR: 3.30, 95% CI: 1.65-6.57; p = 0.001], and absence of adjuvant therapy (HR: 2.74, 95% CI: 1.40-5.35; p = 0.003) remained as independent risk factors for decreased 5-year disease-free survival (DFS). Inadequate LND (HR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.18-4.63; p < 0.001), age ≥ 60 (HR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.25-5.72; p = 0.011), and absence of adjuvant therapy (HR: 4.95, 95% CI: 2.28-10.73; p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for decreased 5-year OS in multivariate analysis.

Conclusion: Adequate LND and adjuvant therapy were significant for the improvement of outcomes in FIGO stage II EEC patients. Furthermore, LVSI was associated with worse 5-year DFS rate in stage II EEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.14648DOI Listing
March 2021

Management of gynecological cancers in the COVID-19 era: a survey from Turkey

J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc 2020 12;21(4):265-271

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, İstanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey

Objective: This study aimed to investigate how gynecologic oncologists modified their patient management during Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in Turkey.

Material And Methods: An online survey was sent to gynecologic oncology specialists and fellows in Turkey. It included management questions about strategies for newly diagnosed or recurrent endometrial, cervical, ovarian and vulvar cancer during the pandemic. Participants were asked if treatment of these cancers can be delayed or not and, if yes, the duration of delay.

Results: 32.9% of surgeons prescribed oral or intrauterine progesterone for early stage, low-grade endometrial cancer. Conversely, 65.7% and 45.7% of the most surgeons did not change their management for early stage high-grade and advanced stage endometrial cancers respectively, as they perform surgery. 58% and 67.1% of the surgeons continued to prefer standard surgical treatment for microinvasive and early stage cervical cancers, respectively. Radiotherapy was preferred administered with hypofractionated doses for locally advanced cervical cancer (57.1%). While 67.1% of surgeons operated early stage ovarian cancer patients, 50% administered neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) to all advanced stage ovarian cancers and 50% administered more cycles of NACT in preference to interval debulking surgery. 93.7% of the surgeons responded that treatment should not be delayed beyond eight weeks.

Conclusion: Most Turkish gynecologic oncologists modified their management of gynecologic cancers due to the COVID-19 pandemic. While chemotherapy was preferred for ovarian cancer, postponement of the surgery, with or without non-surgical options, was considered for early stage, low-grade endometrial cancer. Treatment of gynecologic cancers should be decided on a case by case basis, taking into account local COVID-19 infection rates and availability of health facilities. Prognosis is also an important consideration if delay is contemplated. Standard treatment and normal time-frames should be used if possible. If not, a postponement for a maximum of eight weeks or referral to another center were acceptable alternatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/jtgga.galenos.2020.2020.0071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7726458PMC
December 2020

Adjuvant Treatment Modalities, Prognostic Factors, and Outcome of the Uterine Carcinosarcoma.

J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2021 01 18;43(1):34-42. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: To determine the impact of adjuvant therapy and other factors associated with the recurrence and survival of patients with uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS).

Methods: A total of 102 patients who underwhent surgery for UCS from 1998 to 2017 were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression.

Results: At 240 months, the actuarial recurrence rate was 34.3%. Distant recurrence was the most common recurrence pattern. Patients with higher CA 125 levels, sarcoma dominance, cervical involvement, advanced stage, no lymphadenectomy, and residual tumour had a significiantly higher risk of recurrence. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 67% and 77%, respectively. FIGO stage was found to be an independent prognostic factor for DFS and OS. Sarcoma dominance was independently associated with decreased OS.

Conclusion: Sarcoma dominance is associated with poor survival in UCS. Adjuvant treatment was not found to affect recurrence or survival. Given this finding, more effective postoperative strategies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogc.2020.06.021DOI Listing
January 2021

Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) in gynecologic oncology: an international survey of peri-operative practice.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2020 10 4;30(10):1471-1478. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Gynecologic Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Introduction: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programs have been shown to improve clinical outcomes in gynecologic oncology, with the majority of published reports originating from a small number of specialized centers. It is unclear to what degree ERAS is implemented in hospitals globally. This international survey investigated the status of ERAS protocol implementation in open gynecologic oncology surgery to provide a worldwide perspective on peri-operative practice patterns.

Methods: Requests to participate in an online survey of ERAS practices were distributed via social media (WhatsApp, Twitter, and Social Link). The survey was active between January 15 and March 15, 2020. Additionally, four national gynecologic oncology societies agreed to distribute the study among their members. Respondents were requested to answer a 17-item questionnaire about their ERAS practice preferences in the pre-, intra-, and post-operative periods.

Results: Data from 454 respondents representing 62 countries were analyzed. Overall, 37% reported that ERAS was implemented at their institution. The regional distribution was: Europe 38%, Americas 33%, Asia 19%, and Africa 10%. ERAS gynecologic oncology guidelines were well adhered to (>80%) in the domains of deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis, early removal of urinary catheter after surgery, and early introduction of ambulation. Areas with poor adherence to the guidelines included the use of bowel preparation, adoption of modern fasting guidelines, carbohydrate loading, use of nasogastric tubes and peritoneal drains, intra-operative temperature monitoring, and early feeding.

