Publications by authors named "Fraser J Scott"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cyrene™ is a green alternative to DMSO as a solvent for antibacterial drug discovery against ESKAPE pathogens.

RSC Med Chem 2020 Jan 17;11(1):111-117. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry , University of Strathclyde , Glasgow , Scotland , UK . Email:

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is currently employed across the biomedical field, from cryopreservation to assays, despite the fact that it has been shown to have an assortment of biologically relevant effects. The amphiphilic nature of DMSO along with its relatively low toxicity at dilute concentrations make it a challenging solvent to replace. A possible alternative is Cyrene™ (dihydrolevoglucosenone), an aprotic dipolar solvent that is derived from waste biomass. In addition to being a green solvent, Cyrene™ has comparable solvation properties and is reported to have low toxicity. Herein the abilities of the two solvents to solubilize drug compounds and to act as non-participatory vehicles in drug discovery for antibacterials are compared. It was demonstrate that the results of standardised antimicrobial susceptibility testing do not differ between drugs prepared from either Cyrene™ or DMSO stock. Moreover, in contrast to DMSO, Cyrene™ does not offer protection from ROS mediated killing of bacteria and may therefore be an improvement over DMSO as a vehicle in antimicrobial drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9md00341jDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7522793PMC
January 2020

Selective anti-cancer activity of non-alkylating minor groove binders.

Medchemcomm 2019 Sep 18;10(9):1620-1634. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry , WestCHEM , University of Strathclyde , Glasgow , UK . Email:

Traditional cytotoxic agents which act through a DNA-alkylating mechanism are relatively non-specific, resulting in a small therapeutic window and thus limiting their effectiveness. In this study, we evaluate a panel of 24 non-alkylating Strathclyde Minor Groove Binders (S-MGBs), including 14 novel compounds, for anti-cancer activity against a human colon carcinoma cell line, a cisplatin-sensitive ovarian cancer cell line and a cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell line. A human non-cancerous retinal epithelial cell line was used to measure selectivity of any response. We have identified several S-MGBs with activities comparable to cis-platin and carboplatin, but with better selectivity indices, particularly S-MGB-4, S-MGB-74 and S-MGB-317. Moreover, a comparison of the cis-platin resistant and cis-platin sensitive ovarian cancer cell lines reveals that our S-MGBs do not show cross resistance with cisplatin or carboplatin and that they likely have a different mechanism of action. Finally, we present an initial investigation into the mechanism of action of one compound from this class, S-MGB-4, demonstrating that neither DNA double strand breaks nor the DNA damage stress sensor protein p53 are induced. This indicates that our S-MGBs are unlikely to act through an alkylating or DNA damage response mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9md00268eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7478159PMC
September 2019

Novel Minor Groove Binders Cure Animal African Trypanosomiasis in an in Vivo Mouse Model.

J Med Chem 2019 03 13;62(6):3021-3035. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Biological and Geographical Sciences, School of Applied Sciences , University of Huddersfield , Huddersfield HD1 3DH , U.K.

Animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) is a significant socioeconomic burden for sub-Saharan Africa because of its huge impact on livestock health. Existing therapies including those based on minor groove binders (MGBs), such as the diamidines, which have been used for decades, have now lost efficacy in some places because of the emergence of resistant parasites. Consequently, the need for new chemotherapies is urgent. Here, we describe a structurally distinct class of MGBs, Strathclyde MGBs (S-MGBs), which display excellent in vitro activities against the principal causative organisms of AAT: Trypanosoma congolense, and Trypanosoma vivax. We also show the cure of T. congolense-infected mice by a number of these compounds. In particular, we identify S-MGB-234, compound 7, as curative by using two applications of 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Crucially, we demonstrate that S-MGBs do not show cross-resistance with the current diamidine drugs and are not internalized via the transporters used by diamidines. This study demonstrates that S-MGBs have significant potential as novel therapeutic agents for AAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b01847DOI Listing
March 2019

Synthetic analogues of the parasitic worm product ES-62 reduce disease development in in vivo models of lung fibrosis.

Acta Trop 2018 Sep 23;185:212-218. Epub 2018 May 23.

