Publications by authors named "Frederic Flament"

23 Publications

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Comparing the self-perceived effects of a facial anti-aging product to those automatically detected from selfie images of Chinese women of different ages and cities.

Skin Res Technol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

ModiFace, A L'Oréal Group Company, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objective: To assess the agreement, after 1-month application of a popular and efficient anti-aging product, between self-perceived facial signs of aging and those detected and graded by an automatic A.I-based system, using smartphones' selfie images.

Material And Methods: Of 1065 Chinese women, aged 18-60 years, from eight different Chinese cities were recruited. They were asked to apply daily, for 1 month, a referential anti-aging product onto their whole face. Selfie images were taken by all subjects at D and D and sent to our facilities for being analyzed through 10 different facial signs. At D , all subjects were asked to fill a questionnaire on the status of their faces, through six general statements.

Results: A global agreement between both approaches is reached, particularly among women older than 40 years where the severity of facial signs is already more pronounced or among younger women who present at least facial signs scored above one grading units. This limit becomes, therefore, a prerequisite in the recruitment of Chinese subjects in the case of anti-aging applied studies and possible automatically based on automatic grading system. When respecting such conditions, the positive effects of the product on most facial signs can be demonstrated after 28 days of successive applications.

Conclusion: Such methodological approach paves the road in fulfilling the need of consumers of a better transparency in the claims of an anti-aging product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.13037DOI Listing
April 2021

The respective weights of facial signs on the perception of age and a tired-look among differently aged Korean men.

Skin Res Technol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

L'Oréal Research and Innovation, Clichy, France.

Objectives: To determine the respective weights of certain facial signs on the assessment of the perceived age and a tired-look on Korean men of different ages.

Material And Methods: Photographs were taken of the faces of 101 Korean men (20-80 years) under standardized conditions. These photographs allowed to define 16 signs, which were then graded by 15 experts/dermatologists, using standardized scales provided by a referential Skin Aging Atlas. These signs were dispatched into 5 clusters, namely Wrinkles/Texture, Ptosis/Sagging, Cheek pores, Pigmentation, and Vascular signs. A naïve panel of 200 Korean individuals (100 women, 100 men), of similar age range, were asked, when viewing full-face photographs, to (a) attribute on a 0-10 scale their perception of a tired-look and (b) estimate the age of the subject.

Results: The severity of all clusters increased with age, although at different rates. The Wrinkles/Texture or Ptosis/Sagging showed a rather regular progression, whereas Vascular presented the weakest changes. Although perceived and real ages were found highly correlated, almost 85% of the subjects were judged older by 1-15 years. The signs/clusters were found significantly correlated with perceived age, highly for Wrinkles/Texture and Ptosis/Sagging, moderate for Pigmentation, and low for Vascular and Cheek pores. The weights in perceived ages of Wrinkles/Texture and Ptosis/Sagging represent 81% and Pigmentation at 19%. Facial tired-look of Korean men was found significantly correlated with perceived age. Although Vascular and Cheek pores were found not impacting, Wrinkles/Texture, Ptosis/Sagging, and Pigmentation presented a clear influence.

Conclusion: Within facial clusters, Wrinkles/Texture, Ptosis/Sagging, and Pigmentation are major factors in the assessment of perceived age in Korean men. The perception of an increased tired-look is significantly associated with increased perceived age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.13041DOI Listing
April 2021

A preliminary study to understand the effects of mask on tinted face cosmetics.

Skin Res Technol 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

L'Oréal Research and Innovation, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The recent COVID-19 pandemic has generalized the use of face mask in public area, and it is now common to wear it for long hours. But face mask interfere with cosmetics, and key concerns for tinted products are staining of the mask and degradation on face. Consumers have modified beauty routine by a decrease of makeup, but are now expecting new products adapted to face mask. Little is known about the mechanisms that affect most the makeup under the face mask, so that further studies are needed to develop adequate evaluation methods and products. In this study, the color transfer on mask and makeup degradation on face are assessed through a mixed approach of consumer and instrumental evaluation.

Materials And Methods: Two tinted face products (A and B) were applied by half face on 11 Japanese women, who conducted real-life activities with a face mask during 4 hours. Panelists evaluated the stain of their face mask by visual assessment, while the makeup degradation on face was evaluated by color measurement by instrumental method.