Conclusion: This international survey of ERAS in open gynecologic oncology surgery shows that, while some practices are consistent with guideline recommendations, many practices contradict the established evidence. Efforts are required to decrease the variation in peri-operative care that exists in order to improve clinical outcomes for patients with gynecologic cancer globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2020-001683DOI Listing
October 2020

Does lymph node ratio have any prognostic significance in maximally cytoreduced node-positive low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma?

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2020 07 14;302(1):183-190. Epub 2020 May 14.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: To determine the prognostic impact of the lymph node ratio (LNR) in node-positive low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSOC).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed women with LGSOC who had undergone maximal cytoreduction followed by standard chemotherapy in 11 centers from Turkey during a study period of 20 years. Sixty two women with node-positive LGSOC were identified. LNR was defined as the number of metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) divided by the number of total LNs removed. We grouped patients pursuant to the LNR as LNR ≤ 0.09 and LNR > 0.09. The prognostic value of LNR was investigated by employing the univariate log-rank test and multivariate Cox-regression model.

Results: With a median follow-up of 45 months, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 61.7% for women with LNR ≤ 0.09 and 32.0% for those with LNR > 0.09 (p = 0.046) whereas, the 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 72.8% for LNR ≤ 0.09 and 54.7% for LNR > 0.09 (p = 0.043). On multivariate analyses, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) (Hazard Ratio [HR] 4.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.88-9.27; p < 0.001), omental involvement (HR 3.48, 95% CI 1.36-8.84; p = 0.009) and LNR > 0.09 (HR 3.51, 95% CI 1.54-8.03; p = 0.003) were adverse prognostic factors for PFS. Additionally, LVSI (HR 6.56, 95% CI 2.33-18.41; p < 0.001), omental involvement (HR 6.34, 95% CI 1.86-21.57; p = 0.003) and LNR > 0.09 (HR 7.20, 95% CI 2.33-22.26; p = 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for decreased OS.

Conclusion: LNR > 0.09 seems to be an independent prognosticator for decreased survival outcomes in LGSOC patients who received maximal cytoreduction followed by standard adjuvant chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-020-05580-9DOI Listing
July 2020

The prevalence of endometrioma and associated malignant transformation in women over 40 years of age.

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2020 May 12;49(5):101725. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Saglik Bilimleri University Istanbul Kanuni Sultan Suleyman Training and Research Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Objective: Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent chronic disease, which is regarded as a disease of reproductive-aged women. Endometriosis is most frequently diagnosed during reproductive period. We aimed to determine the frequency of endometrioma in women over 40 years of age who were operated for adnexial mass.

Materials And Methods: A total of 1100 women over 40 years of age underwent surgery for adnexal mass were included in this cohort study between 2006 and 2016. Women who met the criteria were compared regarding the type of adnexial mass, age groups, menopausal status and malignant transformation.

Results: A total of 299 women (27.2 %) with benign ovarian mass were determined to have endometrioma. Women with endometrioma were younger and nulliparous more frequently comparing women without endometrioma. Although 20 % of the patients in the endometrioma group were postmenopausal, 70 % of the patients in the control group were postmenopausal. Endometrioma-associated ovarian tumors were developed in nearly 11 % of women with endometrioma.

Conclusions: Even though endometriosis is accepted as a disease of reproductive-aged women, it can occur over 40 years of age. Detailed anamnesis and careful gynecological examination provide key information for differential diagnosis. Accurate information about the risk of malignant transformation should be informed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogoh.2020.101725DOI Listing
May 2020

SATEN III-Splitting Adjuvant Treatment of stage III ENdometrial cancers: an international, multicenter study.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2019 10 2;29(8):1271-1279. Epub 2019 Sep 2.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Introduction: The purposes of this study were to compare adjuvant treatment modalities and to determine prognostic factors in stage III endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC).

Methods: SATEN III was a retrospective study involving 13 centers from 10 countries. Patients who had been operated on between 1998 and 2018 and diagnosed with stage III endometrioid EC were analyzed.

Results: A total of 990 women were identified; 317 with stage IIIA, 18 with stage IIIB, and 655 with stage IIIC diseases. The median follow-up was 42 months. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) of patients with stage III EC by adjuvant treatment modality was 68.5% for radiotherapy (RT), 54.6% for chemotherapy (CT), and 69.4% for chemoradiation (CRT) (p=0.11). The 5-year overall survival (OS) for those patients was 75.6% for RT, 75% for CT, and 80.7% for CRT (p=0.48). For patients with stage IIIA disease treated by RT versus CT versus CRT, the 5-year OS rates were 75.6%, 75.0%, and 80.7%, respectively (p=0.48). Negative peritoneal cytology (HR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.86; p=0.02) and performance of lymphadenectomy (HR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.77, p=0.001) were independent predictors for improved OS for stage IIIA EC. For women with stage IIIC EC treated by RT, CT, and CRT, the 5-year OS rates were 78.9%, 67.0%, and 69.8%, respectively (p=0.08). Independent prognostic factors for better OS for stage IIIC disease were age <60 (HR: 0.50, 95%CI: 0.36 to 0.69, p<0.001), grade 1 or 2 disease (HR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.94, p=0.014; and HR: 0.65, 95%CI: 0.46 to 0.91, p=0.014, respectively), absence of cervical stromal involvement (HR: 063, 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.86, p=0.004) and performance of para-aortic lymphadenectomy (HR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.72, p<0.001).

