Publications by authors named "Frank W Sellke"

345 Publications

Chronic Inhibition of mROS Protects Against Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction in Mice With Diabetes.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 18;9:643810. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Cardiothoracic Surgery Research Laboratory, Cardiovascular Research Center, Department of Surgery, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, United States.

Diabetes is associated with coronary endothelial dysfunction. Persistent oxidative stress during diabetes contributes to coronary endothelial dysfunction. The mitochondria are main sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetes, and mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mito-Tempo can prevent mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) generation in a variety of disorders. Inhibition/inactivation of small-conductance Ca-activated K (SK) channels contribute to diabetic downregulation of coronary endothelial function/relaxation. However, few investigated the role of mROS on endothelial dysfunction/vasodilation and endothelial SK channel downregulation in diabetes. The aim of present study was to investigate the chronic administration of mito-Tempo, on coronary vasodilation, and endothelial SK channel activity of mice with or without diabetes. Mito-Tempo (1 mg/kg/day) was applied to the mice with or without diabetes ( = 10/group) for 4 weeks. relaxation response of pre-contracted arteries was examined in the presence or absence of the vasodilatory agents. SK channel currents of the isolated mouse heart endothelial cells were measured using whole-cell patch clamp methods. At baseline, coronary endothelium-dependent relaxation responses to ADP and the selective SK channel activator NS309 and endothelial SK channel currents were decreased in diabetic mice compared with that in non-diabetic (ND) mice ( < 0.05). After a 4-week treatment with mito-Tempo, coronary endothelium-dependent relaxation response to ADP or NS309 and endothelial SK channel currents in the diabetic mice was significantly improved when compared with that in untreated diabetic mice ( < 0.05). Interestingly, coronary relaxation responses to ADP and NS309 and endothelial SK channel currents were not significantly changed in ND mice after mito-Tempo treatment, as compared to that of untreated control group. Chronic inhibition of endothelial mROS appears to improve coronary endothelial function/dilation and SK channel activity in diabetes, and mROS inhibitors may be a novel strategy to treat vascular complications in diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.643810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930489PMC
February 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Authors:
Daniel J Klionsky Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz Sara Abdelfatah Mahmoud Abdellatif Asghar Abdoli Steffen Abel Hagai Abeliovich Marie H Abildgaard Yakubu Princely Abudu Abraham Acevedo-Arozena Iannis E Adamopoulos Khosrow Adeli Timon E Adolph Annagrazia Adornetto Elma Aflaki Galila Agam Anupam Agarwal Bharat B Aggarwal Maria Agnello Patrizia Agostinis Javed N Agrewala Alexander Agrotis Patricia V Aguilar S Tariq Ahmad Zubair M Ahmed Ulises Ahumada-Castro Sonja Aits Shu Aizawa Yunus Akkoc Tonia Akoumianaki Hafize Aysin Akpinar Ahmed M Al-Abd Lina Al-Akra Abeer Al-Gharaibeh Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali Simon Alberti Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez Cristiano Alessandri Muhammad Ali M Abdul Alim Al-Bari Saeb Aliwaini Javad Alizadeh Eugènia Almacellas Alexandru Almasan Alicia Alonso Guillermo D Alonso Nihal Altan-Bonnet Dario C Altieri Élida M C Álvarez Sara Alves Cristine Alves da Costa Mazen M Alzaharna Marialaura Amadio Consuelo Amantini Cristina Amaral Susanna Ambrosio Amal O Amer Veena Ammanathan Zhenyi An Stig U Andersen Shaida A Andrabi Magaiver Andrade-Silva Allen M Andres Sabrina Angelini David Ann Uche C Anozie Mohammad Y Ansari Pedro Antas Adam Antebi Zuriñe Antón Tahira Anwar Lionel Apetoh Nadezda Apostolova Toshiyuki Araki Yasuhiro Araki Kohei Arasaki Wagner L Araújo Jun Araya Catherine Arden Maria-Angeles Arévalo Sandro Arguelles Esperanza Arias Jyothi Arikkath Hirokazu Arimoto Aileen R Ariosa Darius Armstrong-James Laetitia Arnauné-Pelloquin Angeles Aroca Daniela S Arroyo Ivica Arsov Rubén Artero Dalia Maria Lucia Asaro Michael Aschner Milad Ashrafizadeh Osnat Ashur-Fabian Atanas G Atanasov Alicia K Au Patrick Auberger Holger W Auner Laure Aurelian Riccardo Autelli Laura Avagliano Yenniffer Ávalos Sanja Aveic Célia Alexandra Aveleira Tamar Avin-Wittenberg Yucel Aydin Scott Ayton Srinivas Ayyadevara Maria Azzopardi Misuzu Baba Jonathan M Backer Steven K Backues Dong-Hun Bae Ok-Nam Bae Soo Han Bae Eric H Baehrecke Ahruem Baek Seung-Hoon Baek Sung Hee Baek Giacinto Bagetta Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna Hua Bai Jie Bai Xiyuan Bai Yidong Bai Nandadulal Bairagi Shounak Baksi Teresa Balbi Cosima T Baldari Walter Balduini Andrea Ballabio Maria Ballester Salma Balazadeh Rena Balzan Rina Bandopadhyay Sreeparna Banerjee Sulagna Banerjee Ágnes Bánréti Yan Bao Mauricio S Baptista Alessandra Baracca Cristiana Barbati Ariadna Bargiela Daniela Barilà Peter G Barlow Sami J Barmada Esther Barreiro George E Barreto Jiri Bartek Bonnie Bartel Alberto Bartolome Gaurav R Barve Suresh H Basagoudanavar Diane C Bassham Robert C Bast Alakananda Basu Henri Batoko Isabella Batten Etienne E Baulieu Bradley L Baumgarner Jagadeesh Bayry Rupert Beale Isabelle Beau Florian Beaumatin Luiz R G Bechara George R Beck Michael F Beers Jakob Begun Christian Behrends Georg M N Behrens Roberto Bei Eloy Bejarano Shai Bel Christian Behl Amine Belaid Naïma Belgareh-Touzé Cristina Bellarosa Francesca Belleudi Melissa Belló Pérez Raquel Bello-Morales Jackeline Soares de Oliveira Beltran Sebastián Beltran Doris Mangiaracina Benbrook Mykolas Bendorius Bruno A Benitez Irene Benito-Cuesta Julien Bensalem Martin W Berchtold Sabina Berezowska Daniele Bergamaschi Matteo Bergami Andreas Bergmann Laura Berliocchi Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent Amélie Bernard Lionel Berthoux Cagri G Besirli Sebastien Besteiro Virginie M Betin Rudi Beyaert Jelena S Bezbradica Kiran Bhaskar Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova Resham Bhattacharya Sujoy Bhattacharya Shalmoli Bhattacharyya Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan Sujit Kumar Bhutia Lanrong Bi Xiaolin Bi Trevor J Biden Krikor Bijian Viktor A Billes Nadine Binart Claudia Bincoletto Asa B Birgisdottir Geir Bjorkoy Gonzalo Blanco Ana Blas-Garcia Janusz Blasiak Robert Blomgran Klas Blomgren Janice S Blum Emilio Boada-Romero Mirta Boban Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia Philippe Boeuf Barry Boland Pascale Bomont Paolo