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences (SIPBS), University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G4 0RE, UK. Electronic address:

Parasitic worms are receiving much attention as a potential new therapeutic approach to treating autoimmune and allergic conditions but concerns remain regarding their safety. As an alternative strategy, we have focused on the use of defined parasitic worm products and recently taken this one step further by designing drug-like small molecule analogues of one such product, ES-62, which is anti-inflammatory by virtue of covalently attached phosphorylcholine moieties. Previously, we have shown that ES-62 mimics are efficacious in protecting against disease in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and skin and lung allergy. Given the potential role of chronic inflammation in fibrosis, in the present study we have focused our attention on lung fibrosis, a debilitating condition for which there is no cure and which in spite of treatment slowly gets worse over time. Two mouse models of fibrosis - bleomycin-induced and LPS-induced - in which roles for inflammation have been implicated were adopted. Four ES-62 analogues were tested - 11a and 12b, previously shown to be active in mouse models of allergic and autoimmune disease and 16b and AIK-29/62 both of which are structurally related to 11a. All four compounds were found to significantly reduce disease development in both fibrosis models, as shown by histopathological analysis of lung tissue, indicating their potential as treatments for this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.05.015DOI Listing
September 2018

Evaluation of minor groove binders (MGBs) as novel anti-mycobacterial agents and the effect of using non-ionic surfactant vesicles as a delivery system to improve their efficacy.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 Dec;72(12):3334-3341

University of Cape Town, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine (IDM), Division of Immunology and South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC) Immunology of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7925, South Africa.

Objectives: The slow development of major advances in drug discovery for the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection suggests a compelling need for evaluation of more effective drug therapies against TB. New classes of drugs are constantly being evaluated for anti-mycobacterial activity with currently a very limited number of new drugs approved for TB treatment. Minor groove binders (MGBs) have previously revealed promising antimicrobial activity against various infectious agents; however, they have not yet been screened against Mtb.

Methods: The mycobactericidal activity of 96 MGB compounds against Mtb was determined using an H37Rv-GFP microplate assay. MGB hits were screened for their intracellular mycobactericidal efficacy against the clinical Beijing Mtb strain HN878 in bone-marrow-derived macrophages using standard cfu counting. Cell viability was assessed by CellTiter-Blue assays. Selected MGBs were encapsulated into non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NIVs) for drug delivery system evaluation.

Results: H37Rv-GFP screening yielded a hit-list of seven compounds at an MIC99 of between 0.39 and 1.56 μM. MGB-362 and MGB-364 displayed intracellular mycobactericidal activity against Mtb HN878 at an MIC50 of 4.09 and 4.19 μM, respectively, whilst being non-toxic. Subsequent encapsulation into NIVs demonstrated a 1.6- and 2.1-fold increased intracellular mycobacterial activity, similar to that of rifampicin when compared with MGB-alone formulation.

Conclusions: MGB anti-mycobacterial activities together with non-toxic properties indicate that MGB compounds constitute an important new class of drug/chemical entity, which holds promise in future anti-TB therapy. Furthermore, the ability of NIVs to better deliver entrapped MGB compounds to an intracellular Mtb infection suggests further preclinical evaluation is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkx326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5890746PMC
December 2017

An evaluation of Minor Groove Binders as anti-fungal and anti-mycobacterial therapeutics.

Eur J Med Chem 2017 Aug 17;136:561-572. Epub 2017 May 17.

WestCHEM Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G1 1XL, United Kingdom.

This study details the synthesis and biological evaluation of a collection of 19 structurally related Minor Groove Binders (MGBs), derived from the natural product distamycin, which were designed to probe antifungal and antimycobacterial activity. From this initial set, we report several MGBs that are worth more detailed investigation and optimisation. MGB-4, MGB-317 and MGB-325 have promising MICs of 2, 4 and 0.25 μg/mL, respectively, against the fungus C. neoformans.MGB-353 and MGB-354 have MICs of 3.1 μM against the mycobacterium M. tuberculosis. The selectivity and activity of these compounds is related to their physicochemical properties and the cell wall/membrane characteristics of the infective agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2017.05.039DOI Listing
August 2017

Four pyrrole derivatives used as building blocks in the synthesis of minor-groove binders.

Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun 2017 Feb 27;73(Pt 2):254-259. Epub 2017 Jan 27.

Westchem, Department of Pure & Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G1 1XL, Scotland.