Discussion: Although not statistically significant, CRT seemed to be a better adjuvant treatment option for stage IIIA endometrioid EC. Systematic lymphadenectomy seemed to improve survival outcomes in stage III endometrioid EC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2019-000643DOI Listing
October 2019

Ykl-40 and cancer antigen 72-4 as new and promising diagnostic and prognostic markers for endometrial cancer.

Turk J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec 9;15(4):235-242. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

İstanbul University Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, İstanbul,Turkey.

Objective: To determine the predictive role of serum levels of YKL-40 and cancer antigen (CA) 72-4 in the diagnosis of endometrial cancer (EC).

Materials And Methods: Forty-one patients with EC and 21 women with uterine polyps were evaluated between January and December 2015 in a prospective study.

Results: Age, body mass index, preoperative serum YKL-40 and CA 72-4 levels were significantly higher in the malignant group compared with the control group. Serum YKL-40 levels were significantly higher in patients with superficial myometrial invasion and no lymph node involvement (p=0.042; p=0.004). No relationship between clinicopathologic factors and serum CA 72-4 levels was found.

Conclusion: Serum CA 72-4 and YKL-40 levels are increased in women with EC compared with uterine polyps. Preoperative serum YKL-40 levels may be associated with favorable prognostic factors. The determination of YKL-40 before surgery may be helpful in the evaluation of the regional lymph nodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tjod.77906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334238PMC
December 2018

Simple vaginal trachelectomy for early stage cervical cancer: A tertiary cancer center experience.

Ginekol Pol 2018 ;89(9):475-480

Objectives: Less radical fertility sparing procedures have been introduced to reduce morbidity and adverse obstetric outcome in cervical cancer. Our objective was to describe oncological and obstetric outcomes of women with early-stage cervical cancer who underwent a simple vaginal trachelectomy (SVT).

Material And Methods: From 01/2013 to 05/2017, 14 women underwent SVT preceded by laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection.

Results: Patients' median age was 32 years and all of them were nulliparous. Histology included squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma in 12 (85.7%) and 2 (14.3%) patients, respectively. Three patients had stage 1A1 with lymphovascular space invasion, 4 1A2 and 7 1B1. After obtaining final histopathology, one patient underwent radical hysterectomy due to positive surgical margin and excluded from analysis. None of the patients had lymph node metastasis. None of the 13 patients developed a recurrence within a median follow-up of 27 (6-56) months. Seven patients have conceived: 4 were term deliveries, 2 were late preterm deliveries and 1 was spontaneous abortion.

Conclusions: SVT in well selected early-stage cervical cancer patients seems to be a safe treatment option with excellent oncologic outcome, preserving reproductive function. Literature data will need to be confirmed in large prospective series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.a2018.0081DOI Listing
April 2019

The use of colposcopic punch biopsy in the management of abnormal cervical cytology: a 5-year retrospective audit.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2019 Jan 19;39(1):110-114. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

a Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine , Istanbul University , Istanbul , Turkey.

The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of colposcopic punch biopsy to detect cervical epithelial neoplasia (CIN) II + in patients with abnormal cervical cytology and the major colposcopic findings in patients who underwent a loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), subsequently. A total of 231 patients with abnormal cervical cytology who underwent a colposcopy guided cervical biopsy and subsequent LEEP were analysed. The mean age was 33.4 ± 8.7 years. CIN II + rate on LEEP pathology was significantly higher in patients with high-grade cytology, compared to those with a low-grade cytology (92 vs. 55%, p < .0001). CIN II + was found in 80, 98 and 100% of colpocopic biopsies of patients with LSIL, HSIL and AGC, respectively. The overall concordance rate between a colposcopic biopsy and LEEP was 41% with a kappa coefficient. The overall underestimation of CIN II + was 10.5%. On a patient-based analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of colposcopic biopsy were 89.4, 47.1, 79.5 and 66%, respectively. More than two cervical biopsies had 100% sensitivity for CIN II + on LEEP pathology. The specificity and PPV decreased with increasing number of cervical biopsies. A see-and-treat strategy may be considered for high-grade cytologies. Patients with a low-grade cytology should be managed with more than two colposcopic biopsies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2018.1468740DOI Listing
January 2019

YKL-40 in the diagnosis, prediction of prognosis, and platinum sensitivity in serous epithelial ovarian cancer.

Turk J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Sep 3;15(3):177-181. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

İstanbul University Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry, İstanbul, Turkey.

Objective: To evaluate the use of YKL-40 in the discrimination between benign and malignant adnexal mass and to determine its prognostic value in assessing residual tumor after primary cytoreduction and platinum sensitivity in serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC).