Results: No difference was observed between the two products for lasting on face, but consumer evaluation showed a better resistance of product A for color transfer on mask.

Conclusion: The mix of instrumental and consumer evaluation is a promising way to evaluate the makeup degradation on face and color transfer on mask, which are two key factors to develop mask resistant makeup products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.13022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014104PMC
March 2021

Japanese experiment of a complete and objective automatic grading system of facial signs from selfie pictures: Validation with dermatologists and characterization of changes due to age and sun exposures.

Skin Res Technol 2020 Dec 27. Epub 2020 Dec 27.

L'Oréal Research and Innovation, Clichy, France.

Objective: To evaluate the capacity of the automatic detection system to accurately grade, from smartphones' selfie pictures, the severity of ten facial signs in Japanese women and their changes due to age and sun exposures.

Methods: A three-step approach was conducted, based on self-taken selfie images. At first, to check on 310 Japanese women (18-69 years) enrolled in the northerner Hokkaido area (latitude 43.2°N), how, on ten facial signs, the A.I-based automatic grading system may correlate with dermatological assessments, taken as reference. Second, to assess and compare age changes in 310 Japanese and 112 Korean women. Third, as these Japanese panelists were recruited according to their usual behavior toward sun exposure, that is, non-sun-phobic (NSP, N = 114) and sun-phobic (SP, N = 196), and through their regular and early use of a photo-protective product, to characterize the facial photo-damages.

Results: (a) On the ten facial signs, detected automatically, nine were found significantly (P < .0001) highly correlated with the evaluations made by three Japanese dermatologists (Wrinkles: r = .75; Sagging: r = .80; Pigmentation: r = .75). (b) The automatic scores showed significant changes with age, by decade, of Wrinkles/Texture, Pigmentation, and Ptosis/Sagging (P < .05). (c) After 45 years, a significantly increased severity of Wrinkles/Texture and Pigmentation was observed in NSP vs. SP women (P < .05). A trend of an increased Ptosis/Sagging (P = .09) was observed.

Conclusion: This work illustrates, for the first time through investigations conducted at home, some impacts of aging and sun exposures on facial signs of Japanese women. Results significantly confirm the importance of sun avoidance coupled with photo-protective measures. In epidemiological studies, the AI-based system offers a fast, affordable, and confidential approach in detection and quantification of facial signs and their dependence with ages, environments and lifestyles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.12982DOI Listing
December 2020

Changes in facial signs due to age and their respective weights on the perception of age and skin plumpness among differently aged Korean women.

Skin Res Technol 2020 Nov 9. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

L'Oréal Research and Innovation, Clichy, France.

Objective: To determine the respective weights of certain facial signs on the assessment of perceived age and plumpness on Korean women of different ages.

Material And Methods: Photographs were taken of the faces of 112 Korean women of different ages (18-80 years) under standardized conditions. These photographs allowed to focus and define 19 facial signs, which were then graded by 15 experts and dermatologists, using standardized scales provided by a reference Skin Aging Atlas. The facial signs were dispatched into 5 clusters, namely Wrinkles/Texture, Ptosis/Sagging, Pigmentation disorders, Vascular disorders, and Cheek skin pores. A naïve panel, composed of 92 Korean women, of similar age range were asked, when viewing full-face photographs, to: (a) attribute on a 0-10 scale their perception of the skin plumpness (ie supple/hydrated/nourished) and (b) estimate the age of the subject.

Results: With the exception of Vascular disorders, the severity of all 4 clusters increased with age, although at different rates. The Wrinkles/Texture or Ptosis/Sagging showed a rather regular progression. Although perceived ages and real ages were found highly correlated, half of the subjects were judged older by 2-12 years. The facial signs/clusters were significantly correlated with perceived age, with the exceptions of vascular disorders, size of pigmentary spots and cheek skin pores. The weights in perceived ages of Wrinkles/Texture and Ptosis/Sagging represent 37% each and Pigmentation disorders at 26%. Skin plumpness was logically found significantly anti-correlated with perceived age. If, surprisingly, Vascular disorders were found not impacting the plumpness aspect, Cheek skin pores presented a clear influence.

