Publications by authors named "Fred Armbrust"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Phosphorylation of meprin β controls its cell surface abundance and subsequently diminishes ectodomain shedding.

FASEB J 2021 07;35(7):e21677

Biochemical Institute, Unit for Degradomics of the Protease Web, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Meprin β is a zinc-dependent metalloprotease exhibiting a unique cleavage specificity with strong preference for acidic amino acids at the cleavage site. Proteomic studies revealed a diverse substrate pool of meprin β including the interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) and the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Dysregulation of meprin β is often associated with pathological conditions such as chronic inflammation, fibrosis, or Alzheimer's disease (AD). The extracellular regulation of meprin β including interactors, sheddases, and activators has been intensively investigated while intracellular regulation has been barely addressed in the literature. This study aimed to analyze C-terminal phosphorylation of meprin β with regard to cell surface expression and proteolytic activity. By immunoprecipitation of endogenous meprin β from the colon cancer cell line Colo320 and subsequent LC-MS analysis, we identified several phosphorylation sites in its C-terminal region. Here, T694 in the C-terminus of meprin β was the most preferred residue after phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulation. We further demonstrated the role of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms for meprin β phosphorylation and identified the involvement of PKC-α and PKC-β. As a result of phosphorylation, the meprin β activity at the cell surface is reduced and, consequently, the extent of substrate cleavage is diminished. Our data indicate that this decrease of the surface activity is caused by the internalization and degradation of meprin β.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202100271RDOI Listing
July 2021

Meprin β cleaves TREM2 and controls its phagocytic activity on macrophages.

FASEB J 2020 05 1;34(5):6675-6687. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Unit for Degradomics of the Protease Web, Biochemical Institute, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a multifunctional surface protein that affects survival, migration, and phagocytic capacity of myeloid cells. Soluble TREM2 levels were found to be increased in early stages of sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) probably reflecting a defensive microglial response to some initial brain damage. The disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAM) 10 and 17 were identified as TREM2 sheddases. We demonstrate that meprin β is a direct TREM2 cleaving enzyme using ADAM10/17 deficient HEK293 cells. LC-MS/MS analysis of recombinant TREM2 incubated with meprin β revealed predominant cleavage between Arg136 and Asp137, distant to the site identified for ADAM10/17. We further demonstrate that the metalloprotease meprin β cleaves TREM2 on macrophages concomitant with decreased levels of soluble TREM2 in the serum of Mep1b mice compared to WT controls. Isolated BMDMs from Mep1b mice showed significantly increased full-length TREM2 levels and enhanced phagocytosis efficiency compared to WT cells. The diminished constitutive shedding of TREM2 on meprin β deficient macrophages could be rescued by ADAM stimulation through LPS treatment. Our data provide evidence that meprin β is a TREM2 sheddase on macrophages and suggest that multiple proteases may be involved in the generation of soluble TREM2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201902183RDOI Listing
May 2020

Degranulation of human cytotoxic lymphocytes is a major source of proteolytically active soluble CD26/DPP4.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2020 Feb 12;77(4):751-764. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Institute of Immunology, Christian-Albrechts University Kiel and University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Arnold-Heller-Str. 3, Bldg. 17, 24105, Kiel, Germany.

Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4, CD26) is a serine protease detected on several immune cells and on epithelial cells of various organs. Besides the membrane-bound enzyme, a catalytically active soluble form (sCD26/DPP4) is detected in several body fluids. Both variants cleave off dipeptides from the N-termini of various chemokines, neuropeptides, and hormones. CD26/DPP4 plays a fundamental role in the regulation of blood glucose levels by inactivating insulinotropic incretins and CD26/DPP4 inhibitors are thus routinely used in diabetes mellitus type 2 therapy to improve glucose tolerance. Such inhibitors might also prevent the CD26/DPP4-mediated inactivation of the T-cell chemoattractant CXCL10 released by certain tumors and thus improve anti-tumor immunity and immunotherapy. Despite its implication in the regulation of many (patho-)physiological processes and its consideration as a biomarker and therapeutic target, the cellular source of sCD26/DPP4 remains highly debated and mechanisms of its release are so far unknown. In line with recent reports that activated T lymphocytes could be a major source of sCD26/DPP4, we now demonstrate that CD26/DPP4 is stored in secretory granules of several major human cytotoxic lymphocyte populations and co-localizes with effector proteins such as granzymes, perforin, and granulysin. Upon stimulation, vesicular CD26/DPP4 is rapidly translocated to the cell surface in a Ca-dependent manner. Importantly, activation-induced degranulation leads to a massive release of proteolytically active sCD26/DPP4. Since activated effector lymphocytes serve as a major source of sCD26/DPP4, these results might explain the observed disease-associated alterations of sCD26/DPP4 serum levels and also indicate a so far unknown role of CD26/DPP4 in lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-019-03207-0DOI Listing
February 2020

