Publications by authors named "Frida Sidik"

6 Publications

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Mangrove blue carbon stocks and dynamics are controlled by hydrogeomorphic settings and land-use change.

Glob Chang Biol 2020 05 24;26(5):3028-3039. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia.

Globally, carbon-rich mangrove forests are deforested and degraded due to land-use and land-cover change (LULCC). The impact of mangrove deforestation on carbon emissions has been reported on a global scale; however, uncertainty remains at subnational scales due to geographical variability and field data limitations. We present an assessment of blue carbon storage at five mangrove sites across West Papua Province, Indonesia, a region that supports 10% of the world's mangrove area. The sites are representative of contrasting hydrogeomorphic settings and also capture change over a 25-years LULCC chronosequence. Field-based assessments were conducted across 255 plots covering undisturbed and LULCC-affected mangroves (0-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 25-year-old post-harvest or regenerating forests as well as 15-year-old aquaculture ponds). Undisturbed mangroves stored total ecosystem carbon stocks of 182-2,730 (mean ± SD: 1,087 ± 584) Mg C/ha, with the large variation driven by hydrogeomorphic settings. The highest carbon stocks were found in estuarine interior (EI) mangroves, followed by open coast interior, open coast fringe and EI forests. Forest harvesting did not significantly affect soil carbon stocks, despite an elevated dead wood density relative to undisturbed forests, but it did remove nearly all live biomass. Aquaculture conversion removed 60% of soil carbon stock and 85% of live biomass carbon stock, relative to reference sites. By contrast, mangroves left to regenerate for more than 25 years reached the same level of biomass carbon compared to undisturbed forests, with annual biomass accumulation rates of 3.6 ± 1.1 Mg C ha  year . This study shows that hydrogeomorphic setting controls natural dynamics of mangrove blue carbon stocks, while long-term land-use changes affect carbon loss and gain to a substantial degree. Therefore, current land-based climate policies must incorporate landscape and land-use characteristics, and their related carbon management consequences, for more effective emissions reduction targets and restoration outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217146PMC
May 2020

Monitoring mangrove forests after aquaculture abandonment using time series of very high spatial resolution satellite images: A case study from the Perancak estuary, Bali, Indonesia.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Jun 24;131(Pt B):61-71. Epub 2017 Jun 24.

Herbarium Bogoriense, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Bogor, Indonesia.

Revegetation of abandoned aquaculture regions should be a priority for any integrated coastal zone management (ICZM). This paper examines the potential of a matchless time series of 20 very high spatial resolution (VHSR) optical satellite images acquired for mapping trends in the evolution of mangrove forests from 2001 to 2015 in an estuary fragmented into aquaculture ponds. Evolution of mangrove extent was quantified through robust multitemporal analysis based on supervised image classification. Results indicated that mangroves are expanding inside and outside ponds and over pond dykes. However, the yearly expansion rate of vegetation cover greatly varied between replanted ponds. Ground truthing showed that only Rhizophora species had been planted, whereas natural mangroves consist of Avicennia and Sonneratia species. In addition, the dense Rhizophora plantations present very low regeneration capabilities compared with natural mangroves. Time series of VHSR images provide comprehensive and intuitive level of information for the support of ICZM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.05.056DOI Listing
June 2018

Policy challenges and approaches for the conservation of mangrove forests in Southeast Asia.

Conserv Biol 2016 10 20;30(5):933-49. Epub 2016 Aug 20.

Institute for Marine Research and Observation, Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Affairs, Jalan Baru Perancak, Negara-Jembrana, Bali, 82251, Indonesia.

Many drivers of mangrove forest loss operate over large scales and are most effectively addressed by policy interventions. However, conflicting or unclear policy objectives exist at multiple tiers of government, resulting in contradictory management decisions. To address this, we considered four approaches that are being used increasingly or could be deployed in Southeast Asia to ensure sustainable livelihoods and biodiversity conservation. First, a stronger incorporation of mangroves into marine protected areas (that currently focus largely on reefs and fisheries) could resolve some policy conflicts and ensure that mangroves do not fall through a policy gap. Second, examples of community and government comanagement exist, but achieving comanagement at scale will be important in reconciling stakeholders and addressing conflicting policy objectives. Third, private-sector initiatives could protect mangroves through existing and novel mechanisms in degraded areas and areas under future threat. Finally, payments for ecosystem services (PES) hold great promise for mangrove conservation, with carbon PES schemes (known as blue carbon) attracting attention. Although barriers remain to the implementation of PES, the potential to implement them at multiple scales exists. Closing the gap between mangrove conservation policies and action is crucial to the improved protection and management of this imperiled coastal ecosystem and to the livelihoods that depend on them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12784DOI Listing
October 2016

Effect of high sedimentation rates on surface sediment dynamics and mangrove growth in the Porong River, Indonesia.

Mar Pollut Bull 2016 Jun 3;107(1):355-363. Epub 2016 Apr 3.

The School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.

Large quantities of mud from the LUSI (Lumpur Sidoarjo) volcano in northeastern Java have been channeled to the sea causing high rates of sediment delivery to the mouth of the Porong River, which has a cover of natural and planted mangroves. This study investigated how the high rates of sediment delivery affected vertical accretion, surface elevation change and the growth of Avicennia sp., the dominant mangrove species in the region. During our observations in 2010-2011 (4-5years after the initial volcanic eruption), very high rates of sedimentation in the forests at the mouth of the river gave rise to high vertical accretion of over 10cmy(-1). The high sedimentation rates not only resulted in reduced growth of Avicennia sp. mangrove trees at the two study sites at the Porong River mouth, but also gave rise to high soil surface elevation gains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.02.048DOI Listing
June 2016

The vulnerability of Indo-Pacific mangrove forests to sea-level rise.

Nature 2015 Oct 14;526(7574):559-63. Epub 2015 Oct 14.

University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Sea-level rise can threaten the long-term sustainability of coastal communities and valuable ecosystems such as coral reefs, salt marshes and mangroves. Mangrove forests have the capacity to keep pace with sea-level rise and to avoid inundation through vertical accretion of sediments, which allows them to maintain wetland soil elevations suitable for plant growth. The Indo-Pacific region holds most of the world's mangrove forests, but sediment delivery in this region is declining, owing to anthropogenic activities such as damming of rivers. This decline is of particular concern because the Indo-Pacific region is expected to have variable, but high, rates of future sea-level rise. Here we analyse recent trends in mangrove surface elevation changes across the Indo-Pacific region using data from a network of surface elevation table instruments. We find that sediment availability can enable mangrove forests to maintain rates of soil-surface elevation gain that match or exceed that of sea-level rise, but for 69 per cent of our study sites the current rate of sea-level rise exceeded the soil surface elevation gain. We also present a model based on our field data, which suggests that mangrove forests at sites with low tidal range and low sediment supply could be submerged as early as 2070.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature15538DOI Listing
October 2015

CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

PLoS One 2013 5;8(6):e66329. Epub 2013 Jun 5.

The School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0066329PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3674011PMC
January 2014
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