Conclusion: Within facial clinical clusters, Wrinkles/Texture, Ptosis/Sagging, and Pigmentation disorders are major factors in the assessment of perceived age in Korean women. The perception of a decreased skin plumpness is significantly associated with increased perceived age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.12980DOI Listing
November 2020

A Split-Face Study Assessing the Clinical Benefit, Tolerability and Subject Satisfaction of a Dermocosmetic in Subjects with Rosacea Associated with Erythema and Sensitive Skin.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2020 5;13:751-758. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Western University, Department of Medicine and Windsor Clinical Research Inc, Windsor, ON, Canada.

Objective: This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of M89 in patients with rosacea associated with erythema and sensitive skin.

Methods: Intra-individual study in a split-face design comparing after 30 days M89 twice daily and usual skin care in 20 adult subjects with rosacea and sensitive skin. M89 contains 89% Vichy volcanic mineralizing water (VVMW) and 0.4% hyaluronic acid. It is hypoallergenic and contains no perfume and this convenes in rosacea. Contained minerals reinforce the natural defences of the skin in restoring the natural skin barrier, stimulating antioxidant activity and reducing inflammation, commonly observed in subjects with rosacea. Clinical evaluations included assessment of erythema, desquamation, papules and pustules, skin tightness, dryness, burning sensation, itching, stinging and stinging test as well as local tolerability. Instrumental evaluations included skin hydration and TEWL. Subject satisfaction was assessed at Days 15 and 30. Demodex density was assessed at Day 30.

Results: A significant superiority of M89 over the standard skin care was observed for erythema, skin tightness and dryness (all P≤0.05) as early as Day 15, the skin stinging test was significantly in favour of M89 (P<0.05 at Day 15 and P<0.01 at Day 30) and for skin hydration (P<0.0001) at Day 15 and 30 with no difference in mean Demodex density between M89 and usual skin care after 30 days. Tolerance was excellent and subject satisfaction very high.

Conclusion: Study results concerning M89 are encouraging for its use either alone or as an adjuvant daily skin care to topical medication in patients with persistent centrofacial erythema of rosacea with no more than 3 papules and pustules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S266879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7547125PMC
October 2020

The continuous development of a complete and objective automatic grading system of facial signs from selfie pictures: Asian validation study and application to women of three ethnic origins, differently aged.

Skin Res Technol 2021 Mar 20;27(2):183-190. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

ModiFace - A L'Oréal Group Company, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objective: To evaluate the capacity of the automatic detection system to accurately grade, from smartphones' selfie pictures, the severity of seven new facial signs added to the nine previously integrated.

Methods: A two-step approach was conducted: first, to check on 112 Korean women, how the AI-based automatic grading system may correlate with dermatological assessments, taken as reference; second, to confirm on 1140 women of three ancestries (African, Asian, and Caucasian) the relevance of the newly input facial signs.

Results: The sixteen specific Asian facial signs, detected automatically, were found significantly (P < .0001) highly correlated with the clinical evaluations made by two Korean dermatologists (wrinkles: r = .90; sagging: r = .75-.95; vascular: r = .85; pores: r = .60; pigmentation: r = .50-.80). When applied at a larger scale on women of different ethnicities, new signs were found of good accuracy and reproducibility, albeit depending on ethnicity. Due to contrast with the innate skin complexion, the facial signs dealing with skin pigmentation were found of a much higher relevance among Asian women than African or Caucasian women. The automatic gradings were even found of a slightly higher accuracy than the clinical gradings.

Conclusion: The previously used automatic grading system is now completed by adding new facial signs apt at being detected. The continuous development is now integrating some limitations with regard to the constitutive skin complexion of the self-pictured subjects. Presenting reproducible assessments, highly correlated with medical grading, this system could change tremendously clinical researches, like in epidemiological studies, where it offers an easy, fast, affordable, and confidential approach in the objective quantification of facial signs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.12922DOI Listing
March 2021

Evaluating the respective weights of some facial signs on perceived ages in differently aged women of five ethnic origins.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Mar 17;20(3):842-853. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

L'Oréal Research and Innovation, Chevilly-Larue, France.

Background: New gratification assessments, after skincare routines or makeup products, could benefit from innovative methods that could predict the culturally based perceptions of age.

Aims: To determine the facial signs that most influence the perception of age in women of five different ethnic ancestries, assessed by the same ethnical naïve panel.