Materials And Methods: During the three years from January 2015 to December 2017, a nonconsecutive series of 100 patient (60 malignant, 40 benign) who underwent surgery for an adnexal mass were enrolled in the study. Preoperatively, serum samples were collected for YKL-40 level analysis.

Results: YKL-40 [receiver operator characteristics (ROC)-area under curve (AUC)=0.83] was a significantly better predictor of EOC than cancer antigen-125 (ROC-AUC=0.75). Using a cut-off for YKL-40 of 47.7 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 70%. Higher serum YKL-40 levels were associated with advanced stage, higher grade, residual tumor after primary cytoreduction and recurrence. Platinum-sensitive patients had significantly elevated levels of YKL-40 compared with platinum-resistant or refractory patients.

Conclusion: The results obtained from our study support the use of serum YKL-40 for the discrimination between malignant and benign ovarian tumors. YKL-40 levels in patients with serous EOC may also predict disease residual disease after primary cytoreduction and recurrence. Further studies are needed to understand the relationship between YKL-40 and platinum sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tjod.28459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6127478PMC
September 2018

Concomitant endometriosis in malignant and borderline ovarian tumours.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2018 Nov 8;38(8):1104-1109. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical School , İstanbul University , İstanbul , Turkey.

The aim of the study was to reveal the prevalence of concomitant endometriosis in malignant and borderline ovarian tumours. A retrospective analysis was performed of 530 patients with malignant ovarian tumours and 131 with borderline ovarian tumours, who underwent surgery in our hospital between 1995 and 2011. Forty-eight (7.3%) of 661 patients with malignant and borderline ovarian tumours were associated with endometriosis. Of the 48 endometriosis cases, 73% of those were atypical. Infertility was noted in 38% of patients with endometriosis-associated ovarian tumours. The most frequently endometriosis-associated subtypes were endometrioid (33%) and clear cell (18%) histologies. Of endometriosis-associated endometrioid and clear cell ovarian tumours, 70% were early stage and 60% were premenopausal. The prevalence of concomitant endometriosis in borderline tumours (12%) was found to be significantly higher than that found in the malignant ones (6%; p = .02). Of 32 endometriosis-associated malignant ovarian tumours, 69% were FIGO stages I and II. In conclusion, ovarian endometriosis is seen with both malignant and borderline ovarian tumours, the association being significant with borderline tumours. Fortunately, the endometriosis-associated malignant ovarian tumours are mostly early stage. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Epidemiologic data suggest that endometriosis has malignant potential. However, a subgroup of women with endometriosis at a high risk for ovarian cancer is yet to be clarified. Currently, endometriosis and ovarian cancer association does not seem to have a clinical implication. What do the results of this study add? The findings of this study revealed that nearly 75% of endometriosis-associated ovarian tumours were of atypical endometriosis. Half of endometriosis-associated ovarian tumour cases were of endometrioid/clear cell histology and 70% were early-stage. Endometriosis was significantly associated with borderline ovarian tumours and the endometriosis-associated malignant ovarian tumours were mostly early stage. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Additional studies need to be conducted to develop screening approaches for malignant transformation or an association in women with endometriosis. Till that time, a change of current clinical practices cannot be justified. However, counselling and treating women with endometriosis who are at high risk for cancer coexistence or conversion is encouraged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2018.1441815DOI Listing
November 2018

A Very Rare Case: HPV-Negative Vulvar Cancer in an Adolescent.

Case Rep Obstet Gynecol 2018 1;2018:1816782. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Carcinoma of the vulva is usually regarded as a disease of older women, with the typical age of 65-85 years. There are a limited number of reports of vulvar cancer cases younger than 30 years. These patients have usually risk factors such as human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and immunosuppression. Herein, we present a case of invasive squamous vulvar cancer in an 18-year-old patient without any risk factor. Vulvar radical local excision and bilateral inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed. The clitoris was preserved during the surgery. Patient did not receive adjuvant therapy. Follow-up after 12 months of the disease showed no evidence of disease. Vulvar carcinoma in very young women may develop without any predisposing factor. Early detection will result in better survival. So, there should be a high index of suspicion when a vulvar lesion is seen, even if the patient falls below the typical age range and does not carry any well-known risk factors such as HPV infection and immunodeficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/1816782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5816857PMC
February 2018

The Role of Pathological Margin Distance and Prognostic Factors After Primary Surgery in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2018 03;28(3):623-631

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of clear surgical margin distance and other factors associated with the recurrence and survival of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva.

Methods/materials: A total of 107 patients operated for vulvar carcinoma from 1996 to 2016 were included in the analysis. Patients were divided into subgroups with clear pathological margin of 2 mm or less, greater than 2 to less than 8 mm, and 8 mm or greater for the analysis of the prognostic impact of the clear margin distance. Data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression.

Results: The median age of the patients was 66 years. The median follow-up was 69 months. The labia majora and/or labia minora were the most common sites of involvement. Radical local excision and radical vulvectomy were performed in 96 and 11 patients, respectively. Thirty-nine patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. The overall recurrence rate was 46%. At 231 months, the actuarial local recurrence rate was 18.6%. Patients with clear pathological margin of 2 mm or less had significantly higher local recurrence risk. Five-year disease-free survival was 32.7%. Older age and adjuvant chemotherapy were found as independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that a more than 2 mm tumor-free margins is associated with better local control. In addition, older age is an independent prognostic factor for survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0000000000001195DOI Listing
March 2018

See and treat strategy by LEEP conization in patients with abnormal cervical cytology.