Bonaldo Srinivasa Reddy Bonam Laura Bonfili Juan S Bonifacino Brian A Boone Martin D Bootman Matteo Bordi Christoph Borner Beat C Bornhauser Gautam Borthakur Jürgen Bosch Santanu Bose Luis M Botana Juan Botas Chantal M Boulanger Michael E Boulton Mathieu Bourdenx Benjamin Bourgeois Nollaig M Bourke Guilhem Bousquet Patricia Boya Peter V Bozhkov Luiz H M Bozi Tolga O Bozkurt Doug E Brackney Christian H Brandts Ralf J Braun Gerhard H Braus Roberto Bravo-Sagua José M Bravo-San Pedro Patrick Brest Marie-Agnès Bringer Alfredo Briones-Herrera V Courtney Broaddus Peter Brodersen Jeffrey L Brodsky Steven L Brody Paola G Bronson Jeff M Bronstein Carolyn N Brown Rhoderick E Brown Patricia C Brum John H Brumell Nicola Brunetti-Pierri Daniele Bruno Robert J Bryson-Richardson Cecilia Bucci Carmen Buchrieser Marta Bueno Laura Elisa Buitrago-Molina Simone Buraschi Shilpa Buch J Ross Buchan Erin M Buckingham Hikmet Budak Mauricio Budini Geert Bultynck Florin Burada Joseph R Burgoyne M Isabel Burón Victor Bustos Sabrina Büttner Elena Butturini Aaron Byrd Isabel Cabas Sandra Cabrera-Benitez Ken Cadwell Jingjing Cai Lu Cai Qian Cai Montserrat Cairó Jose A Calbet Guy A Caldwell Kim A Caldwell Jarrod A Call Riccardo Calvani Ana C Calvo Miguel Calvo-Rubio Barrera Niels Os Camara Jacques H Camonis Nadine Camougrand Michelangelo Campanella Edward M Campbell François-Xavier Campbell-Valois Silvia Campello Ilaria Campesi Juliane C Campos Olivier Camuzard Jorge Cancino Danilo Candido de Almeida Laura Canesi Isabella Caniggia Barbara Canonico Carles Cantí Bin Cao Michele Caraglia Beatriz Caramés Evie H Carchman Elena Cardenal-Muñoz Cesar Cardenas Luis Cardenas Sandra M Cardoso Jennifer S Carew Georges F Carle Gillian Carleton Silvia Carloni Didac Carmona-Gutierrez Leticia A Carneiro Oliana Carnevali Julian M Carosi Serena Carra Alice Carrier Lucie Carrier Bernadette Carroll A Brent Carter Andreia Neves Carvalho Magali Casanova Caty Casas Josefina Casas Chiara Cassioli Eliseo F Castillo Karen Castillo Sonia Castillo-Lluva Francesca Castoldi Marco Castori Ariel F Castro Margarida Castro-Caldas Javier Castro-Hernandez Susana Castro-Obregon Sergio D Catz Claudia Cavadas Federica Cavaliere Gabriella Cavallini Maria Cavinato Maria L Cayuela Paula Cebollada Rica Valentina Cecarini Francesco Cecconi Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko Simone Cenci Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré João J Cerqueira Janete M Cerutti Davide Cervia Vildan Bozok Cetintas Silvia Cetrullo Han-Jung Chae Andrei S Chagin Chee-Yin Chai Gopal Chakrabarti Oishee Chakrabarti Tapas Chakraborty Trinad Chakraborty Mounia Chami Georgios Chamilos David W Chan Edmond Y W Chan Edward D Chan H Y Edwin Chan Helen H Chan Hung Chan Matthew T V Chan Yau Sang Chan Partha K Chandra Chih-Peng Chang Chunmei Chang Hao-Chun Chang Kai Chang Jie Chao Tracey Chapman Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand Samrat Chatterjee Shail K Chaube Anu Chaudhary Santosh Chauhan Edward Chaum Frédéric Checler Michael E Cheetham Chang-Shi Chen Guang-Chao Chen Jian-Fu Chen Liam L Chen Leilei Chen Lin Chen Mingliang Chen Mu-Kuan Chen Ning Chen Quan Chen Ruey-Hwa Chen Shi Chen Wei Chen Weiqiang Chen Xin-Ming Chen Xiong-Wen Chen Xu Chen Yan Chen Ye-Guang Chen Yingyu Chen Yongqiang Chen Yu-Jen Chen Yue-Qin Chen Zhefan Stephen Chen Zhi Chen Zhi-Hua Chen Zhijian J Chen Zhixiang Chen Hanhua Cheng Jun Cheng Shi-Yuan Cheng Wei Cheng Xiaodong Cheng Xiu-Tang Cheng Yiyun Cheng Zhiyong Cheng Zhong Chen Heesun Cheong Jit Kong Cheong Boris V Chernyak Sara Cherry Chi Fai Randy Cheung Chun Hei Antonio Cheung King-Ho Cheung Eric Chevet Richard J Chi Alan Kwok Shing Chiang Ferdinando Chiaradonna Roberto Chiarelli Mario Chiariello Nathalia Chica Susanna Chiocca Mario Chiong Shih-Hwa Chiou Abhilash I Chiramel Valerio Chiurchiù Dong-Hyung Cho Seong-Kyu Choe Augustine M K Choi Mary E Choi Kamalika Roy Choudhury Norman S Chow Charleen T Chu Jason P Chua John Jia En Chua Hyewon Chung Kin Pan Chung Seockhoon Chung So-Hyang Chung Yuen-Li Chung Valentina Cianfanelli Iwona A Ciechomska Mariana Cifuentes Laura Cinque Sebahattin Cirak Mara Cirone Michael J Clague Robert Clarke Emilio Clementi Eliana M Coccia Patrice Codogno Ehud Cohen Mickael M Cohen Tania Colasanti Fiorella Colasuonno Robert A Colbert Anna Colell Miodrag Čolić Nuria S Coll Mark O Collins María I Colombo Daniel A Colón-Ramos Lydie Combaret Sergio Comincini Márcia R Cominetti Antonella Consiglio Andrea Conte Fabrizio Conti Viorica Raluca Contu Mark R Cookson Kevin M Coombs Isabelle Coppens Maria Tiziana Corasaniti Dale P Corkery Nils Cordes Katia Cortese Maria do Carmo Costa Sarah Costantino Paola Costelli Ana Coto-Montes Peter J Crack Jose L Crespo Alfredo Criollo Valeria Crippa Riccardo Cristofani Tamas Csizmadia Antonio Cuadrado Bing Cui Jun Cui Yixian Cui Yong Cui Emmanuel Culetto Andrea C Cumino Andrey V Cybulsky Mark J Czaja Stanislaw J Czuczwar Stefania D'Adamo Marcello D'Amelio Daniela D'Arcangelo Andrew C D'Lugos Gabriella D'Orazi James A da Silva Hormos Salimi Dafsari Ruben K Dagda Yasin Dagdas Maria Daglia Xiaoxia Dai Yun Dai Yuyuan Dai Jessica Dal Col Paul Dalhaimer Luisa Dalla Valle Tobias Dallenga Guillaume Dalmasso Markus Damme Ilaria Dando Nico P Dantuma April L Darling Hiranmoy Das Srinivasan Dasarathy Santosh K Dasari Srikanta Dash Oliver Daumke Adrian N Dauphinee Jeffrey S Davies Valeria A Dávila Roger J Davis Tanja Davis Sharadha Dayalan Naidu Francesca De Amicis Karolien De Bosscher Francesca De Felice Lucia De Franceschi Chiara De Leonibus Mayara G de Mattos Barbosa Guido R Y De Meyer Angelo De Milito Cosimo De Nunzio Clara De Palma Mauro De Santi Claudio De Virgilio Daniela De Zio Jayanta Debnath Brian J DeBosch Jean-Paul Decuypere Mark A Deehan Gianluca Deflorian James DeGregori Benjamin Dehay Gabriel Del Rio Joe R Delaney Lea M D Delbridge Elizabeth Delorme-Axford M Victoria Delpino Francesca Demarchi Vilma Dembitz Nicholas D Demers Hongbin Deng Zhiqiang Deng Joern Dengjel Paul Dent Donna Denton Melvin L DePamphilis Channing J Der Vojo Deretic Albert Descoteaux Laura Devis Sushil Devkota Olivier Devuyst Grant Dewson Mahendiran Dharmasivam Rohan Dhiman Diego di Bernardo Manlio Di Cristina Fabio Di Domenico Pietro Di Fazio Alessio Di Fonzo Giovanni Di Guardo Gianni M Di Guglielmo Luca Di Leo Chiara Di Malta Alessia Di Nardo Martina Di Rienzo Federica Di Sano George Diallinas Jiajie Diao Guillermo Diaz-Araya Inés Díaz-Laviada Jared M Dickinson Marc Diederich Mélanie Dieudé Ivan Dikic Shiping Ding Wen-Xing Ding Luciana Dini Jelena Dinić Miroslav Dinic Albena T Dinkova-Kostova Marc S Dionne Jörg H W Distler Abhinav Diwan Ian M C Dixon Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny Ina Dobrinski Oxana Dobrovinskaya Radek Dobrowolski Renwick C J Dobson Jelena Đokić Serap Dokmeci Emre Massimo Donadelli Bo Dong Xiaonan Dong Zhiwu Dong Gerald W Dorn