Patients/methods: The faces of 1351 women, differently aged (18-80 years), from five countries (China, France, India, Japan, and South Africa) were photographed under the same standardized conditions in the five countries. Fourteen to 24 facial signs (grouped under five clusters, ie, Wrinkles/Texture, Ptosis/Sagging, Pigmentation disorders, Vascular disorders, and Cheeks skin pores) were focused, and their respective severities were graded using referential Skin Aging Atlases by the same panel of 15 experts and dermatologists. Five naïve panels, all comprising 100 local women, allowed to collect the perceived age, assessed from blind-coded full-face photographs.

Results: Although perceived ages and real ages were found highly correlated, their differences vary according to ethnicities, particularly among a large part of Indian and South African women, judged older by about 5 and 7 years, respectively. Results show that the clusters of Wrinkles/Texture and Ptosis/Sagging are predominant factors taken into account in almost all ethnicities, albeit at various extents, reaching almost 100% in French women. Pigmentation disorders appear important secondary factors in Japanese, South African, and Indian women. Vascular disorders, of a difficult grading in darker skin tones, were found of some impact in Japanese and Chinese women. Cheek skin pores were of minor or nil weight in the attribution of age, at the exception of South African women. Regarding facial areas which drive aging perception, it seems the upper-half face has prevalence for Chinese and Japanese women whereas the lower-half face has major importance for South African women.

Conclusion: Facial traits are differently perceived as signs of aging according to un-separable ethnic ancestries and cultural factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13612DOI Listing
March 2021

Gender-related differences in the facial aging of Chinese subjects and their relations with perceived ages.

Skin Res Technol 2020 Nov 28;26(6):905-913. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

L'Oréal Research and Innovation, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To describe the progressing severity of facial signs and their links with perceived age, of Chinese men and women.

Methods: Full-face photographs of 438 Chinese subjects (220 men, 218 women) differently aged (18-80 years) were taken. These photographs afforded a zoom on 5 facial signs of aging: forehead and crow's feet wrinkles, nasolabial fold, marionette lines and ptosis of the lower face. A panel of 15 experts graded each sign, using the Asian skin aging atlas reference. A naïve panel of 80 Chinese women (20-60 years) was asked to attribute an apparent age.

Results: Despite slight differences in severity between genders, men and women share in common a rather regular progression rate, correlated with perceived ages. 15% of men were judged older by more than 10 years, and all 5 signs were found more severe than the means of the other 85%. Forehead and Crow's feet wrinkles appear more pronounced in men. Ptosis is slightly more pronounced in women. Nasolabial fold does not differ. Marionette lines show distinct changes: those of men show a lessened severity and a slower rate of progression. In contrast with changes in facial signs with real ages, the upper face seems privileged in the perception of ages in women whereas the latter seems more focusing on its lower part in men.

Conclusion: The facial skin aging process in Chinese subjects presents an almost linear progression with perceived ages, common to both genders, at the exception of marionette lines that are more marked and more rapidly progressing in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.12893DOI Listing
November 2020

Gender-related differences in the facial aging of Caucasian French subjects and their relations with perceived ages and tiredness.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Jan 10;20(1):227-236. Epub 2020 May 10.

L'Oréal Research and Innovation, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: (a) To assess and compare the changes in five facial signs with age between genders of Caucasian subjects and (b) to evaluate their links with perceived ages and tiredness.

Material And Methods: Once zoomed from standardized digital photographs, five facial signs of 518 Caucasian French subjects of both genders and different ages (18-69 years) were graded by 15 experts, using a referential Skin Aging Atlas. A large naïve panel of 1000 French subjects (500 men and 500 women) was asked to attribute a perceived age and a degree of tiredness to 200 subjects (among the 518).

Results: The severity of the facial signs increases with time at a linear-like rate. The changes in marionette lines significantly differ between genders, much more pronounced in women, and nasolabial fold was found more pronounced in men at older ages (>50 years). Before 50's, Forehead wrinkles present a slightly higher severity in men whereas at 50's women present more severe ptosis. Crow's feet wrinkles did not show significant changes. Perceived ages were found significantly correlated with the severities of the facial signs and the perception of tiredness was associated with perceived ages in men, but not in women older than 40 years. The gender-related perceptions from the naïve panel in both perceived ages and tiredness showed a low discrepancy. Interestingly, as for changes in facial signs, the upper-half face seems more affected for men and lower-half face for women; after 40 years, the naïve panel seems more focusing on the same areas to predict a perceived age.