Ginekol Pol 2017 ;88(7):349-354

Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty; Medical Faculty, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa, Turkey.

Objectives: To determine the overtreatment and re-LEEP rates of see and treat strategy (S & T) in women who underwent S & T by LEEP and to identify the risk factors for overtreatment and surgical margin and/or endocervical curettage positivity.

Material And Methods: A total of 800 patients who underwent S & T in Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty between June 2010 and June 2016 were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: Overtreatment rate was found to be 46.6%, decreasing with higher grade of cervical smear abnormalities. Age more than 45, low grade of cervical cytologic abnormality and absence of glandular involvement were associated with higher overtreatment rates. The more advanced the histopathology, the more increased risk of surgical margin on LEEP and ECC positivity (p < 0.0001, for both). Glandular involvement was associated with both surgical margin and ECC positivity.

Conclusions: S & T can be used in patients with high grade cytologic anomaly with an acceptable overtreatment rate. In addition, bigger pieces of specimens may need to be removed during LEEP in patients who have suspicious images of higher grade of abnormalities on colposcopy to reduce surgical margin or ECC positivity. When high rate of ECC positivity in patients with HSIL cytology is considered, we suggest performing ECC to every patients with HSIL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.a2017.0066DOI Listing
July 2018

Factors associated with survival after relapse in patients with low-risk endometrial cancer treated with surgery alone.

J Gynecol Oncol 2017 Sep 16;28(5):e65. Epub 2017 Jun 16.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Health Sciences, Izmir, Turkey.

Objective: To determine factors influencing overall survival following recurrence (OSFR) in women with low-risk endometrial cancer (EC) treated with surgery alone.

Methods: A multicenter, retrospective department database review was performed to identify patients with recurrent "low-risk EC" (patients having less than 50% myometrial invasion [MMI] with grade 1 or 2 endometrioid EC) at 10 gynecologic oncology centers in Turkey. Demographic, clinicopathological, and survival data were collected.

Results: We identified 67 patients who developed recurrence of their EC after initially being diagnosed and treated for low-risk EC. For the entire study cohort, the median time to recurrence (TTR) was 23 months (95% confidence interval [CI]=11.5-34.5; standard error [SE]=5.8) and the median OSFR was 59 months (95% CI=12.7-105.2; SE=23.5). We observed 32 (47.8%) isolated vaginal recurrences, 6 (9%) nodal failures, 19 (28.4%) peritoneal failures, and 10 (14.9%) hematogenous disseminations. Overall, 45 relapses (67.2%) were loco-regional whereas 22 (32.8%) were extrapelvic. According to the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Trial-99, 7 (10.4%) out of 67 women with recurrent low-risk EC were qualified as high-intermediate risk (HIR). The 5-year OSFR rate was significantly higher for patients with TTR ≥36 months compared to those with TTR <36 months (74.3% compared to 33%, p=0.001). On multivariate analysis for OSFR, TTR <36 months (hazard ratio [HR]=8.46; 95% CI=1.65-43.36; p=0.010) and presence of HIR criteria (HR=4.62; 95% CI=1.69-12.58; p=0.003) were significant predictors.

Conclusion: Low-risk EC patients recurring earlier than 36 months and those carrying HIR criteria seem more likely to succumb to their tumors after recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3802/jgo.2017.28.e65DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5540724PMC
September 2017

Cytoreductive Surgery Followed by Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Recurrent Ovarian Cancer with Incidental Bochdalek Hernia and Postoperative Bilateral Thalamic Infarct: A Case Report.

Case Rep Oncol 2017 Jan-Apr;10(1):265-271. Epub 2017 Mar 28.

aDivision of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey.

Congenital Bochdalek hernia is a defect of the diaphragm and very rare in adults. Only around 100 cases have been reported in the literature. Herein, we present a case with a recurrent ovarian cancer who underwent secondary cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. An oval defect with dimensions of 3 × 4 cm was seen in the left posterolateral site of the diaphragm during surgical exploration. In addition, a 6 × 3 cm iatrogenic right-sided diaphragmatic defect was found and repaired. In the early postoperative period, a bilateral thalamic infarction occurred.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000468980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5422726PMC
March 2017

Is serum level of nestin useful in detecting epithelial ovarian cancer?

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2017 Feb 19;43(2):371-377. Epub 2016 Dec 19.

Department of Biochemistry, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of nestin as a discriminative marker between benign and malignant ovarian tumors.

Methods: During the 1 year from January 2015 through December 2015, a nonconsecutive series of 80 patients (40 malignant, 40 benign) who underwent surgery for an adnexal mass were enrolled in the study. Intraoperative frozen section evaluation was performed if there was a suspicion in diagnosis. Statistical analyses were performed using spss ver. 16.0, while clinicopathological variables, including the categorical data, were analyzed using the χ -test or Fisher's exact test. A P-value < 0.05 was defined as statistically significant.