Ii Volker Dotsch Huan Dou Juan Dou Moataz Dowaidar Sami Dridi Liat Drucker Ailian Du Caigan Du Guangwei Du Hai-Ning Du Li-Lin Du André du Toit Shao-Bin Duan Xiaoqiong Duan Sónia P Duarte Anna Dubrovska Elaine A Dunlop Nicolas Dupont Raúl V Durán Bilikere S Dwarakanath Sergey A Dyshlovoy Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari Leopold Eckhart Charles L Edelstein Thomas Efferth Eftekhar Eftekharpour Ludwig Eichinger Nabil Eid Tobias Eisenberg N Tony Eissa Sanaa Eissa Miriam Ejarque Abdeljabar El Andaloussi Nazira El-Hage Shahenda El-Naggar Anna Maria Eleuteri Eman S El-Shafey Mohamed Elgendy Aristides G Eliopoulos María M Elizalde Philip M Elks Hans-Peter Elsasser Eslam S Elsherbiny Brooke M Emerling N C Tolga Emre Christina H Eng Nikolai Engedal Anna-Mart Engelbrecht Agnete S T Engelsen Jorrit M Enserink Ricardo Escalante Audrey Esclatine Mafalda Escobar-Henriques Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen Lucile Espert Makandjou-Ola Eusebio Gemma Fabrias Cinzia Fabrizi Antonio Facchiano Francesco Facchiano Bengt Fadeel Claudio Fader Alex C Faesen W Douglas Fairlie Alberto Falcó Bjorn H Falkenburger Daping Fan Jie Fan Yanbo Fan Evandro F Fang Yanshan Fang Yognqi Fang Manolis Fanto Tamar Farfel-Becker Mathias Faure Gholamreza Fazeli Anthony O Fedele Arthur M Feldman Du Feng Jiachun Feng Lifeng Feng Yibin Feng Yuchen Feng Wei Feng Thais Fenz Araujo Thomas A Ferguson Álvaro F Fernández Jose C Fernandez-Checa Sonia Fernández-Veledo Alisdair R Fernie Anthony W Ferrante Alessandra Ferraresi Merari F Ferrari Julio C B Ferreira Susan Ferro-Novick Antonio Figueras Riccardo Filadi Nicoletta Filigheddu Eduardo Filippi-Chiela Giuseppe Filomeni Gian Maria Fimia Vittorio Fineschi Francesca Finetti Steven Finkbeiner Edward A Fisher Paul B Fisher Flavio Flamigni Steven J Fliesler Trude H Flo Ida Florance Oliver Florey Tullio Florio Erika Fodor Carlo Follo Edward A Fon Antonella Forlino Francesco Fornai Paola Fortini Anna Fracassi Alessandro Fraldi Brunella Franco Rodrigo Franco Flavia Franconi Lisa B Frankel Scott L Friedman Leopold F Fröhlich Gema Frühbeck Jose M Fuentes Yukio Fujiki Naonobu Fujita Yuuki Fujiwara Mitsunori Fukuda Simone Fulda Luc Furic Norihiko Furuya Carmela Fusco Michaela U Gack Lidia Gaffke Sehamuddin Galadari Alessia Galasso Maria F Galindo Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage Lorenzo Galluzzi Vincent Galy Noor Gammoh Boyi Gan Ian G Ganley Feng Gao Hui Gao Minghui Gao Ping Gao Shou-Jiang Gao Wentao Gao Xiaobo Gao Ana Garcera Maria Noé Garcia Verónica E Garcia Francisco García-Del Portillo Vega Garcia-Escudero Aracely Garcia-Garcia Marina Garcia-Macia Diana García-Moreno Carmen Garcia-Ruiz Patricia García-Sanz Abhishek D Garg Ricardo Gargini Tina Garofalo Robert F Garry Nils C Gassen Damian Gatica Liang Ge Wanzhong Ge Ruth Geiss-Friedlander Cecilia Gelfi Pascal Genschik Ian E Gentle Valeria Gerbino Christoph Gerhardt Kyla Germain Marc Germain David A Gewirtz Elham Ghasemipour Afshar Saeid Ghavami Alessandra Ghigo Manosij Ghosh Georgios Giamas Claudia Giampietri Alexandra Giatromanolaki Gary E Gibson Spencer B Gibson Vanessa Ginet Edward Giniger Carlotta Giorgi Henrique Girao Stephen E Girardin Mridhula Giridharan Sandy Giuliano Cecilia Giulivi Sylvie Giuriato Julien Giustiniani Alexander Gluschko Veit Goder Alexander Goginashvili Jakub Golab David C Goldstone Anna Golebiewska Luciana R Gomes Rodrigo Gomez Rubén Gómez-Sánchez Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto Raquel Gomez-Sintes Qingqiu Gong Felix M Goni Javier González-Gallego Tomas Gonzalez-Hernandez Rosa A Gonzalez-Polo Jose A Gonzalez-Reyes Patricia González-Rodríguez Ing Swie Goping Marina S Gorbatyuk Nikolai V Gorbunov Kıvanç Görgülü Roxana M Gorojod Sharon M Gorski Sandro Goruppi Cecilia Gotor Roberta A Gottlieb Illana Gozes Devrim Gozuacik Martin Graef Markus H Gräler Veronica Granatiero Daniel Grasso Joshua P Gray Douglas R Green Alexander Greenhough Stephen L Gregory Edward F Griffin Mark W Grinstaff Frederic Gros Charles Grose Angelina S Gross Florian Gruber Paolo Grumati Tilman Grune Xueyan Gu Jun-Lin Guan Carlos M Guardia Kishore Guda Flora Guerra Consuelo Guerri Prasun Guha Carlos Guillén Shashi Gujar Anna Gukovskaya Ilya Gukovsky Jan Gunst Andreas Günther Anyonya R Guntur Chuanyong Guo Chun Guo Hongqing Guo Lian-Wang Guo Ming Guo Pawan Gupta Shashi Kumar Gupta Swapnil Gupta Veer Bala Gupta Vivek Gupta Asa B Gustafsson David D Gutterman Ranjitha H B Annakaisa Haapasalo James E Haber Aleksandra Hać Shinji Hadano Anders J Hafrén Mansour Haidar Belinda S Hall Gunnel Halldén Anne Hamacher-Brady Andrea Hamann Maho Hamasaki Weidong Han Malene Hansen Phyllis I Hanson Zijian Hao Masaru Harada Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic Nirmala Hariharan Nigil Haroon James Harris Takafumi Hasegawa Noor Hasima Nagoor Jeffrey A Haspel Volker Haucke Wayne D Hawkins Bruce A Hay Cole M Haynes Soren B Hayrabedyan Thomas S Hays Congcong He Qin He Rong-Rong He You-Wen He Yu-Ying He Yasser Heakal Alexander M Heberle J Fielding Hejtmancik Gudmundur Vignir Helgason Vanessa Henkel Marc Herb Alexander Hergovich Anna Herman-Antosiewicz Agustín Hernández Carlos Hernandez Sergio Hernandez-Diaz Virginia Hernandez-Gea Amaury Herpin Judit Herreros Javier H Hervás Daniel Hesselson Claudio Hetz Volker T Heussler Yujiro Higuchi Sabine Hilfiker Joseph A Hill William S Hlavacek Emmanuel A Ho Idy H T Ho Philip Wing-Lok Ho Shu-Leong Ho Wan Yun Ho G Aaron Hobbs Mark Hochstrasser Peter H M Hoet Daniel Hofius Paul Hofman Annika Höhn Carina I Holmberg Jose R Hombrebueno Chang-Won Hong Yi-Ren Hong Lora V Hooper Thorsten Hoppe Rastislav Horos Yujin Hoshida I-Lun Hsin Hsin-Yun Hsu Bing Hu Dong Hu Li-Fang Hu Ming Chang Hu Ronggui Hu Wei Hu Yu-Chen Hu Zhuo-Wei Hu Fang Hua Jinlian Hua Yingqi Hua Chongmin Huan Canhua Huang Chuanshu Huang Chuanxin Huang Chunling Huang Haishan Huang Kun Huang Michael L H Huang Rui Huang Shan Huang Tianzhi Huang Xing Huang Yuxiang Jack Huang Tobias B Huber Virginie Hubert Christian A Hubner Stephanie M Hughes William E Hughes Magali Humbert Gerhard Hummer James H Hurley Sabah Hussain Salik Hussain Patrick J Hussey Martina Hutabarat Hui-Yun Hwang Seungmin Hwang Antonio Ieni Fumiyo Ikeda Yusuke Imagawa Yuzuru Imai Carol Imbriano Masaya Imoto Denise M Inman Ken Inoki Juan Iovanna Renato V Iozzo Giuseppe Ippolito Javier E Irazoqui Pablo Iribarren Mohd Ishaq Makoto Ishikawa Nestor Ishimwe Ciro Isidoro Nahed Ismail Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas Eisuke Itakura Daisuke Ito Davor Ivankovic Saška Ivanova Anand Krishnan V Iyer José M Izquierdo Masanori Izumi Marja Jäättelä Majid Sakhi Jabir William T Jackson Nadia Jacobo-Herrera Anne-Claire Jacomin Elise Jacquin Pooja Jadiya Hartmut Jaeschke Chinnaswamy Jagannath Arjen J Jakobi Johan Jakobsson Bassam Janji Pidder Jansen-Dürr Patric J Jansson Jonathan Jantsch Sławomir