Conclusion: As compared to the previous Chinese study, the present work reveals some slight ethnical-related differences, indicating that the facial signs of the lower face play a major role in the assessment of perceived age of both genders from different ethnicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13446DOI Listing
January 2021

Self-recording the skin hydration and Trans-Epidermal Water Loss parameters: A pilot study.

Skin Res Technol 2020 Sep 29;26(5):713-717. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

L'Oréal Research and Innovation, Chevilly-Larue, France.

Objective: To evaluate the reliability of data self-recorded by subjects enrolled in a study for skin surface hydration and Trans-Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL).

Methods: A connected device, previously described, simultaneously records both the hydration status and the TEWL on the same skin site. The effects of a Xanthane-based gel containing low concentrations of glycerol (3% or 7%) applied on both face and forearms of Caucasian women, were self-recorded at various times for 24 hours, outside of Research facility.

Results: In the first-hour post application, the skin hydration and TEWL values show a sharp increase and decrease, respectively. They progressively recover their initial values 24 hours post washing, on both skin sites. A significant dose effect of glycerol (ie, 3% vs 7%) was obtained on both skin sites. The repeatability of data was found acceptable in both parameters, although more precise on arms than face, probably linked to an easier handling of the device.

Conclusion: The use of this skin measuring connected device outside of Research facility, following a training of subjects, leads to reliable data. Such approach could be extended to other connected devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.12862DOI Listing
September 2020

Age-related changes to characteristics of the human eyes in women from six different ethnicities.

Skin Res Technol 2020 Jul 26;26(4):520-528. Epub 2020 Jan 26.

TING S.A, Paris, France.

Background: To describe some morphological characteristics of the eyes of women of 6 different ethnicities and ages.

Material & Methods: Standard digital photographs of 3600 women of different ethnicities and ages were taken for evaluating the effects of some makeup products (eyeliners, mascaras, eyelids makeup, etc) through a before/after comparison. Photographs corresponding to pre-applications offered opportunity to quantify, through image analysis, some features of the human eyes (height, length, ellipticity, horizontality, etc) for recording their possible variations linked to ethnicities and/or age.

Results: Although some minor differences between ethnicities were found (inter-pupillary distance and inner canthal distance), most eyes criteria among the 11 recorded were comparable (height and length of the eyes, ellipticity, etc). The somewhat low variability of the latter more reflects individual morphologies, at comparable ages. Asian subjects significantly differ by a much more oblique orientation of their main axis versus the horizontal inter-pupillary line. In all ethnicities, the skin aging process was found significantly altering i) the height of the eyes and ii) their orientation. Whereas the decrease of height likely results from a sagging of the upper eyelid, the decrease of orientation in all ethnicities (more marked among Asian women) possibly results from a sagging of the outer corner of the eyes. Whether this sagging may be related to the progressive outcome of crow's feet wrinkles is a plausible hypothesis.

Conclusion: The present work is an original and complementary approach to the skin aging process prone at modifying some characteristics of women eyes of different ethnicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.12824DOI Listing
July 2020

Distinct Habits Of Sun Exposures Lead To Different Impacts On Some Facial Signs Of Chinese Men Of Different Ages.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2019 15;12:833-841. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

L'Oréal, Levallois-Perret, France.

Objective: To clinically evaluate the impacts of sun exposures on some facial signs of differently aged Chinese men with a distinct behavior vis à vis sun exposures.

Methods: Two comparable cohorts of Chinese men (aged 18-75 years old), living in two cities (Shanghai, Hong Kong) were created according to their usual behavior towards sun exposure and through their variable use(s) of a photo-protective product, i.e. non-sun-phobic (N = 127) and sun-phobic (N = 134). Standard photographs (full-face and 45° lateral) allowed to focus on 13 facial signs that were further graded by 15 experts and dermatologists, using a referential Skin Aging Atlas. Absolute differences in the scores of each sign were used (non-sun-phobic minus sun-phobic), by age-classes, to better ascertain the impact of sun exposures and a photo-protecting product, when used.

Results: Most facial signs, particularly wrinkles and skin texture, differentiated the two cohorts. Some others showed some erratic changes with age, albeit more pronounced at older ages. In contrast with previous results obtained in Chinese women, the changes observed in men were not only of a lessened severity but were undetected at early ages (<30 years old). Overall, these different behaviors with regard to sun exposures led to significant differences in the facial signs of Chinese men. The latter can be illustrated by two virtual morphings that combine the impacts of both intrinsic and extrinsic aging processes.