Results: Preoperative serum carbohydrate antigen (CA)-125, CA-15-3, and nestin levels were significantly higher in the malignant group compared to patients with benign ovarian tumors (P < 0.001, respectively). Serum nestin levels did not differ significantly on the basis of histologic subtypes. Serum nestin levels had specificity of 89.7%, which demonstrates nestin's sufficiency to distinguish benign from malignant epithelial ovarian tumors. The positive likelihood ratio of nestin was found to be superior to that of CA-125 and CA-15-3.

Conclusion: The results obtained from our study suggest that measurement of nestin level, alongside physical examination, transvaginal ultrasound, and serum CA-125 and CA-15-3 levels, can help differentiate benign ovarian tumors from malignant epithelial ovarian tumors. The findings of our study need to be supported with additional studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.13220DOI Listing
February 2017

Postoperative upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in a gynecologic oncology patient: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2016 3;29:120-122. Epub 2016 Nov 3.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Introduction: Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) represents approximately 10% of all thromboembolic events. It is a rare condition after a gynecologic surgery and highly related with pulmonary embolism.

Presentation Of Case: Herein, we present a very rare case of a unilateral left upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in a morbidly obese patient with synchronous primary cancers of endometrium and ovary.

Discussion: Our aim was to underline the relationship between the presence of gynecologic malignancy, oncologic surgery and UEDVT.

Conclusion: Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis should be kept in mind in the presence of any symptom on upper extremity during postoperative period even in patients without central venous catheter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2016.10.066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5109250PMC
November 2016

The Combination of Preoperative Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in the Surgical Management of Endometrioid Endometrial Cancer.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2016 09;26(7):1228-38

*Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine; †Department of Pathology, Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine; ‡Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine; §Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Okmeydani Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate the combination of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping and F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan in detection of lymph node involvement in patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC).

Methods/materials: Ninety-five patients with EEC who had preoperative PET/CT imaging and underwent SLN mapping were retrospectively analyzed. Methylene blue dye was used and injected to the cervix at 3- and 9-o'clock positions (a total of 4 mL). Pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed on all of the patients after SLN mapping. If the SLN was negative in the initial hematoxylin and eosin staining, an ultrastaging study was performed for the SLNs.

Results: Sentinel lymph nodes were detected in 77 (81.1%) of 95 patients, with a mean of 2.95 SLNs. There was only 1 case (1.4%) with a positive SLN in the intraoperative frozen section examination in those patients with negative PET/CT findings and in whom SLNs were detected (n = 70). Among the remaining 69 patients with negative preoperative PET/CT findings and negative frozen section results for the SLNs, there were 2 patients with SLN involvement in the final ultrastaging pathology. In the patient-based analyses, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the PET/CT and SLN frozen section were 33%, 100%, 100%, and 97.1%, respectively.

Conclusions: As no metastases in the nonsentinel pelvic lymph nodes were found in patients with EEC who had both negative PET/CT findings and frozen section results of the SLNs in both hemipelvises, we suggest using both methods to reduce the incidence of unnecessary systematic lymphadenectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0000000000000773DOI Listing
September 2016

Risk factors for recurrence of borderline ovarian tumours: A tertiary centre experience.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2016 Nov 25;36(8):1036-1040. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology , Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University , Istanbul , Turkey.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for recurrence of borderline ovarian tumours. This study investigated 127 women who were finally diagnosed with borderline epithelial ovarian tumours. Most of them were diagnosed in stage I (83.4%). With a median follow-up of 81.8 months (range: 14-205), the median time to recurrence was 22.4 months (range: 3-74). Five-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 85.8% and 97.6%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, invasive implants and fertility-sparing surgery were found to be independent prognostic factors for 5-year RFS. Overall, 20 patients (15.7%) experienced relapse within the observation period. Although there is no consensus about high-risk category of borderline ovarian tumours, invasive implants and conservative surgery were closely related to the recurrence. Patients presenting these risk factors should undergo closer follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2016.1188276DOI Listing
November 2016

Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracies of Serum HE-4 Levels and 3D Power Doppler Angiography Parameters between Benign Endometrial Pathologies and Endometrial Cancer.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 ;17(5):2507-11

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Sisli, Istanbul E-mail :

Purpose: To study the diagnostic accuracies of serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE-4) levels, virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL) parameters and endometrial volume in endometrial cancer cases.

Materials And Methods: One hundred and seven patients (37 with endometrial cancer and 70 with benign endometrial pathology) were included in this study. VOCAL parameters and serum HE-4 levels were compared between the groups.

Results: Area under the curve (AUC) values were 0.702, 0.658, 0.706 for vascularization index (VI), the flow index (FI) and the vascularization flow index (VFI), respectively. A cut off value of 0.568 for VI demonstrated 70% sensitivity, 72% specificity, 56% positive predictive value (PPV) and a81% negative predictive value (NPV). A cut off value of 25.8 for showed a senitivith of 70% and a specificity of 58% with aPPV of 46% and NPV of 78%, and with a cut off value of 0.12 for VFI 70%, 69%, 54% and 81%, respectively. The area under the curve for HE-4 was 0.814. A cut off value of 458 pmol/L was predictive of malignancy with 86% sensitivity and 63% specificity.