Januszewski Alagie Jassey Steve Jean Hélène Jeltsch-David Pavla Jendelova Andreas Jenny Thomas E Jensen Niels Jessen Jenna L Jewell Jing Ji Lijun Jia Rui Jia Liwen Jiang Qing Jiang Richeng Jiang Teng Jiang Xuejun Jiang Yu Jiang Maria Jimenez-Sanchez Eun-Jung Jin Fengyan Jin Hongchuan Jin Li Jin Luqi Jin Meiyan Jin Si Jin Eun-Kyeong Jo Carine Joffre Terje Johansen Gail V W Johnson Simon A Johnston Eija Jokitalo Mohit Kumar Jolly Leo A B Joosten Joaquin Jordan Bertrand Joseph Dianwen Ju Jeong-Sun Ju Jingfang Ju Esmeralda Juárez Delphine Judith Gábor Juhász Youngsoo Jun Chang Hwa Jung Sung-Chul Jung Yong Keun Jung Heinz Jungbluth Johannes Jungverdorben Steffen Just Kai Kaarniranta Allen Kaasik Tomohiro Kabuta Daniel Kaganovich Alon Kahana Renate Kain Shinjo Kajimura Maria Kalamvoki Manjula Kalia Danuta S Kalinowski Nina Kaludercic Ioanna Kalvari Joanna Kaminska Vitaliy O Kaminskyy Hiromitsu Kanamori Keizo Kanasaki Chanhee Kang Rui Kang Sang Sun Kang Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan Tomotake Kanki Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti Anumantha G Kanthasamy Arthi Kanthasamy Marc Kantorow Orsolya Kapuy Michalis V Karamouzis Md Razaul Karim Parimal Karmakar Rajesh G Katare Masaru Kato Stefan H E Kaufmann Anu Kauppinen Gur P Kaushal Susmita Kaushik Kiyoshi Kawasaki Kemal Kazan Po-Yuan Ke Damien J Keating Ursula Keber John H Kehrl Kate E Keller Christian W Keller Jongsook Kim Kemper Candia M Kenific Oliver Kepp Stephanie Kermorgant Andreas Kern Robin Ketteler Tom G Keulers Boris Khalfin Hany Khalil Bilon Khambu Shahid Y Khan Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal Rekha Khandia Widuri Kho Noopur V Khobrekar Sataree Khuansuwan Mukhran Khundadze Samuel A Killackey Dasol Kim Deok Ryong Kim Do-Hyung Kim Dong-Eun Kim Eun Young Kim Eun-Kyoung Kim Hak-Rim Kim Hee-Sik Kim Hyung-Ryong Kim Jeong Hun Kim Jin Kyung Kim Jin-Hoi Kim Joungmok Kim Ju Hwan Kim Keun Il Kim Peter K Kim Seong-Jun Kim Scot R Kimball Adi Kimchi Alec C Kimmelman Tomonori Kimura Matthew A King Kerri J Kinghorn Conan G Kinsey Vladimir Kirkin Lorrie A Kirshenbaum Sergey L Kiselev Shuji Kishi Katsuhiko Kitamoto Yasushi Kitaoka Kaio Kitazato Richard N Kitsis Josef T Kittler Ole Kjaerulff Peter S Klein Thomas Klopstock Jochen Klucken Helene Knævelsrud Roland L Knorr Ben C B Ko Fred Ko Jiunn-Liang Ko Hotaka Kobayashi Satoru Kobayashi Ina Koch Jan C Koch Ulrich Koenig Donat Kögel Young Ho Koh Masato Koike Sepp D Kohlwein Nur M Kocaturk Masaaki Komatsu Jeannette König Toru Kono Benjamin T Kopp Tamas Korcsmaros Gözde Korkmaz Viktor I Korolchuk Mónica Suárez Korsnes Ali Koskela Janaiah Kota Yaichiro Kotake Monica L Kotler Yanjun Kou Michael I Koukourakis Evangelos Koustas Attila L Kovacs Tibor Kovács Daisuke Koya Tomohiro Kozako Claudine Kraft Dimitri Krainc Helmut Krämer Anna D Krasnodembskaya Carole Kretz-Remy Guido Kroemer Nicholas T Ktistakis Kazuyuki Kuchitsu Sabine Kuenen Lars Kuerschner Thomas Kukar Ajay Kumar Ashok Kumar Deepak Kumar Dhiraj Kumar Sharad Kumar Shinji Kume Caroline Kumsta Chanakya N Kundu Mondira Kundu Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara Lukasz Kurgan Tatiana G Kutateladze Ozlem Kutlu SeongAe Kwak Ho Jeong Kwon Taeg Kyu Kwon Yong Tae Kwon Irene Kyrmizi Albert La Spada Patrick Labonté Sylvain Ladoire Ilaria Laface Frank Lafont Diane C Lagace Vikramjit Lahiri Zhibing Lai Angela S Laird Aparna Lakkaraju Trond Lamark Sheng-Hui Lan Ane Landajuela Darius J R Lane Jon D Lane Charles H Lang Carsten Lange Ülo Langel Rupert Langer Pierre Lapaquette Jocelyn Laporte Nicholas F LaRusso Isabel Lastres-Becker Wilson Chun Yu Lau Gordon W Laurie Sergio Lavandero Betty Yuen Kwan Law Helen Ka-Wai Law Rob Layfield Weidong Le Herve Le Stunff Alexandre Y Leary Jean-Jacques Lebrun Lionel Y W Leck Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet Changwook Lee Chung-Pei Lee Da-Hye Lee Edward B Lee Erinna F Lee Gyun Min Lee He-Jin Lee Heung Kyu Lee Jae Man Lee Jason S Lee Jin-A Lee Joo-Yong Lee Jun Hee Lee Michael Lee Min Goo Lee Min Jae Lee Myung-Shik Lee Sang Yoon Lee Seung-Jae Lee Stella Y Lee Sung Bae Lee Won Hee Lee Ying-Ray Lee Yong-Ho Lee Youngil Lee Christophe Lefebvre Renaud Legouis Yu L Lei Yuchen Lei Sergey Leikin Gerd Leitinger Leticia Lemus Shuilong Leng Olivia Lenoir Guido Lenz Heinz Josef Lenz Paola Lenzi Yolanda León Andréia M Leopoldino Christoph Leschczyk Stina Leskelä Elisabeth Letellier Chi-Ting Leung Po Sing Leung Jeremy S Leventhal Beth Levine Patrick A Lewis Klaus Ley Bin Li Da-Qiang Li Jianming Li Jing Li Jiong Li Ke Li Liwu Li Mei Li Min Li Min Li Ming Li Mingchuan Li Pin-Lan Li Ming-Qing Li Qing Li Sheng Li Tiangang Li Wei Li Wenming Li Xue Li Yi-Ping Li Yuan Li Zhiqiang Li Zhiyong Li Zhiyuan Li Jiqin Lian Chengyu Liang Qiangrong Liang Weicheng Liang Yongheng Liang YongTian Liang Guanghong Liao Lujian Liao Mingzhi Liao Yung-Feng Liao Mariangela Librizzi Pearl P Y Lie Mary A Lilly Hyunjung J Lim Thania R R Lima Federica Limana Chao Lin Chih-Wen Lin Dar-Shong Lin Fu-Cheng Lin Jiandie D Lin Kurt M Lin Kwang-Huei Lin Liang-Tzung Lin Pei-Hui Lin Qiong Lin Shaofeng Lin Su-Ju Lin Wenyu Lin Xueying Lin Yao-Xin Lin Yee-Shin Lin Rafael Linden Paula Lindner Shuo-Chien Ling Paul Lingor Amelia K Linnemann Yih-Cherng Liou Marta M Lipinski Saška Lipovšek Vitor A Lira Natalia Lisiak Paloma B Liton Chao Liu Ching-Hsuan Liu Chun-Feng Liu Cui Hua Liu Fang Liu Hao Liu Hsiao-Sheng Liu Hua-Feng Liu Huifang Liu Jia Liu Jing Liu Julia Liu Leyuan Liu Longhua Liu Meilian Liu Qin Liu Wei Liu Wende Liu Xiao-Hong Liu Xiaodong Liu Xingguo Liu Xu Liu Xuedong Liu Yanfen Liu Yang Liu Yang Liu Yueyang Liu Yule Liu J Andrew Livingston Gerard Lizard Jose M Lizcano Senka Ljubojevic-Holzer Matilde E LLeonart David Llobet-Navàs Alicia Llorente Chih Hung Lo Damián Lobato-Márquez Qi Long Yun Chau Long Ben Loos Julia A Loos Manuela G López Guillermo López-Doménech José Antonio López-Guerrero Ana T López-Jiménez Óscar López-Pérez Israel López-Valero Magdalena J Lorenowicz Mar Lorente Peter Lorincz Laura Lossi Sophie Lotersztajn Penny E Lovat Jonathan F Lovell Alenka Lovy Péter Lőw Guang Lu Haocheng Lu Jia-Hong Lu Jin-Jian Lu Mengji Lu Shuyan Lu Alessandro Luciani John M Lucocq Paula Ludovico Micah A Luftig Morten Luhr Diego Luis-Ravelo Julian J Lum Liany Luna-Dulcey Anders H Lund Viktor K Lund Jan D Lünemann Patrick Lüningschrör Honglin Luo Rongcan Luo Shouqing Luo Zhi Luo Claudio Luparello Bernhard Lüscher Luan Luu Alex Lyakhovich Konstantin G Lyamzaev Alf Håkon Lystad Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk Alvin C Ma Changle Ma Mengxiao Ma Ning-Fang Ma Quan-Hong Ma Xinliang Ma Yueyun Ma Zhenyi Ma Ormond A MacDougald Fernando Macian Gustavo C MacIntosh Jeffrey P MacKeigan Kay F Macleod Sandra Maday Frank Madeo Muniswamy Madesh Tobias Madl Julio Madrigal-Matute Akiko Maeda Yasuhiro Maejima Marta Magarinos Poornima Mahavadi Emiliano Maiani