Conclusion: The present work illustrates, for the first time, some specificities of the impacts of sun exposures on the facial skin of Chinese men, more expressed at older ages, inversely to those observed in Chinese women, occurring at younger ages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S226331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6863120PMC
November 2019

Developing a new device for continuously recording, in vivo, the excretion rate of sweat (perspiration) in humans.

Skin Res Technol 2019 Jul 13;25(4):489-498. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

L'Oréal Research and Innovation, Chevilly-Larue, France.

Background: Some methodologies used for evaluating sweat production and antiperspirants are of a stationary aspect, that is, most often performed under warm (38°C) but resting conditions in a rather short period of time. The aim is to develop an electronic sensor apt at continuously recording sweat excretion, in vivo, during physical exercises, exposure to differently heated environments, or any other stimuli that may provoke sweat excretion.

Material And Methods: A sensor (20 cm ) is wrapped under a double-layered textile pad. Fixed onto the armpits, these two arrays of electrodes are connected to electronic system through an analog multiplexer. A microcontroller is used to permanently record changes in the conductance between two electrodes during exposure of subjects to different sweat-inducing conditions or to assess the efficacy of applied aluminum hydrochloride (ACH)-based roll-ons at two concentrations (5% and 15%).

Results: In vitro calibration, using a NaCl 0.5% solution, allows changes in mV to be related with progressively increased volumes. In vivo, results show that casual physical exercise leads to sweat excretions much higher than in warm environment (37 or 45°C). Only, an exposure to a 50°C environment induced comparable sweat excretion. In this condition, sweat excretions were found similar in both armpits and both genders. Decreased sweat excretions were recorded following applications of ACH, with a dose effect.

Conclusion: Developing phases of this new approach indicate that usual method or guidelines used to determine sweat excretions in vivo do not reflect true energy expenditure processes. As a consequence, they probably over-estimate the efficacy of antiperspirant agents or formulae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.12677DOI Listing
July 2019

A new procedure, free from human assessment that automatically grades some facial skin structural signs. Comparison with assessments by experts, using referential atlases of skin ageing.

Int J Cosmet Sci 2019 Feb;41(1):67-78

ModiFace - A L'Oréal Group Company, Toronto, Canada.

Objective: To develop an automatic system that grades the severity of facial signs through 'selfies' pictures taken by women of different ages and ethnics.

Methods: 1140 women from three ethnics (African-American, Asian, Caucasian), of different ages (18-80 years old), took 'selfies' by high resolution smartphones cameras under different conditions of lighting or facial expressions. A dedicated software, was developed, based on a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) that integrates training data from referential Skin Aging Atlases. The latter allows to an immediate quantification of the severity of nine facial signs according to the ethnicity declared by the subject. These automatic grading were confronted to those assessed by 12 trained experts and dermatologists either on 'selfies' pictures or in live conditions on a smaller cohort of women.

Results: The system appears weakly influenced by lighting conditions or facial expressions (coefficients of variations ranging 10-13% for most signs) and leads to global agreements with experts' assessments, even showing a better reproducibility on some facial signs.

Conclusion: This automatic scoring system, still in development, seems offering a new quantitative approach in the quantified description of facial signs, independent from human vision, in many applications, being individual, cosmetic oriented or dermatological with regard to the follow-up of medical anti-ageing corrective strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ics.12512DOI Listing
February 2019

A randomized study to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of two sunscreen formulations on Indian skin types IV and V with pigmentation irregularities.

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2019 Mar-Apr;85(2):160-168

L'Oréal Research and Innovation Campus, Clichy, France.

Background: Regular exposure to ultraviolet rays is high in India, where most Indians present Fitzpatrick skin phototypes IV and V.

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and compare the effectiveness of two sunscreen products on Indian skin types IV and V with pigmentation irregularities.

Methods: A randomized, uncontrolled and investigator-blinded, single-center study enrolled adult men and women (18-45 years) with Fitzpatrick skin phototypes IV (28° < individual typological angle <10°) and V (10° < individual typological angle < -30°) with pigmentary abnormalities seen on the face in adults (actinic lentigines and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation), who did not use sunscreens. Participants were randomized (1:1) to either of the two marketed sunscreen products, Product A (sun protection factor 50 PA+++) or Product B (sun protection factor 19 PA+++), applied twice daily before sun exposure for ≥2 h. Primary objectives aimed at assessing possible improvement in hyperpigmented spots and overall skin appearance after 12 weeks of use. Evaluation of skin radiance and skin color was done by means of L'Oréal color chart and colorimetric measurements (Chromameter).

