Publications by authors named "Freddy Schoetens"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Design, Synthesis, and Preclinical Evaluation of 3-Methyl-6-(5-thiophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-imidazo[4,5-]pyridin-2-ones as Selective GluN2B Negative Allosteric Modulators for the Treatment of Mood Disorders.

J Med Chem 2020 09 28;63(17):9181-9196. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121-1126, United States.

Selective inhibitors of the GluN2B subunit of -methyl-d-aspartate receptors in the ionotropic glutamate receptor superfamily have been targeted for the treatment of mood disorders. We sought to identify structurally novel, brain penetrant, GluN2B-selective inhibitors suitable for evaluation in a clinical setting in patients with major depressive disorder. We identified a new class of negative allosteric modulators of GluN2B that contain a 1,3-dihydro-imidazo[4,5-]pyridin-2-one core. This series of compounds had poor solubility properties and poor permeability, which was addressed utilizing two approaches. First, a series of structural modifications was conducted which included replacing hydrogen bond donor groups. Second, enabling formulation development was undertaken in which a stable nanosuspension was identified for lead compound . Compound was found to have robust target engagement in rat with an ED of 1.4 mg/kg. The nanosuspension enabled sufficient margins in preclinical toleration studies to nominate for progression into advanced good laboratory practice studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b02113DOI Listing
September 2020

A Dipolar Cycloaddition Reaction To Access 6-Methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-c]pyridines Enables the Discovery Synthesis and Preclinical Profiling of a P2X7 Antagonist Clinical Candidate.

J Med Chem 2018 01 20;61(1):207-223. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC , 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121, United States.

A single pot dipolar cycloaddition reaction/Cope elimination sequence was developed to access novel 1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-c]pyridine P2X7 antagonists that contain a synthetically challenging chiral center. The structure-activity relationships of the new compounds are described. Two of these compounds, (S)-(2-fluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)(1-(5-fluoropyrimidin-2-yl)-6-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-yl)methanone (compound 29) and (S)-(3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-yl)(1-(5-fluoropyrimidin-2-yl)-6-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-yl)methanone (compound 35), were found to have robust P2X7 receptor occupancy at low doses in rat with ED values of 0.06 and 0.07 mg/kg, respectively. Compound 35 had notable solubility compared to 29 and showed good tolerability in preclinical species. Compound 35 was chosen as a clinical candidate for advancement into phase I clinical trials to assess safety and tolerability in healthy human subjects prior to the initiation of proof of concept studies for the treatment of mood disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b01279DOI Listing
January 2018

4-Methyl-6,7-dihydro-4H-triazolo[4,5-c]pyridine-Based P2X7 Receptor Antagonists: Optimization of Pharmacokinetic Properties Leading to the Identification of a Clinical Candidate.

J Med Chem 2017 06 25;60(11):4559-4572. Epub 2017 May 25.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC , 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121, United States.

The synthesis and preclinical characterization of novel 4-(R)-methyl-6,7-dihydro-4H-triazolo[4,5-c]pyridines that are potent and selective brain penetrant P2X7 antagonists are described. Optimization efforts based on previously disclosed unsubstituted 6,7-dihydro-4H-triazolo[4,5-c]pyridines, methyl substituted 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazines, and several other series lead to the identification of a series of 4-(R)-methyl-6,7-dihydro-4H-triazolo[4,5-c]pyridines that are selective P2X7 antagonists with potency at the rodent and human P2X7 ion channels. These novel P2X7 antagonists have suitable physicochemical properties, and several analogs have an excellent pharmacokinetic profile, good partitioning into the CNS and show robust in vivo target engagement after oral dosing. Improvements in metabolic stability led to the identification of JNJ-54175446 (14) as a candidate for clinical development. The drug discovery efforts and strategies that resulted in the identification of the clinical candidate are described herein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b00408DOI Listing
June 2017

Identification of (R)-(2-Chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)(1-(5-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-4-methyl-6,7-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5(4H)-yl)methanone (JNJ 54166060), a Small Molecule Antagonist of the P2X7 receptor.