Kenneth Maiese Panchanan Maiti Maria Chiara Maiuri Barbara Majello Michael B Major Elena Makareeva Fayaz Malik Karthik Mallilankaraman Walter Malorni Alina Maloyan Najiba Mammadova Gene Chi Wai Man Federico Manai Joseph D Mancias Eva-Maria Mandelkow Michael A Mandell Angelo A Manfredi Masoud H Manjili Ravi Manjithaya Patricio Manque Bella B Manshian Raquel Manzano Claudia Manzoni Kai Mao Cinzia Marchese Sandrine Marchetti Anna Maria Marconi Fabrizio Marcucci Stefania Mardente Olga A Mareninova Marta Margeta Muriel Mari Sara Marinelli Oliviero Marinelli Guillermo Mariño Sofia Mariotto Richard S Marshall Mark R Marten Sascha Martens Alexandre P J Martin Katie R Martin Sara Martin Shaun Martin Adrián Martín-Segura Miguel A Martín-Acebes Inmaculada Martin-Burriel Marcos Martin-Rincon Paloma Martin-Sanz José A Martina Wim Martinet Aitor Martinez Ana Martinez Jennifer Martinez Moises Martinez Velazquez Nuria Martinez-Lopez Marta Martinez-Vicente Daniel O Martins Joilson O Martins Waleska K Martins Tania Martins-Marques Emanuele Marzetti Shashank Masaldan Celine Masclaux-Daubresse Douglas G Mashek Valentina Massa Lourdes Massieu Glenn R Masson Laura Masuelli Anatoliy I Masyuk Tetyana V Masyuk Paola Matarrese Ander Matheu Satoaki Matoba Sachiko Matsuzaki Pamela Mattar Alessandro Matte Domenico Mattoscio José L Mauriz Mario Mauthe Caroline Mauvezin Emanual Maverakis Paola Maycotte Johanna Mayer Gianluigi Mazzoccoli Cristina Mazzoni Joseph R Mazzulli Nami McCarty Christine McDonald Mitchell R McGill Sharon L McKenna BethAnn McLaughlin Fionn McLoughlin Mark A McNiven Thomas G McWilliams Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou Tania Catarina Medeiros Diego L Medina Lynn A Megeney Klara Megyeri Maryam Mehrpour Jawahar L Mehta Alfred J Meijer Annemarie H Meijer Jakob Mejlvang Alicia Meléndez Annette Melk Gonen Memisoglu Alexandrina F Mendes Delong Meng Fei Meng Tian Meng Rubem Menna-Barreto Manoj B Menon Carol Mercer Anne E Mercier Jean-Louis Mergny Adalberto Merighi Seth D Merkley Giuseppe Merla Volker Meske Ana Cecilia Mestre Shree Padma Metur Christian Meyer Hemmo Meyer Wenyi Mi Jeanne Mialet-Perez Junying Miao Lucia Micale Yasuo Miki Enrico Milan Małgorzata Milczarek Dana L Miller Samuel I Miller Silke Miller Steven W Millward Ira Milosevic Elena A Minina Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Mehdi Mirzaei Amit Mishra Nandita Mishra Paras Kumar Mishra Maja Misirkic Marjanovic Roberta Misasi Amit Misra Gabriella Misso Claire Mitchell Geraldine Mitou Tetsuji Miura Shigeki Miyamoto Makoto Miyazaki Mitsunori Miyazaki Taiga Miyazaki Keisuke Miyazawa Noboru Mizushima Trine H Mogensen Baharia Mograbi Reza Mohammadinejad Yasir Mohamud Abhishek Mohanty Sipra Mohapatra Torsten Möhlmann Asif Mohmmed Anna Moles Kelle H Moley Maurizio Molinari Vincenzo Mollace Andreas Buch Møller Bertrand Mollereau Faustino Mollinedo Costanza Montagna Mervyn J Monteiro Andrea Montella L Ruth Montes Barbara Montico Vinod K Mony Giacomo Monzio Compagnoni Michael N Moore Mohammad A Moosavi Ana L Mora Marina Mora David Morales-Alamo Rosario Moratalla Paula I Moreira Elena Morelli Sandra Moreno Daniel Moreno-Blas Viviana Moresi Benjamin Morga Alwena H Morgan Fabrice Morin Hideaki Morishita Orson L Moritz Mariko Moriyama Yuji Moriyasu Manuela Morleo Eugenia Morselli Jose F Moruno-Manchon Jorge Moscat Serge Mostowy Elisa Motori Andrea Felinto Moura Naima Moustaid-Moussa Maria Mrakovcic Gabriel Muciño-Hernández Anupam Mukherjee Subhadip Mukhopadhyay Jean M Mulcahy Levy Victoriano Mulero Sylviane Muller Christian Münch Ashok Munjal Pura Munoz-Canoves Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano Christian Münz Tomokazu Murakawa Claudia Muratori Brona M Murphy J Patrick Murphy Aditya Murthy Timo T Myöhänen Indira U Mysorekar Jennifer Mytych Seyed Mohammad Nabavi Massimo Nabissi Péter Nagy Jihoon Nah Aimable Nahimana Ichiro Nakagawa Ken Nakamura Hitoshi Nakatogawa Shyam S Nandi Meera Nanjundan Monica Nanni Gennaro Napolitano Roberta Nardacci Masashi Narita Melissa Nassif Ilana Nathan Manabu Natsumeda Ryno J Naude Christin Naumann Olaia Naveiras Fatemeh Navid Steffan T Nawrocki Taras Y Nazarko Francesca Nazio Florentina Negoita Thomas Neill Amanda L Neisch Luca M Neri Mihai G Netea Patrick Neubert Thomas P Neufeld Dietbert Neumann Albert Neutzner Phillip T Newton Paul A Ney Ioannis P Nezis Charlene C W Ng Tzi Bun Ng Hang T T Nguyen Long T Nguyen Hong-Min Ni Clíona Ní Cheallaigh Zhenhong Ni M Celeste Nicolao Francesco Nicoli Manuel Nieto-Diaz Per Nilsson Shunbin Ning Rituraj Niranjan Hiroshi Nishimune Mireia Niso-Santano Ralph A Nixon Annalisa Nobili Clevio Nobrega Takeshi Noda Uxía Nogueira-Recalde Trevor M Nolan Ivan Nombela Ivana Novak Beatriz Novoa Takashi Nozawa Nobuyuki Nukina Carmen Nussbaum-Krammer Jesper Nylandsted Tracey R O'Donovan Seónadh M O'Leary Eyleen J O'Rourke Mary P O'Sullivan Timothy E O'Sullivan Salvatore Oddo Ina Oehme Michinaga Ogawa Eric Ogier-Denis Margret H Ogmundsdottir Besim Ogretmen Goo Taeg Oh Seon-Hee Oh Young J Oh Takashi Ohama Yohei Ohashi Masaki Ohmuraya Vasileios Oikonomou Rani Ojha Koji Okamoto Hitoshi Okazawa Masahide Oku Sara Oliván Jorge M A Oliveira Michael Ollmann James A Olzmann Shakib Omari M Bishr Omary Gizem Önal Martin Ondrej Sang-Bing Ong Sang-Ging Ong Anna Onnis Juan A Orellana Sara Orellana-Muñoz Maria Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez Elena Ortona Heinz D Osiewacz Abdel-Hamid K Osman Rosario Osta Marisa S Otegui Kinya Otsu Christiane Ott Luisa Ottobrini Jing-Hsiung James Ou Tiago F Outeiro Inger Oynebraten Melek Ozturk Gilles Pagès Susanta Pahari Marta Pajares Utpal B Pajvani Rituraj Pal Simona Paladino Nicolas Pallet Michela Palmieri Giuseppe Palmisano Camilla Palumbo Francesco Pampaloni Lifeng Pan Qingjun Pan Wenliang Pan Xin Pan Ganna Panasyuk Rahul Pandey Udai B Pandey Vrajesh Pandya Francesco Paneni Shirley Y Pang Elisa Panzarini Daniela L Papademetrio Elena Papaleo Daniel Papinski Diana Papp Eun Chan Park Hwan Tae Park Ji-Man Park Jong-In Park Joon Tae Park Junsoo Park Sang Chul Park Sang-Youel Park Abraham H Parola Jan B Parys Adrien Pasquier Benoit Pasquier João F Passos Nunzia Pastore Hemal H Patel Daniel Patschan Sophie Pattingre Gustavo Pedraza-Alva Jose Pedraza-Chaverri Zully Pedrozo Gang Pei Jianming Pei Hadas Peled-Zehavi Joaquín M Pellegrini Joffrey Pelletier Miguel A Peñalva Di Peng Ying Peng Fabio Penna Maria Pennuto Francesca Pentimalli Cláudia Mf Pereira Gustavo J S Pereira Lilian C Pereira Luis Pereira de Almeida Nirma D Perera Ángel Pérez-Lara Ana B Perez-Oliva María Esther Pérez-Pérez Palsamy Periyasamy Andras Perl Cristiana Perrotta Ida Perrotta Richard G Pestell Morten Petersen Irina Petrache Goran Petrovski Thorsten Pfirrmann Astrid S Pfister Jennifer A Philips Huifeng Pi Anna Picca Alicia M Pickrell Sandy Picot Giovanna M Pierantoni Marina Pierdominici Philippe Pierre Valérie