Regulation of the alternative β-secretase meprin β by ADAM-mediated shedding.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2019 Aug 14;76(16):3193-3206. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Unit for Degradomics of the Protease Web, Biochemical Institute, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the sixth-leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Neurotoxic amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques are one of the pathological hallmarks in AD patient brains. Aβ accumulates in the brain upon sequential, proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases. However, so far disease-modifying drugs targeting β- and γ-secretase pathways seeking a decrease in the production of toxic Aβ peptides have failed in clinics. It has been demonstrated that the metalloproteinase meprin β acts as an alternative β-secretase, capable of generating truncated Aβ peptides that have been described to be increased in AD patients. This indicates an important β-site cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE-1)-independent contribution of the metalloprotease meprin β within the amyloidogenic pathway and may lead to novel drug targeting avenues. However, meprin β itself is embedded in a complex regulatory network. Remarkably, the anti-amyloidogenic α-secretase a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) is a direct competitor for APP at the cell surface, but also a sheddase of inactive pro-meprin β. Overall, we highlight the current cellular, molecular and structural understanding of meprin β as alternative β-secretase within the complex protease web, regulating APP processing in health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-019-03179-1DOI Listing
August 2019

Tethering soluble meprin α in an enzyme complex to the cell surface affects IBD-associated genes.

FASEB J 2019 06 27;33(6):7490-7504. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Unit for Degradomics of the Protease Web, Biochemical Institute, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Biologic activity of proteases is mainly characterized by the substrate specificity, tissue distribution, and cellular localization. The human metalloproteases meprin α and meprin β share 41% sequence identity and exhibit a similar cleavage specificity with a preference for negatively charged amino acids. However, shedding of meprin α by furin on the secretory pathway makes it a secreted enzyme in comparison with the membrane-bound meprin β. In this study, we identified human meprin α and meprin β as forming covalently linked membrane-tethered heterodimers in the early endoplasmic reticulum, thereby preventing furin-mediated secretion of meprin α. Within this newly formed enzyme complex, meprin α was able to be activated on the cell surface and detected by cleavage of a novel specific fluorogenic peptide substrate. However, the known meprin β substrates amyloid precursor protein and CD99 were not shed by membrane-tethered meprin α. On the other hand, being linked to meprin α, activation of or substrate cleavage by meprin β on the cell surface was not altered. Interestingly, proteolytic activity of both proteases was increased in the heteromeric complex, indicating an increased proteolytic potential at the plasma membrane. Because meprins are susceptibility genes for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and to investigate the physiologic impact of the enzyme complex, we performed transcriptome analyses of intestinal mucosa from meprin-knockout mice. Comparison of the transcriptional gene analysis data with gene analyses of IBD patients revealed that different gene subsets were dysregulated if meprin α was expressed alone or in the enzyme complex, demonstrating the physiologic and pathophysiological relevance of the meprin heterodimer formation.-Peters, F., Scharfenberg, F., Colmorgen, C., Armbrust, F., Wichert, R., Arnold, P., Potempa, B., Potempa, J., Pietrzik, C. U., Häsler, R., Rosenstiel, P., Becker-Pauly, C. Tethering soluble meprin α in an enzyme complex to the cell surface affects IBD-associated genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201802391RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6529335PMC
June 2019

Mechanistic peculiarities of activation-induced mobilization of cytotoxic effector proteins in human T cells.

Int Immunol 2018 04;30(5):215-228

Institute of Immunology, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel and University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.

It is widely accepted that cytotoxic T and NK cells store effector proteins including granzymes, perforin and Fas ligand (FasL) in intracellular granules, often referred to as secretory lysosomes. Upon target cell encounter, these organelles are transported to the cytotoxic immunological synapse, where they fuse with the plasma membrane to release the soluble effector molecules and to expose transmembrane proteins including FasL on the cell surface. We previously described two distinct species of secretory vesicles in T and NK cells that differ in size, morphology and protein loading, most strikingly regarding FasL and granzyme B. We now show that the signal requirements for the mobilization of one or the other granule also differ substantially. We report that prestored FasL can be mobilized independent of extracellular Ca2+, whereas the surface exposure of lysosome-associated membrane proteins (Lamps; CD107a and CD63) and the release of granzyme B are calcium-dependent. The use of selective inhibitors of actin dynamics unequivocally points to different transport mechanisms for individual vesicles. While inhibitors of actin polymerization/dynamics inhibit the surface appearance of prestored FasL, they increase the activation-induced mobilization of CD107a, CD63 and granzyme B. In contrast, inhibition of the actin-based motor protein myosin 2a facilitates FasL-, but impairs CD107a-, CD63- and granzyme B mobilization. From our data, we conclude that distinct cytotoxic effector granules are differentially regulated with respect to signaling requirements and transport mechanisms. We suggest that a T cell might 'sense' which effector proteins it needs to mobilize in a given context, thereby increasing efficacy while minimizing collateral damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intimm/dxy007DOI Listing
April 2018