Results: Among the 230 enrolled participants, 216 (93.91%) completed the study. The clinical assessment of the density of pigmented spots and skin radiance showed significant (P < 0.001) improvement in both groups during all visits. The qualitative (participant perception) and quantitative (Chromameter) data indicated improvement in pigmentation from Week 0 to Week 12. Both products were well-tolerated.

Limitations: The study was conducted over a rather short period of time (12 weeks) at a single location.

Conclusions: This is the first study conducted on Indian skin phototypes IV and V under real-life conditions. It demonstrated the effect of regular sunscreen usage in the prevention of certain signs of skin photoaging such as increased pigmentation or pigmentary abnormalities, thus providing support and assistance to clinicians in suggesting the use of efficient sun-screening products to patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_932_17DOI Listing
June 2019

Typology and atlases of human fingernails across ages and ethnicities.

J Cosmet Sci 2017 Jan/Feb;68(1):79-84

L'Oréal USA Research and Innovation, Clark, NJ (K.N., T.C.) and L'Oréal Research & Innovation, Chevilly-Larue, France (F.F.).

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April 2018

Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2015 16;8:85-93. Epub 2015 Feb 16.

RB Consult, Bievres, France.

Skin pores (SP), as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc) that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage) on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 μm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm(2)) and determination of their respective sizes in mm(2). Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage) that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1) were recorded in all studied subjects; 2) varied greatly with ethnicity; 3) plateaued with age in most cases; and 4) globally refected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having "enlarged pores" like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly distinct from other ethnicities in having very low density and sizes. Analyzing the present results suggests that facial skin pore's morphology as perceived by human eye less result from functional criteria of associated appendages such as sebaceous glands. To what extent skin pores may be viewed as additional criteria of a photo-altered skin is an issue to be further addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S74401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4337418PMC
March 2015

Solar exposure(s) and facial clinical signs of aging in Chinese women: impacts upon age perception.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2015 10;8:75-84. Epub 2015 Feb 10.

L'Oreal Research and Innovation, Paris, France.

A new reference clinical atlas of facial signs dedicated to photoaging was applied to 301 Chinese women of various ages through standardized photographs. Such approach aimed at better describing the facial changes induced by both real/chronological age and sun exposure and their respective impact on two subcohorts of different behavior with regard to sun exposure. A total of 28 various facial signs were individually graded according to their severity by a panel of experts, and a perceived apparent age of each subject was assessed. Results showed that the severity of major signs significantly increased rather linearly with age, with a higher rate in sun-exposed subjects as compared with subjects who regularly avoid sun exposure. The severity of facial signs, all impacted by sun exposure, better correlated with perceived apparent age than real/chronological age. The protocol used in the present work, similar to that previously applied to two cohorts of French women, assigned a greater impact of sun exposure in the facial aging signs of Asian women - all clinical signs are influenced by extrinsic factors - as compared with Caucasian women of comparable ages, likely related to much more intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S72244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4329999PMC
February 2015

Effect of the sun on visible clinical signs of aging in Caucasian skin.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2013 27;6:221-32. Epub 2013 Sep 27.

Department of Applied Research and Development, L'Oreal Research and Innovation, Paris, France.

Objectives: AGING SIGNS CAN BE CLASSIFIED INTO FOUR MAIN CATEGORIES: wrinkles/texture, lack of firmness of cutaneous tissues (ptosis), vascular disorders, and pigmentation heterogeneities. During a lifetime, skin will change in appearance and structure not only because of chronological and intrinsic processes but also due to several external factors such as gravity, sun and ultraviolet exposure, and high levels of pollution; or lifestyle factors that have important and obvious effects on skin aging, such as diet, tobacco, illness, or stress. The effect of these external factors leads to progressive degradations of tegument that appear with different kinetics. The aim of this study was to clinically quantify the effect of sun exposure on facial aging in terms of the appearance of new specific signs or in terms of increasing the classical signs of aging.