Pierrefite-Carle Karolina Pierzynowska Federico Pietrocola Miroslawa Pietruczuk Claudio Pignata Felipe X Pimentel-Muiños Mario Pinar Roberta O Pinheiro Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski Paolo Pinton Karolina Pircs Sujan Piya Paola Pizzo Theo S Plantinga Harald W Platta Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala Markus Plomann Egor Y Plotnikov Helene Plun-Favreau Ryszard Pluta Roger Pocock Stefanie Pöggeler Christian Pohl Marc Poirot Angelo Poletti Marisa Ponpuak Hana Popelka Blagovesta Popova Helena Porta Soledad Porte Alcon Eliana Portilla-Fernandez Martin Post Malia B Potts Joanna Poulton Ted Powers Veena Prahlad Tomasz K Prajsnar Domenico Praticò Rosaria Prencipe Muriel Priault Tassula Proikas-Cezanne Vasilis J Promponas Christopher G Proud Rosa Puertollano Luigi Puglielli Thomas Pulinilkunnil Deepika Puri Rajat Puri Julien Puyal Xiaopeng Qi Yongmei Qi Wenbin Qian Lei Qiang Yu Qiu Joe Quadrilatero Jorge Quarleri Nina Raben Hannah Rabinowich Debora Ragona Michael J Ragusa Nader Rahimi Marveh Rahmati Valeria Raia Nuno Raimundo Namakkal-Soorappan Rajasekaran Sriganesh Ramachandra Rao Abdelhaq Rami Ignacio Ramírez-Pardo David B Ramsden Felix Randow Pundi N Rangarajan Danilo Ranieri Hai Rao Lang Rao Rekha Rao Sumit Rathore J Arjuna Ratnayaka Edward A Ratovitski Palaniyandi Ravanan Gloria Ravegnini Swapan K Ray Babak Razani Vito Rebecca Fulvio Reggiori Anne Régnier-Vigouroux Andreas S Reichert David Reigada Jan H Reiling Theo Rein Siegfried Reipert Rokeya Sultana Rekha Hongmei Ren Jun Ren Weichao Ren Tristan Renault Giorgia Renga Karen Reue Kim Rewitz Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade Ramos S Amer Riazuddin Teresa M Ribeiro-Rodrigues Jean-Ehrland Ricci Romeo Ricci Victoria Riccio Des R Richardson Yasuko Rikihisa Makarand V Risbud Ruth M Risueño Konstantinos Ritis Salvatore Rizza Rosario Rizzuto Helen C Roberts Luke D Roberts Katherine J Robinson Maria Carmela Roccheri Stephane Rocchi George G Rodney Tiago Rodrigues Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva Amaia Rodriguez Ruth Rodriguez-Barrueco Nieves Rodriguez-Henche Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha Jeroen Roelofs Robert S Rogers Vladimir V Rogov Ana I Rojo Krzysztof Rolka Vanina Romanello Luigina Romani Alessandra Romano Patricia S Romano David Romeo-Guitart Luis C Romero Montserrat Romero Joseph C Roney Christopher Rongo Sante Roperto Mathias T Rosenfeldt Philip Rosenstiel Anne G Rosenwald Kevin A Roth Lynn Roth Steven Roth Kasper M A Rouschop Benoit D Roussel Sophie Roux Patrizia Rovere-Querini Ajit Roy Aurore Rozieres Diego Ruano David C Rubinsztein Maria P Rubtsova Klaus Ruckdeschel Christoph Ruckenstuhl Emil Rudolf Rüdiger Rudolf Alessandra Ruggieri Avnika Ashok Ruparelia Paola Rusmini Ryan R Russell Gian Luigi Russo Maria Russo Rossella Russo Oxana O Ryabaya Kevin M Ryan Kwon-Yul Ryu Maria Sabater-Arcis Ulka Sachdev Michael Sacher Carsten Sachse Abhishek Sadhu Junichi Sadoshima Nathaniel Safren Paul Saftig Antonia P Sagona Gaurav Sahay Amirhossein Sahebkar Mustafa Sahin Ozgur Sahin Sumit Sahni Nayuta Saito Shigeru Saito Tsunenori Saito Ryohei Sakai Yasuyoshi Sakai Jun-Ichi Sakamaki Kalle Saksela Gloria Salazar Anna Salazar-Degracia Ghasem H Salekdeh Ashok K Saluja Belém Sampaio-Marques Maria Cecilia Sanchez Jose A Sanchez-Alcazar Victoria Sanchez-Vera Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu J Thomas Sanderson Marco Sandri Stefano Santaguida Laura Santambrogio Magda M Santana Giorgio Santoni Alberto Sanz Pascual Sanz Shweta Saran Marco Sardiello Timothy J Sargeant Apurva Sarin Chinmoy Sarkar Sovan Sarkar Maria-Rosa Sarrias Surajit Sarkar Dipanka Tanu Sarmah Jaakko Sarparanta Aishwarya Sathyanarayan Ranganayaki Sathyanarayanan K Matthew Scaglione Francesca Scatozza Liliana Schaefer Zachary T Schafer Ulrich E Schaible Anthony H V Schapira Michael Scharl Hermann M Schatzl Catherine H Schein Wiep Scheper David Scheuring Maria Vittoria Schiaffino Monica Schiappacassi Rainer Schindl Uwe Schlattner Oliver Schmidt Roland Schmitt Stephen D Schmidt Ingo Schmitz Eran Schmukler Anja Schneider Bianca E Schneider Romana Schober Alejandra C Schoijet Micah B Schott Michael Schramm Bernd Schröder Kai Schuh Christoph Schüller Ryan J Schulze Lea Schürmanns Jens C Schwamborn Melanie Schwarten Filippo Scialo Sebastiano Sciarretta Melanie J Scott Kathleen W Scotto A Ivana Scovassi Andrea Scrima Aurora Scrivo David Sebastian Salwa Sebti Simon Sedej Laura Segatori Nava Segev Per O Seglen Iban Seiliez Ekihiro Seki Scott B Selleck Frank W Sellke Joshua T Selsby Michael Sendtner Serif Senturk Elena Seranova Consolato Sergi Ruth Serra-Moreno Hiromi Sesaki Carmine Settembre Subba Rao Gangi Setty Gianluca Sgarbi Ou Sha John J Shacka Javeed A Shah Dantong Shang Changshun Shao Feng Shao Soroush Sharbati Lisa M Sharkey Dipali Sharma Gaurav Sharma Kulbhushan Sharma Pawan Sharma Surendra Sharma Han-Ming Shen Hongtao Shen Jiangang Shen Ming Shen Weili Shen Zheni Shen Rui Sheng Zhi Sheng Zu-Hang Sheng Jianjian Shi Xiaobing Shi Ying-Hong Shi Kahori Shiba-Fukushima Jeng-Jer Shieh Yohta Shimada Shigeomi Shimizu Makoto Shimozawa Takahiro Shintani Christopher J Shoemaker Shahla Shojaei Ikuo Shoji Bhupendra V Shravage Viji Shridhar Chih-Wen Shu Hong-Bing Shu Ke Shui Arvind K Shukla Timothy E Shutt Valentina Sica Aleem Siddiqui Amanda Sierra Virginia Sierra-Torre Santiago Signorelli Payel Sil Bruno J de Andrade Silva Johnatas D Silva Eduardo Silva-Pavez Sandrine Silvente-Poirot Rachel E Simmonds Anna Katharina Simon Hans-Uwe Simon Matias Simons Anurag Singh Lalit P Singh Rajat Singh Shivendra V Singh Shrawan K Singh Sudha B Singh Sunaina Singh Surinder Pal Singh Debasish Sinha Rohit Anthony Sinha Sangita Sinha Agnieszka Sirko Kapil Sirohi Efthimios L Sivridis Panagiotis Skendros Aleksandra Skirycz Iva Slaninová Soraya S Smaili Andrei Smertenko Matthew D Smith Stefaan J Soenen Eun Jung Sohn Sophia P M Sok Giancarlo Solaini Thierry Soldati Scott A Soleimanpour Rosa M Soler Alexei Solovchenko Jason A Somarelli Avinash Sonawane Fuyong Song Hyun Kyu Song Ju-Xian Song Kunhua Song Zhiyin Song Leandro R Soria Maurizio Sorice Alexander A Soukas Sandra-Fausia Soukup Diana Sousa Nadia Sousa Paul A Spagnuolo Stephen A Spector M M Srinivas Bharath Daret St Clair Venturina Stagni Leopoldo Staiano Clint A Stalnecker Metodi V Stankov Peter B Stathopulos Katja Stefan Sven Marcel Stefan Leonidas Stefanis Joan S Steffan Alexander Steinkasserer Harald Stenmark Jared Sterneckert Craig Stevens Veronika Stoka Stephan Storch Björn Stork Flavie Strappazzon Anne Marie Strohecker Dwayne G Stupack Huanxing Su Ling-Yan Su Longxiang Su Ana M Suarez-Fontes Carlos S Subauste Selvakumar Subbian Paula V Subirada Ganapasam Sudhandiran Carolyn M Sue Xinbing Sui Corey Summers Guangchao Sun Jun Sun Kang Sun Meng-Xiang Sun Qiming Sun Yi Sun Zhongjie Sun Karen K S Sunahara Eva