Conclusions: VOCAL parameters and serum HE-4 levels were statistically significantly higher in the endometrial cancer patients. Serum HE-4 levels provided a greater sensitivity compared to power doppler angiography for predicting malignancy or benign endometrial pathology.
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January 2017

Tertiary Cytoreduction for Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: a Multicenter Study in Turkey.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 ;17(4):1909-15

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey E-mail : [email protected] hotmail.com.

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the benefit of tertiary cytoreductive surgery (TC) for secondary recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), focusing on whether optimal cytoreduction has an impact on disease-free survival, and whether certain patient characteristics could identify ideal candidates for TC.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective analysis of secondary recurrent EOC patients undergoing TC at three Turkish tertiary institutions from May 1997 to July 2014 was performed. All patients had previously received primary cytoreduction followed by intravenous platinum-based chemotherapy and secondary cytoreduction for first recurrence. Clinical and pathological data were obtained from the patients' medical records. Survival analysis was caried out using the Kaplan Meier method. Actuarial curves were compared by the two tailed Logrank test with a statistical significance level of 0.05.

Results: Median age of the patients was 49.6 years (range, 30-67) and thirty-eight (72%) had stage III-IV disease at initial diagnosis. Twenty six (49%) had optimal and 27 (51%) suboptimal cytoreduction during tertiary debulking surgery . Optimal initial cytoreduction, time to first recurrence, optimal secondary cytoreduction, time interval between secondary cytoreduction and secondary recurrence, size of recurrence, disease status at last follow-up were found to be significant risk factors to predict optimal TC. Optimal cytoreduction in initial and tertiary surgery and serum CA-125 level prior to TC were independent prognostic factors on univariate analysis.

Conclusions: Our results and a literature review clearly showed that maximal surgical effort should be made in TC, since patients undergoing optimal TC have a better survival. Thus, patients with secondary recurrent EOC in whom optimal cytoreduction can be achieved should be actively selected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2016.17.4.1909DOI Listing
January 2017

Rare cutaneous metastasis in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma without any distant organ spread.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2016 Jul 12;36(5):692-3. Epub 2016 May 12.

a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology , Cerrahpasa School of Medicine, Istanbul University , Istanbul , Turkey and.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01443615.2016.1154515DOI Listing
July 2016

Surgical Treatment of Metastatic Ovarian Tumors From Extragenital Primary Sites.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2016 May;26(4):688-96

*Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine; and †Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Istanbul University Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcomes and prognostic factors of metastasectomy in patients with metastatic ovarian tumors from extragenital primary sites.

Materials And Methods: All patients with pathologically confirmed metastatic ovarian tumors between January 1997 and June 2015 were included in this study. A total of 131 patients were identified. The data were obtained from the patients' medical records. Clinicopathological features were evaluated by both univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: The primary sites were colorectal region (53.4%), stomach (26%), and breast (13%). Preoperative serum CA 125 and CA 19-9 levels were elevated in 29.4% and 39.8% of the patients, respectively. Cytoreductive surgery was performed in 41.2% of the patients. Seventy-three (55.7%) patients had no residual disease after surgery. Sixty-six (49.6%) patients had combined metastases at the time of the surgery to sites including the liver, pancreas, lung, bone, lymph nodes, bladder, or the intestine. With a median follow-up of 33 months, the median survival time was 22 months. The estimated 5-year survival probability is 0.26. On univariate analysis, primary cancer site, combined metastasis outside the ovaries, residual disease, preoperative serum CA 125 and CA 19-9 levels, and histologic type were significant parameters for overall survival. Furthermore, residual disease, preoperative serum CA 19-9 level, and primary cancer site were found to be independent prognostic factors on multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: The most common primary sites for ovarian metastasis are gastrointestinal tract. Metastasectomy may have beneficial effects on survival, especially if the residual disease is less than 5 mm. Prospective studies warranted to evaluate the value of metastasectomy in patients with ovarian metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0000000000000673DOI Listing
May 2016

Expression of PTEN and β-Catenin and Their Relationship With Clinicopathological and Prognostic Factors in Endometrioid Type Endometrial Cancer.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2016 Mar;26(3):512-20

*Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty; †Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Şişli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital; ‡Department of Pathology, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey; and §Obstetrics and Gynecology, Klinikum Oldenburg University, Oldenburg, Germany.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate rates of expression of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and β-catenin and their relationship with clinicopathological and prognostic factors in endometrioid type endometrial cancer (EC).

Methods And Materials: PTEN and β-catenin expressions of 59 operated patients with EC between January 2000 and December 2008 and followed-up until December 2014 in Cerrahpasa School of Medicine, Gynecologic Oncology Division, were evaluated retrospectively. Clinical data were obtained from patient files, and pathological data were obtained from pathology records. Each patient had 4 paraffin sections of tumoral tissue. These sections were stained by immunohistochemical methods. Clinical features and postoperative histopathologic findings were analyzed using Fisher exact test or the χ(2) test as appropriate. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate the survival curves.