J Med Chem 2016 09 8;59(18):8535-48. Epub 2016 Sep 8.

Janssen Pharmaceutical Research & Development, LLC , 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121 United States.

The synthesis and SAR of a series of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine P2X7 antagonists are described. Addressing P2X7 affinity and liver microsomal stability issues encountered with this template afforded methyl substituted 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridines ultimately leading to the identification of 1 (JNJ 54166060). 1 is a potent P2X7 antagonist with an ED50 = 2.3 mg/kg in rats, high oral bioavailability and low-moderate clearance in preclinical species, acceptable safety margins in rats, and a predicted human dose of 120 mg of QD. Additionally, 1 possesses a unique CYP profile and was found to be a regioselective inhibitor of midazolam CYP3A metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00989DOI Listing
September 2016

PEGylation of Biopharmaceuticals: A Review of Chemistry and Nonclinical Safety Information of Approved Drugs.

J Pharm Sci 2016 Feb;105(2):460-475

Bayer, Toxicology, San Francisco, California 94158.

Modification of biopharmaceutical molecules by covalent conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules is known to enhance pharmacologic and pharmaceutical properties of proteins and other large molecules and has been used successfully in 12 approved drugs. Both linear and branched-chain PEG reagents with molecular sizes of up to 40 kDa have been used with a variety of different PEG derivatives with different linker chemistries. This review describes the properties of PEG itself, the history and evolution of PEGylation chemistry, and provides examples of PEGylated drugs with an established medical history. A trend toward the use of complex PEG architectures and larger PEG polymers, but with very pure and well-characterized PEG reagents is described. Nonclinical toxicology findings related to PEG in approved PEGylated biopharmaceuticals are summarized. The effect attributed to the PEG part of the molecules as observed in 5 of the 12 marketed products was cellular vacuolation seen microscopically mainly in phagocytic cells which is likely related to their biological function to absorb and remove particles and macromolecules from blood and tissues. Experience with marketed PEGylated products indicates that adverse effects in toxicology studies are usually related to the active part of the drug but not to the PEG moiety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2015.11.015DOI Listing
February 2016

Prolyl hydroxylase inhibition corrects functional iron deficiency and inflammation-induced anaemia in rats.

Br J Pharmacol 2015 Aug 26;172(16):4078-88. Epub 2015 Jun 26.

Aetheria Therapeutics, San Diego, CA, USA.

Background And Purpose: Small-molecule inhibitors of prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes are a novel target for the treatment of anaemia and functional iron deficiency (FID). Other than being orally bioavailable, the differentiation of PHD inhibitors from recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) has not been demonstrated.

Experimental Approach: JNJ-42905343 was identified and characterized as a novel inhibitor of PHD and its action was compared with rhEPO in healthy rats and in a rat model of inflammation-induced anaemia and FID [peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PGPS) model].

Key Results: Oral administration of JNJ-42905343 to healthy rats increased the gene expression of cytochrome b (DcytB) and divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) in the duodenum, and increased plasma EPO. Repeated administration of JNJ-42905343 for 28 days increased blood haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The serum iron concentration was increased with low doses (0.3 mg·kg(-1) ) but reduced at high doses (6 mg·kg(-1) ). In PGPS-treated rats, administration of JNJ-42905343 for 28 days corrected FID and anaemia, as reflected by increased blood haemoglobin, MCH and MCV. Increased expression of DcytB and DMT1 genes in the duodenum resulting in increased iron availability was defined as the mechanism for these effects. rhEPO did not affect DcytB and DMT1 and was not effective in PGPS-treated rats.

Conclusions And Implications: PHD inhibition has a beneficial effect on iron metabolism in addition to stimulating the release of EPO. Small-molecule inhibitors of PHD such as JNJ-42905343 represent a mechanism distinct from rhEPO to treat anaemia and FID.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.13188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4543614PMC
August 2015