Sundberg Katalin Susztak Peter Sutovsky Hidekazu Suzuki Gary Sweeney J David Symons Stephen Cho Wing Sze Nathaniel J Szewczyk Anna Tabęcka-Łonczynska Claudio Tabolacci Frank Tacke Heinrich Taegtmeyer Marco Tafani Mitsuo Tagaya Haoran Tai Stephen W G Tait Yoshinori Takahashi Szabolcs Takats Priti Talwar Chit Tam Shing Yau Tam Davide Tampellini Atsushi Tamura Chong Teik Tan Eng-King Tan Ya-Qin Tan Masaki Tanaka Motomasa Tanaka Daolin Tang Jingfeng Tang Tie-Shan Tang Isei Tanida Zhipeng Tao Mohammed Taouis Lars Tatenhorst Nektarios Tavernarakis Allen Taylor Gregory A Taylor Joan M Taylor Elena Tchetina Andrew R Tee Irmgard Tegeder David Teis Natercia Teixeira Fatima Teixeira-Clerc Kumsal A Tekirdag Tewin Tencomnao Sandra Tenreiro Alexei V Tepikin Pilar S Testillano Gianluca Tettamanti Pierre-Louis Tharaux Kathrin Thedieck Arvind A Thekkinghat Stefano Thellung Josephine W Thinwa V P Thirumalaikumar Sufi Mary Thomas Paul G Thomes Andrew Thorburn Lipi Thukral Thomas Thum Michael Thumm Ling Tian Ales Tichy Andreas Till Vincent Timmerman Vladimir I Titorenko Sokol V Todi Krassimira Todorova Janne M Toivonen Luana Tomaipitinca Dhanendra Tomar Cristina Tomas-Zapico Sergej Tomić Benjamin Chun-Kit Tong Chao Tong Xin Tong Sharon A Tooze Maria L Torgersen Satoru Torii Liliana Torres-López Alicia Torriglia Christina G Towers Roberto Towns Shinya Toyokuni Vladimir Trajkovic Donatella Tramontano Quynh-Giao Tran Leonardo H Travassos Charles B Trelford Shirley Tremel Ioannis P Trougakos Betty P Tsao Mario P Tschan Hung-Fat Tse Tak Fu Tse Hitoshi Tsugawa Andrey S Tsvetkov David A Tumbarello Yasin Tumtas María J Tuñón Sandra Turcotte Boris Turk Vito Turk Bradley J Turner Richard I Tuxworth Jessica K Tyler Elena V Tyutereva Yasuo Uchiyama Aslihan Ugun-Klusek Holm H Uhlig Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł Ilya V Ulasov Midori Umekawa Christian Ungermann Rei Unno Sylvie Urbe Elisabet Uribe-Carretero Suayib Üstün Vladimir N Uversky Thomas Vaccari Maria I Vaccaro Björn F Vahsen Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg Rut Valdor Maria J Valente Ayelén Valko Richard B Vallee Angela M Valverde Greet Van den Berghe Stijn van der Veen Luc Van Kaer Jorg van Loosdregt Sjoerd J L van Wijk Wim Vandenberghe Ilse Vanhorebeek Marcos A Vannier-Santos Nicola Vannini M Cristina Vanrell Chiara Vantaggiato Gabriele Varano Isabel Varela-Nieto Máté Varga M Helena Vasconcelos Somya Vats Demetrios G Vavvas Ignacio 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Fengming Wang Guansong Wang Han Wang Hao Wang Hexiang Wang Hong-Gang Wang Jianrong Wang Jigang Wang Jiou Wang Jundong Wang Kui Wang Lianrong Wang Liming Wang Maggie Haitian Wang Meiqing Wang Nanbu Wang Pengwei Wang Peipei Wang Ping Wang Ping Wang Qing Jun Wang Qing Wang Qing Kenneth Wang Qiong A Wang Wen-Tao Wang Wuyang Wang Xinnan Wang Xuejun Wang Yan Wang Yanchang Wang Yanzhuang Wang Yen-Yun Wang Yihua Wang Yipeng Wang Yu Wang Yuqi Wang Zhe Wang Zhenyu Wang Zhouguang Wang Gary Warnes Verena Warnsmann Hirotaka Watada Eizo Watanabe Maxinne Watchon Anna Wawrzyńska Timothy E Weaver Grzegorz Wegrzyn Ann M Wehman Huafeng Wei Lei Wei Taotao Wei Yongjie Wei Oliver H Weiergräber Conrad C Weihl Günther Weindl Ralf Weiskirchen Alan Wells Runxia H Wen Xin Wen Antonia Werner Beatrice Weykopf Sally P Wheatley J Lindsay Whitton Alexander J Whitworth Katarzyna Wiktorska Manon E Wildenberg Tom Wileman Simon Wilkinson Dieter Willbold Brett Williams Robin S B Williams Roger L Williams Peter R Williamson Richard A Wilson Beate Winner Nathaniel J Winsor Steven S Witkin Harald Wodrich Ute Woehlbier Thomas Wollert Esther Wong Jack Ho Wong Richard W Wong Vincent Kam Wai Wong W Wei-Lynn Wong An-Guo Wu Chengbiao Wu Jian Wu Junfang Wu Kenneth K Wu Min Wu Shan-Ying Wu Shengzhou Wu Shu-Yan Wu Shufang Wu William K K Wu Xiaohong Wu Xiaoqing Wu Yao-Wen Wu Yihua Wu Ramnik J Xavier Hongguang Xia Lixin Xia Zhengyuan Xia Ge Xiang Jin Xiang Mingliang Xiang Wei Xiang Bin Xiao Guozhi Xiao Hengyi Xiao Hong-Tao Xiao Jian Xiao Lan Xiao Shi Xiao Yin Xiao Baoming Xie Chuan-Ming Xie Min Xie Yuxiang Xie Zhiping Xie Zhonglin Xie Maria Xilouri Congfeng Xu En Xu Haoxing Xu Jing Xu JinRong Xu Liang Xu Wen Wen Xu Xiulong Xu Yu Xue Sokhna M S Yakhine-Diop Masamitsu Yamaguchi Osamu Yamaguchi Ai Yamamoto Shunhei Yamashina Shengmin Yan Shian-Jang Yan Zhen Yan Yasuo Yanagi Chuanbin Yang Dun-Sheng Yang Huan Yang Huang-Tian Yang Hui Yang Jin-Ming Yang Jing Yang Jingyu Yang Ling Yang Liu Yang Ming Yang Pei-Ming Yang Qian Yang Seungwon Yang Shu Yang Shun-Fa Yang Wannian Yang Wei Yuan Yang Xiaoyong Yang Xuesong Yang Yi Yang Ying Yang Honghong Yao Shenggen Yao Xiaoqiang Yao Yong-Gang Yao Yong-Ming Yao Takahiro Yasui Meysam Yazdankhah Paul M Yen Cong Yi Xiao-Ming Yin Yanhai Yin Zhangyuan Yin Ziyi Yin Meidan Ying Zheng Ying Calvin K Yip Stephanie Pei Tung Yiu Young H Yoo Kiyotsugu Yoshida Saori R Yoshii Tamotsu Yoshimori Bahman Yousefi Boxuan Yu Haiyang Yu Jun Yu Jun Yu Li Yu Ming-Lung Yu Seong-Woon Yu Victor C Yu W Haung Yu Zhengping Yu Zhou Yu Junying Yuan Ling-Qing Yuan Shilin Yuan Shyng-Shiou F Yuan Yanggang Yuan Zengqiang Yuan Jianbo Yue Zhenyu Yue Jeanho Yun Raymond L Yung David N Zacks Gabriele Zaffagnini Vanessa O Zambelli Isabella Zanella Qun S Zang Sara Zanivan Silvia Zappavigna Pilar Zaragoza Konstantinos S Zarbalis Amir Zarebkohan Amira Zarrouk Scott O Zeitlin Jialiu Zeng Ju-Deng Zeng Eva Žerovnik Lixuan Zhan Bin Zhang Donna D Zhang Hanlin Zhang Hong Zhang Hong Zhang Honghe Zhang Huafeng Zhang Huaye Zhang Hui Zhang Hui-Ling Zhang Jianbin Zhang Jianhua Zhang Jing-Pu Zhang Kalin Y B Zhang Leshuai W Zhang Lin Zhang Lisheng Zhang Lu Zhang Luoying Zhang Menghuan Zhang Peng Zhang Sheng Zhang Wei Zhang Xiangnan Zhang Xiao-Wei Zhang Xiaolei Zhang Xiaoyan Zhang Xin Zhang Xinxin Zhang Xu Dong Zhang Yang Zhang Yanjin Zhang Yi Zhang Ying-Dong Zhang Yingmei Zhang Yuan-Yuan Zhang Yuchen Zhang Zhe Zhang Zhengguang Zhang Zhibing Zhang Zhihai Zhang Zhiyong Zhang Zili Zhang Haobin Zhao Lei Zhao Shuang Zhao Tongbiao Zhao Xiao-Fan Zhao Ying Zhao Yongchao Zhao Yongliang Zhao Yuting Zhao Guoping Zheng Kai Zheng Ling Zheng Shizhong Zheng Xi-Long Zheng Yi Zheng Zu-Guo Zheng Boris Zhivotovsky Qing Zhong Ao Zhou Ben Zhou Cefan Zhou Gang Zhou Hao Zhou Hong Zhou Hongbo Zhou Jie Zhou Jing Zhou Jing Zhou Jiyong Zhou Kailiang Zhou Rongjia Zhou Xu-Jie Zhou Yanshuang Zhou Yinghong Zhou Yubin Zhou Zheng-Yu Zhou Zhou Zhou Binglin Zhu Changlian Zhu Guo-Qing Zhu Haining Zhu Hongxin Zhu Hua Zhu Wei-Guo Zhu Yanping Zhu Yushan Zhu Haixia Zhuang Xiaohong Zhuang Katarzyna Zientara-Rytter Christine M Zimmermann Elena Ziviani Teresa Zoladek Wei-Xing Zong Dmitry B Zorov Antonio Zorzano Weiping Zou Zhen Zou Zhengzhi Zou Steven Zuryn Werner Zwerschke Beate Brand-Saberi X Charlie Dong Chandra Shekar Kenchappa Zuguo Li Yong Lin Shigeru Oshima Yueguang Rong Judith C Sluimer Christina L Stallings Chun-Kit Tong