Results: During median follow-up of 102 months, tumor recurrence and disease-related mortality were observed in 10 (16.9%) and 7 (11.9%) cases, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining of PTEN and β-catenin were positive in 61% and 69.5% of all cases, respectively. Positive staining of PTEN was positively correlated with myometrial invasion (P= 0.02). There was no correlation between β-catenin and clinicopathological factors. PTEN or β-catenin positivity were not significant prognostic factors for 5-year overall survival (P = 0.37, P = 0.62, respectively) and 5-year disease-free survival (P = 0.28, P = 0.58, respectively).

Conclusions: PTEN and β-catenin expressions cannot be used to determine prognosis in patients with EC as PTEN and β-catenin staining status were found to have no significant effect on 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival. Positive staining of PTEN may be associated with increased myometrial invasion. Meta-analyses and broader studies are needed to evaluate the prognostic value of PTEN and β-catenin in EC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0000000000000626DOI Listing
March 2016

Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the cervix: A case report and review of the literature.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2016 6;21:1-5. Epub 2016 Feb 6.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Turkey.

Introduction: Primary signet cell carcinoma of the cervix has been reported only in 18 cases to date.

Presentation Of Case: A 48-year-old woman was seen at our Gynecologic Oncology Unit, because she complained postcoital bleeding during the last three months. She had 1-2 cm cervical mass, originating from the endocervical canal. A biopsy revealed a signet ring cell-type adenocarcinoma. Suspected primary sites were excluded after gastroscopy, colonoscopy and mammography. The patient underwent a laparoscopic type-3 radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection and paraaortic lymph node dissection with a presumed diagnosis of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the cervix. Microscopically, the tumour consisted of 70% signet ring cell type and 30% endocervical adenocarcinoma. She did not receive any adjuvant treatment. Follow-up at 18 months after surgery showed no evidence of recurrence.

Discussion: Nineteenth case of a primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the cervix was presented. Immunohistochemical studies and HPV DNA positivity may help in diagnosis.

Conclusion: It is crucial to differentiate primary tumour from metastatic signet cell carcinoma, while treatment and prognosis differ significantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2016.02.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4802128PMC
April 2016

Serous Ovarian Carcinoma Recurring as Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumor.

Case Rep Obstet Gynecol 2015 2;2015:612824. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa School of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34098 Istanbul, Turkey.

Only five cases of recurrence of malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (carcinosarcoma) from the ovarian carcinoma have been published in the literature to our knowledge. A 64-year-old woman first underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy because of pelvic mass. Histological diagnosis was serous papillary carcinoma of the left ovary. After six courses of chemotherapy, CA125 level returned to normal range. However, she had persistent multiple mediastinal and para-aortic lymphadenopathies in spite of additional six courses of chemotherapy. Then she underwent the second operation about 2 years after primary surgery. Multiple excisional biopsies were taken from subcutaneous tissue, over the bowels and the left external iliac artery. The histopathological diagnosis which was confirmed by immunohistochemical study was malignant mixed Mullerian tumor for all metastatic foci. A rare case of ovarian serous papillary carcinoma recurring as malignant mixed Mullerian tumor is reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/612824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4680106PMC
December 2015

Synchronous Primary Cancers of the Endometrium and Ovary With the Same Histopathologic Type Versus Endometrial Cancer With Ovarian Metastasis: A Single Institution Review of 72 Cases.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2016 Feb;26(2):394-406

*Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and †Department of Pathology, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes of women with simultaneous endometrial and ovarian carcinomas having the same histopathologic type.

Materials And Methods: A review of medical records from 1997 to 2015 identified 72 patients with simultaneous carcinomas of the endometrium and ovary with the same histopathologic type. Patients with synchronous primary cancers of endometrium and ovary (SCEOs) were compared with patients with primary endometrial cancer with ovarian metastasis (ECOM). Clinical and pathological data were obtained from the patients' medical records. Clinicopathological variables including categorical data were analyzed by χ(2) or Fisher exact test and continuous data by a Student t test. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed and compared by using the log-rank test.

Results: A univariate and multivariate analysis of 72 patients with SCEO with the same histopathologic type revealed that SCEO is an independent prognostic factor of 10-year overall survival. There were 31 patients in the SCEO group and 41 patients in the ECOM group. With a mean follow-up time of 68.2 months, the 10-year overall survival rates were 61.3% and 36.6% in SCEO and ECOM groups, respectively (P = 0.029). Age, menopausal status, stage of ovarian cancer, performing lymphadenectomy, grade of endometrial tumor, omental metastasis, and residual tumor were found to be significant risk factors for recurrence in the synchronous group.

Conclusions: The differentiation between SCEO and ECOM is of great clinical importance while our results showed a better prognosis for patients with SCEO compared with patients with ECOM. More aggressive therapeutic approaches may be considered for patients with SCEO who are older, postmenopausal, and/or have advanced grade of endometrial tumor, omental metastasis, and residual tumor. Lymphadenectomy should be performed in every patient with SCEO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0000000000000600DOI Listing
February 2016