The title nitro-pyrrole-based compounds, CHNO, (I) (ethyl 4-nitro-1-pyrrole-2-carboxyl-ate), its derivative CHNO, (II) [ethyl 4-nitro-1-(4-pent-yn-yl)-1-pyrrole-2-carboxyl-ate], CHNO, (III) {-[3-(di-methyamino)prop-yl]-1-isopentyl-4-nitro-1-pyrrole-2-carboxamide}, and CHNO, (IV) {1-(3-azido-prop-yl)-4-(1-methyl-4-nitro-1-pyrrole-2-carboxamido)--[2-(morpholin-4-yl)eth-yl]-1-pyrrole-2-carboxamide}, are inter-mediates used in the synthesis of modified DNA minor-groove binders. In all four compounds, the nitro groups lie in the plane of the pyrrole ring. In compounds (I) and (II), the ester groups also lie in the plane of the pyrrole ring. In compound (III), both of the other substituents lie out of the plane of the pyrrole ring. In the case of compound (IV), the coplanarity extends to the second pyrrole ring and through both amide groups. In the crystals of all four compounds, layer-like structures are formed, a combination of N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds for (I), (III) and (IV), but by only C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds for (II).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S2056989017001177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5290577PMC
February 2017

An evaluation of Minor Groove Binders as anti-lung cancer therapeutics.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2016 08 16;26(15):3478-86. Epub 2016 Jun 16.

WestCHEM, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G1 1XL, United Kingdom.

A series of 47 structurally diverse MGBs, derived from the natural product distamycin, was evaluated for anti-lung cancer activity by screening against the melanoma cancer cell line B16-F10. Five compounds have been found to possess significant activity, more so than a standard therapy, Gemcitabine. Moreover, one compound has been found to have an activity around 70-fold that of Gemcitabine and has a favourable selectivity index of greater than 125. Furthermore, initial studies have revealed this compound to be metabolically stable and thus it represents a lead for further optimisation towards a novel treatment for lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.06.040DOI Listing
August 2016

Selective anti-malarial minor groove binders.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2016 07 13;26(14):3326-3329. Epub 2016 May 13.

WestCHEM Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G1 1XL, United Kingdom.

A set of 31 DNA minor groove binders (MGBs) with diverse structural features relating to both physical chemical properties and DNA binding sequence preference has been evaluated as potential drugs to treat Plasmodium falciparum infections using a chloroquine sensitive strain (3D7) and a chloroquine resistant strain (Dd2) in comparison with human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells as an indicator of mammalian cell toxicity. MGBs with an alkene link between the two N-terminal building blocks were demonstrated to be most active with IC50 values in the range 30-500nM and therapeutic ratios in the range 10->500. Many active compounds contained a C-alkylthiazole building block. Active compounds with logD7.4 values of approximately 3 or 7 were identified. Importantly the MGBs tested were essentially equally effective against both chloroquine sensitive and resistant strains. The results show that suitably designed MGBs have the potential for development into clinical candidates for antimalarial drugs effective against resistant strains of Plasmodia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.05.039DOI Listing
July 2016

An evaluation of Minor Groove Binders as anti-Trypanosoma brucei brucei therapeutics.

Eur J Med Chem 2016 Jun 29;116:116-125. Epub 2016 Mar 29.

WestCHEM Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G1 1XL, United Kingdom.

A series of 32 structurally diverse MGBs, derived from the natural product distamycin, was evaluated for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Four compounds have been found to possess significant activity, in the nanomolar range, and represent hits for further optimisation towards novel treatments for Human and Animal African Trypanosomiases. Moreover, SAR indicates that the head group linking moiety is a significant modulator of biological activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2016.03.064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872591PMC
June 2016

Crystal structure of N,N-dimethyl-2-[(4-methyl-benz-yl)sulfon-yl]ethanamine.

Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun 2015 Jul 6;71(Pt 7):757-9. Epub 2015 Jun 6.

Westchem, Department of Pure & Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G1 1XL, Scotland.

In the crystal, the title compound, C12H19NO2S, has a disordered structure with two equally populated conformations of the amine fragment. A pair of weak C-H⋯O inter-molecular inter-actions between the CH2 and SO2 groups gives a one-dimensional supra-molecular structure that propagates through translation along the a-axis direction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S2056989015010233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4518984PMC
July 2015

Treatment Efficacy of Integrative Family and Systems Treatment (I-FAST) With and Without Consultation: The Role of Model Training in the Sustainability of Evidence-Based Family Treatments.

Adm Policy Ment Health 2016 07;43(4):579-91

The Buckeye Ranch, 697 E. Broad Street, Columbus, OH, 43215, USA.