Materials And Methods: This study was carried out on 298 Caucasian women from 30 years to 78 years old. The participants were divided into two groups according to their sun exposure history: 157 women were characterized as sun-seeking, and the other 141 were classified as sun-phobic. This division was made possible by dermatologist grading of heliodermal status on the basis of several observations of classic criteria: wrinkles, sagging, pigmentation heterogeneities, vascular disorders, elastosis, and so on. This work was an opportunity to complete clinical photographic tools by adding in our portfolio new scales for signs observed in the two groups. Thus, 22 clinical parameters were investigated by a panel of twelve trained experts to characterize each woman's face regarding standardized photographic scales, and thus describe the aging process.

Results: By calculating statistical correlations between the four clinical clusters (wrinkles/texture, ptosis, vascular disorders, and pigmentation disorders), and real age and apparent age on the one hand and heliodermal status on the other hand, we identified a link between each clinical cluster and aging and the photoaging process. By comparing evaluations of clinical signs between the two groups for each 10-year cluster, we demonstrated that whatever the age, a prevalence of pigmentation disorders for the sun-seeking group (ie, pigmentation) is strongly linked to ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Meanwhile, clinical signs of ptosis are linked more to chronological aging and do not present differences between the two groups, nor, therefore, photoaging. Wrinkles and texture are affected by the two aging processes. Finally, clinical signs of vascular disorders present no evolution with age.

Conclusion: Clinical signs of aging are essentially influenced by extrinsic factors, especially sun exposure. Indeed UV exposure seems to be responsible for 80% of visible facial aging signs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S44686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3790843PMC
October 2013

Seasonal skin darkening in Chinese women: the Shanghaiese experience of daily sun protection.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2013 31;6:151-8. Epub 2013 May 31.

L'Oréal Research and Innovation, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

The facial skin tone of two groups of Chinese women from Shanghai was compared using standard colorimetric space techniques during a 6-month interval between January and July 2011. During the study period, one group of women (n = 40) applied a potent sun-protective cosmetic product daily, while the other group (n = 40) did not use any sun protection. The results, based on images taken using a standardized digital camera coupled to a spectroradiometer, showed that sun protection largely mitigated changes in the components of skin tone, ie, lightness, melanization, and individual typology angle parameters. The skin darkening process appeared to be reduced or prevented in the sun-protected group when compared with the control group. The sun-protected women had participated in an earlier study in 2008, which confirmed that seasonal skin darkening occurs from winter through summer in Shanghaiese women. Comparing the data obtained in the winters of 2008 and 2011, we were able to identify better the impact of 3 years of aging on the components of skin tone. Comparing data between seasons on the same women with (2011 study) and without (2008 study) sun protection highlights the role of the test product in preventing skin darkening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S41578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3674750PMC
June 2013

Functional and structural age-related changes in the scalp skin of Caucasian women.

Skin Res Technol 2013 Nov 5;19(4):384-93. Epub 2013 May 5.

L'Oreal Research and Innovation, Saint-Ouen, France.

Background: Ageing of the skin, being chronological or sun induced is highly documented. Scalp, as a specific skin site, has, however, received little attention. This work attempted to describe functional and structural alterations that occur in scalp skin with ageing.

Methods: Two different age groups (N = 15 each; 30 ± 3 and 62 ± 2 y.o. respectively) of Caucasian women participated in the study. Some functional parameters (TEWL, Sebum level, Hydration, T°) were recorded on the vertex part of the scalp, after having cut the hair flat on the scalp surface. Imaging of some structural criteria was carried out using high-frequency ultrasound technique and optical coherence tomography on the same scalp site and on the mid-forehead, as a close control skin site.

Results: As compared with the younger group, the scalp of older women significantly showed a decreased TEWL and a slightly lower T°. The thickness of total skin (epidermis + dermis) increased with age on both scalp and on forehead. The thickness of scalp epidermis decreased with age while not significantly altered on forehead. Pseudoattenuation of ultrasound images increased in the older age group. Other criteria, such as sebum level, stratum corneum hydration, stratum corneum thickness, were not found altered with age.

Conclusion: With ageing, some few functional and structural changes are observed in the scalp of Caucasian women. Similarities or differences with those previously reported in other skin sites are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.12057DOI Listing
November 2013

Pulmonary embolism: an uncommon cause of dyspnea after heart transplantation.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2006 Apr 1;20(2):236-8. Epub 2005 Dec 1.

Département d'Anesthésie-Réanimation, Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2004.11.050DOI Listing
April 2006