Publications by authors named "Fred Gale"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Fair trade and staple foods: A systematic review.

J Clean Prod 2021 Jan 15;279:123586. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Senior Lecturer, Politics and International Relations Program, School of Social Sciences, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay Campus, Hobart, TAS7001, Australia.

Sustainability certification schemes such as FAIRTRADE, FLO, WFTO and FT-USA have gained increasing markets. The significant growth of the fair trade (FT) movement in the last decades draws attention to ethical consumption. FT's aim at improving the livelihoods of producers in developing countries and promotion of social change is considered a model that shows the benefits of trade to development. Although conveying a large number of publications, important questions about the movement remain under-explored. The literature is prolific on coffee, cacao, flowers, wine, and gold. In contrast, the engagement with staple foods - a prominent globally traded food category - seems minor. The primary objective of this review was to map the existing literature about FT and staple foods; then, to investigate the role of staple foods in the FT movement. The search strategy was designed to retrieve publications on the intersection of FT and staple foods. To date, there is no review about FT and staple foods nexus. Our systematic review addressed this gap considering FT as an alternative capable of addressing unsustainable food consumption and production impacts. Our research protocol included keywords searching across four databases, screening, and comparative analysis. From 283 documents retrieved, 49 were deemed relevant to reflect the role of staple foods in the FT movement. This systematic review discusses challenges and opportunities for the FT model to further engage with staples and recommends improvement of its environmental credentials. The present study can contribute by informing decision makers, policy makers, businesses, NGOs, producers, and consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.123586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428751PMC
January 2021

Advancing mobile learning in Australian healthcare environments: nursing profession organisation perspectives and leadership challenges.

BMC Nurs 2018 12;17:44. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

3School of Social Sciences, College of Arts, Law and Education, University of Tasmania, Locked Bag 1340, Launceston, TAS 7250 Australia.

Background: Access to, and use of, mobile or portable devices for learning at point of care within Australian healthcare environments is poorly governed. An absence of clear direction at systems, organisation and individual levels has created a mobile learning paradox, whereby although nurses understand the benefits of seeking and retrieving discipline or patient-related knowledge and information in real-time, mobile learning is not an explicitly sanctioned nursing activity. The purpose of this study was to understand the factors influencing mobile learning policy development from the perspective of professional nursing organisations.

Methods: Individual semi-structured interviews were undertaken with representatives from professional nursing organisations in December 2016 and January 2017. Recruitment was by email and telephone. Qualitative analysis was conducted to identify the key themes latent in the transcribed data.

Results: Risk management, perceived use of mobile technology, connectivity to information and real-time access were key themes that emerged from the analysis, collectively identifying the complexity of innovating within an established paradigm. Despite understanding the benefits and risks associated with using mobile technology at point of care, nursing representatives were reluctant to exert agency and challenge traditional work patterns to alter the status quo.

Conclusions: The themes highlighted the complexity of accessing and using mobile technology for informal learning and continuing professional development. Mobile learning cannot occur at point of care until the factors identified are addressed. Additionally, a reluctance by nurses within professional organisations to advance protocols to govern digital professionalism needs to be overcome. For mobile learning to be perceived as a legitimate nursing function requires a more wholistic approach to risk management that includes all stakeholders, at all levels. The goal should be to develop revised protocols that establish a better balance between the costs and benefits of access to information technology in real-time by nurses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12912-018-0313-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233582PMC
November 2018

Mobile Learning in Nursing: Tales from the Profession.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2018 ;252:112-117

University of Tasmania, Australia.

During the last five years, research about mobile learning conducted with nurses, nurse supervisors and undergraduate students has provided insight into the complexity of this emerging issue, which has the potential to positively impact the workflow of nursing care and improve patient outcomes. Survey and focus group studies including confirmation of beliefs of nurses and nurse supervisors and interviews with representatives from nursing profession organisations were undertaken. Nursing student perspectives about mobile learning were also explored through an online survey. This paper draws on participant narratives from this research revealing 'tales from the profession', to demonstrate the complexity of installing mobile technology for learning at point of care for the benefit of healthcare professionals and their patients. This research demonstrates the urgency for introducing governance to provide guidance regarding safe and appropriate use of mobile learning at point of care. Teaching digital professionalism early in undergraduate nursing curricula and promotion of modelling digitally professional behaviour by nurses within healthcare environments is also imperative.
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November 2018

Governing mobile technology use for continuing professional development in the Australian nursing profession.

BMC Nurs 2017 19;16:17. Epub 2017 Apr 19.

School of Health sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 135, Hobart, 7001 Australia.

Background: The rapid growth in the use of mobile technology in Australia has outpaced its governance, especially in healthcare settings. Whilst some Australian professional bodies and organisations have developed standards and guidelines to direct appropriate use of social media and mobile technology, clear governance arrangements regarding when, where and how to use mobile technology at point of care in nursing are currently lacking.

Discussion: This paper analyses how the use of mobile technology by nurses at point of care is governed. It highlights the existence of a mobile technology paradox: an identified inability of nurses to access mobile technology in a context where it is increasingly recognised that its use in situ can enhance nursing practice while contributing to mobile learning and continuing professional development. While the recent release of the Registered Nurse Standards for Practice and accompanying Standard for Continuing Professional Development provides some direction regarding professional standards to support the use of mobile technology for mobile learning, we argue a more inclusive approach is required if emerging technologies are to be fully embraced. We describe how an implementation framework, underpinned by more detailed standards, guidelines and codes, could enable the nursing profession to be leaders in embedding mobile technology in healthcare environments nationally and globally.

Conclusion: The prevalence of mobile technology in Australia has outpaced its governance in healthcare environments. Its limited availability at point of care is hindering nursing practice, mobile learning and continuing professional development. We discuss the emergence of mobile technology and impediments for its use by nurses in situ. We analyse the professional codes governing nursing, outlining potential reforms to enable implementation of mobile technology at point of care by nurses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12912-017-0212-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5395827PMC
April 2017

Modelling the distribution of chickens, ducks, and geese in China.

Agric Ecosyst Environ 2011 May;141(3-4):381-389

United States Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Baltimore Avenue 10300, Beltsville, MD 20705; and University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20740 USA.

Global concerns over the emergence of zoonotic pandemics emphasize the need for high-resolution population distribution mapping and spatial modelling. Ongoing efforts to model disease risk in China have been hindered by a lack of available species level distribution maps for poultry. The goal of this study was to develop 1 km resolution population density models for China's chickens, ducks, and geese. We used an information theoretic approach to predict poultry densities based on statistical relationships between poultry census data and high-resolution agro-ecological predictor variables. Model predictions were validated by comparing goodness of fit measures (root mean square error and correlation coefficient) for observed and predicted values for ¼ of the sample data which was not used for model training. Final output included mean and coefficient of variation maps for each species. We tested the quality of models produced using three predictor datasets and 4 regional stratification methods. For predictor variables, a combination of traditional predictors for livestock mapping and land use predictors produced the best goodness of fit scores. Comparison of regional stratifications indicated that for chickens and ducks, a stratification based on livestock production systems produced the best results; for geese, an agro-ecological stratification produced best results. However, for all species, each method of regional stratification produced significantly better goodness of fit scores than the global model. Here we provide descriptive methods, analytical comparisons, and model output for China's first high resolution, species level poultry distribution maps. Output will be made available to the scientific and public community for use in a wide range of applications from epidemiological studies to livestock policy and management initiatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2011.04.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3134362PMC
May 2011