This study examined the efficacy of the Integrative Family and Systems Treatment (I-FAST) training model that seeks to support development of model expertise within the agency in the context of facilitating the sustainability of evidence-based family treatment within community mental health settings. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine treatment outcomes of I-FAST among agencies that received ongoing Consultation and agencies that received No Consultation upon completion of I-FAST training. χ (2) analyses and independent samples t test analyses showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups on clients who had achieved reliable change on Problem Severity and Functioning based on parents' assessments. Significance of this study is discussed in the context of the role of evidence-based family therapy (EBFT) training in facilitating its sustainability in community mental health settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10488-015-0644-yDOI Listing
July 2016

Novel TPP-riboswitch activators bypass metabolic enzyme dependency.

Front Chem 2014 28;2:53. Epub 2014 Jul 28.

Life and Medical Sciences Institute, University of Bonn Bonn, Germany.

Riboswitches are conserved regions within mRNA molecules that bind specific metabolites and regulate gene expression. TPP-riboswitches, which respond to thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), are involved in the regulation of thiamine metabolism in numerous bacteria. As these regulatory RNAs are often modulating essential biosynthesis pathways they have become increasingly interesting as promising antibacterial targets. Here, we describe thiamine analogs containing a central 1,2,3-triazole group to induce repression of thiM-riboswitch dependent gene expression in different E. coli strains. Additionally, we show that compound activation is dependent on proteins involved in the metabolic pathways of thiamine uptake and synthesis. The most promising molecule, triazolethiamine (TT), shows concentration dependent reporter gene repression that is dependent on the presence of thiamine kinase ThiK, whereas the effect of pyrithiamine (PT), a known TPP-riboswitch modulator, is ThiK independent. We further show that this dependence can be bypassed by triazolethiamine-derivatives that bear phosphate-mimicking moieties. As triazolethiamine reveals superior activity compared to pyrithiamine, it represents a very promising starting point for developing novel antibacterial compounds that target TPP-riboswitches. Riboswitch-targeting compounds engage diverse endogenous mechanisms to attain in vivo activity. These findings are of importance for the understanding of compounds that require metabolic activation to achieve effective riboswitch modulation and they enable the design of novel compound generations that are independent of endogenous activation mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2014.00053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4112796PMC
August 2014

Designing anti-inflammatory drugs from parasitic worms: a synthetic small molecule analogue of the Acanthocheilonema viteae product ES-62 prevents development of collagen-induced arthritis.

J Med Chem 2013 Dec 25;56(24):9982-10002. Epub 2013 Nov 25.

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde , 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE, U.K.

In spite of increasing evidence that parasitic worms may protect humans from developing allergic and autoimmune diseases and the continuing identification of defined helminth-derived immunomodulatory molecules, to date no new anti-inflammatory drugs have been developed from these organisms. We have approached this matter in a novel manner by synthesizing a library of drug-like small molecules based upon phosphorylcholine, the active moiety of the anti-inflammatory Acanthocheilonema viteae product, ES-62, which as an immunogenic protein is unsuitable for use as a drug. Following preliminary in vitro screening for inhibitory effects on relevant macrophage cytokine responses, a sulfone-containing phosphorylcholine analogue (11a) was selected for testing in an in vivo model of inflammation, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Testing revealed that 11a was as effective as ES-62 in protecting DBA/1 mice from developing CIA and mirrored its mechanism of action in downregulating the TLR/IL-1R transducer, MyD88. 11a is thus a novel prototype for anti-inflammatory drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm401251pDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4125414PMC
December 2013

Design, synthesis and antibacterial activity of minor groove binders: the role of non-cationic tail groups.

Eur J Med Chem 2012 Oct 16;56:39-47. Epub 2012 Aug 16.

WestCHEM, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow, G1 1XL, UK.

The design and synthesis of a new class of minor groove binder (MGBs) in which, the cationic tail group has been replaced by a neutral, polar variant including cyanoguanidine, nitroalkene, and trifluoroacetamide groups. Antibacterial activity (against Gram positive bacteria) was found for both the nitroalkene and trifluoroacetamide groups. For the case of the nitroalkene tail group, strong binding of a minor groove binder containing this tail group was demonstrated by both DNA footprinting and melting temperature measurements, showing a correlation between DNA binding and antibacterial activity. The compounds have also been evaluated for binding to the hERG ion channel to determine whether non-cationic but polar substituents might have an advantage compared with conventional cationic tail groups in avoiding hERG binding. In this series of compounds, it was found that whilst non-cationic compounds generally had lower affinity to the hERG ion channel, all of the compounds studied bound weakly to the hERG ion channel, probably associated with the hydrophobic head groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2012.08.013DOI Listing
October 2012

Integrative Families and Systems Treatment: a middle path toward integrating common and specific factors in evidence-based family therapy.

J Marital Fam Ther 2012 Jul 19;38(3):515-28. Epub 2011 Apr 19.

Ellis Institute, SOPP, Wright State University, 9 N. Edwin Moses Blvd., Dayton, Ohio 45407, USA.

A moderate common factors approach is proposed as a synthesis or middle path to integrate common and specific factors in evidence-based approaches to high-risk youth and families. The debate in family therapy between common and specific factors camps is reviewed and followed by suggestions from the literature for synthesis and creative flexibility in manual development. A preliminary integrative model termed Integrative Family and Systems Treatment is offered as one option in developing and testing a moderate common factors approach. Such a model might then be studied in eventual clinical trials with other well-developed evidence-based protocols to further address the common versus specific factor debate. Implications for further research and practice are offered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2011.00228.xDOI Listing
July 2012

Amide isosteres in structure-activity studies of antibacterial minor groove binders.

Eur J Med Chem 2011 Nov 30;46(11):5343-55. Epub 2011 Aug 30.

WestCHEM Research School, Department of Pure & Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, Thomas Graham Building, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G1 1XL, Scotland, United Kingdom.

Antibacterial minor groove binders related to the natural product, distamycin, are development candidates for novel antibiotics. Alkenes have been found to be effective substitutes for the isosteric amide links in some positions and alkyl groups larger than methyl have been found to increase binding to DNA in both selectivity and affinity. However the impact of other isosteres such as diazenes and the position of an alkyl group with respect to DNA binding and antibacterial activity are not known. The effects of some systematic variations in the structure of polyamide minor groove binders are investigated. Isosteres of the amide link (alkenes and diazenes) are compared: it is shown that all three are competent for binding to DNA but that alkene links give the tightest binding and highest antibacterial activity; no significant antibacterial activity was found for compounds with a diazene link. Within a series of alkene linked compounds, the effect of branched N-alkyl substituents on binding to DNA and antibacterial activity is investigated: it was found that C3 and C4 branched chains are acceptable at the central pyrrole residue but that at the pyrrole ring adjacent to the basic tail group, a C4 branched chain was too large both for DNA binding and for antibacterial activity. The active branched alkyl chain compounds were found to be especially active against Mycobacterium aurum, a bacterium related to the causative agent of tuberculosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2011.08.035DOI Listing
November 2011

Key processes, ingredients and components of successful systems collaboration: working with severely emotionally or behaviorally disturbed children and their families.

Adm Policy Ment Health 2012 Sep;39(5):394-405

College of Social Work, The Ohio State University, 1947 N. College Rd., Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Systems collaboration has repeatedly been cited as a component of successful social service delivery. Through qualitative data, this study explored the process involved in inter-agency collaboration when providing Integrative Family and Systems Treatment (I-FAST) for families with severely emotionally or behaviorally disturbed children. Data were collected through a series of eight focus groups with 26 agency collaborators across 11 counties in Ohio. Data analysis revealed two emergent phenomena: the process of developing collaboration, consisting of making initial contact, a trial period and developing trust; and the key ingredients of collaboration, focusing on interpersonal and professional qualities. Implications of each theme are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10488-011-0358-8DOI Listing
September 2012

Utilizing family strengths and resilience: integrative family and systems treatment with children and adolescents with severe emotional and behavioral problems.

Fam Process 2009 Sep;48(3):395-416

College of Social Work, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Community mental health agencies are consistently challenged to provide realistic and effective home-based family-centered treatment that meets local needs and can realistically fit within available budget and resource capabilities. Integrated Family and Systems Treatment (I-FAST) is developed based on existing evidence-based approaches for working with at-risk children, adolescents, and families and a strengths perspective. I-FAST identified 3 evidence-based, core treatment components and integrated them into a coherent treatment protocol; this is done in a way that builds on and is integrated with mental health agencies' existing expertise in home-based treatment. This is an intervention development study in which we conducted an initial feasibility trial of I-FAST for treating families with children at risk of out-of-home placement. The outcomes of the study provide initial empirical evidence that supports the effectiveness of I-FAST. Findings indicate that there were significant improvements in child behavior, significant increases in parental competency, and significant increases in the level of cohesion and adaptability in these families. All observed changes were significant from pre- to posttreatment with the families able to maintain these positive changes at 6-month follow-up. A more rigorous and robust research design, however, will be needed to establish definitive evidence of the effectiveness of I-FAST.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2009.01291.xDOI Listing
September 2009