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Hong Kong Baptist University, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong, China.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

Corrigendum to "Utilization of Left Ventricular Assist Devices in Vulnerable Adults Across Medicaid Expansion": Journal of Surgical Research 243 (2019) 503-508/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.05.015.

J Surg Res 2020 Dec 23;256:704. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

MedStar Health Research Institute, Washington, District of Columbia; MedStar-Georgetown Surgical Outcomes Research Center, Washington, District of Columbia; Department of Surgery, MedStar-Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2020.06.003DOI Listing
December 2020

Effects of High Fat Versus Normal Diet on Extracellular Vesicle-Induced Angiogenesis in a Swine Model of Chronic Myocardial Ischemia.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Feb 9;10(4):e017437. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital Providence RI.

Background Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) promote angiogenesis in the ischemic myocardium. This study examines the difference in vascular density, myocardial perfusion, molecular signaling, and gene expression between normal diet (ND) and high fat diet (HFD) groups at baseline and following intramyocardial injection of EVs. Methods and Results Intact male Yorkshire swine fed either an ND (n=17) or HFD (n=14) underwent placement of an ameroid constrictor on the left circumflex coronary artery. Subsequently, animals received either intramyocardial injection of vehicle-saline as controls; (ND-controls n=7, HFD-controls, n=6) or EVs; (ND-EVs n=10, HFD-EVs n=8) into the ischemic territory. Five weeks later, myocardial function, perfusion, vascular density, cell signaling, and gene expression were examined. EVs improved indices of myocardial contractile function, myocardial perfusion, and arteriogenesis in both dietary cohorts. Interestingly, quantification of alpha smooth muscle actin demonstrated higher basal arteriolar density in HFD swine compared with their ND counterparts; whereas EVs were associated with increased CD31-labeled endothelial cell density only in the ND tissue, which approached significance. Levels of total endothelial nitric oxide synthase, FOXO1 (forkhead box protein O1) , transforming growth factor-β, phosphorylated VEGFR2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2), and phosphorylated MAPK ERK1/ERK2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase) were higher in ischemic myocardial lysates from ND-controls compared with HFD-controls. Conversely, HFD-control tissue showed increased expression of phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase, phosphorylated FOXO1, VEGFR2, and MAPK ERK1/ERK2 with respect to ND-controls. Preliminary gene expression studies indicate differential modulation of transcriptional activity by EVs between the 2 dietary cohorts. Conclusions HFD produces a profound metabolic disorder that dysregulates the molecular mechanisms of collateral vessel formation in the ischemic myocardium, which may hinder the therapeutic angiogenic effects of EVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955347PMC
February 2021

Reply: Medicolegal research: A key to the locked door of patient expectations.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI; Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.12.088DOI Listing
January 2021

Post-Cardiac Surgery Atrial Fibrillation: Risks, Mechanisms, Prevention, and Management.

Card Electrophysiol Clin 2021 03;13(1):133-140

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Smith Center for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common complication of cardiac surgery (CS). There are numerous risk factors, proposed mechanisms, and financial/clinical implications of post-CS AF (PCSAF). Management involves 2 arms: prevention and treatment. This review highlights and summarizes previous literature on PCSAF and challenges the standard dogma regarding anticoagulation, particularly in the short term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccep.2020.11.011DOI Listing
March 2021

Secondary prevention after coronary artery bypass grafting: Anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy is only one factor.

Authors:
Frank W Sellke

J Card Surg 2021 Mar 28;36(3):1100-1102. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Lifespan Cardiovascular Institute, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel/ticagrelor/prasugrel does not lead to improved graft patency rates or clinical outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) over aspirin monotherapy, at least for on pump CABG. The protective effects of DAPT tended to be observed to be greater extent in patients undergoing off pump CABG. In general, the addition of the potent thienopyridines increased the risk of major bleeding, although the incidence of major bleeding is relatively low after either on pump or off pump surgical revascularization. There is a lack of evidence that anticoagulation post-CABG provides any protection against graft failure, but it may decrease the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events. However, antiplatelet and anti thrombotic therapy after CABG is only one component of secondary prevention that needs to be taken into consideration when optimizing the long-term outcomes of patients after CABG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocs.15286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882026PMC
March 2021

The Relationship Between Reactive Oxygen Species and Endothelial Cell Metabolism.

Front Chem 2020 26;8:592688. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Cardiovascular Research Center, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University Alpert Medical School, Providence, RI, United States.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of death for many decades, highlighting the importance of new research and treatments in the field. The role of hypoxia and subsequent free radical production [reactive oxygen species (ROS)] have become an area of particular interest in CVD. Interestingly, our laboratory and other laboratories have recently reported positive roles of subcellular ROS in modulating endothelial cell (EC) metabolism, proliferation, and angiogenesis. This bidirectional relationship between ROS and EC metabolism, as well as functional changes, continues to be an area of active research. Interestingly, ECs have been shown to rely on anaerobic processes for ATP generation, despite their direct access to oxygen. This paradox has proven to be beneficial as the major reliance on glycolysis produces ATP faster, preserves oxygen, and results in reduced ROS levels in contrast to oxidative phosphorylation. This review will address the relationship between ROS and carbohydrate, lipid, and nitrogen metabolism in ECs, and their effects on EC phenotype such as sprouting angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.592688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732658PMC
November 2020

Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement: an option for some but not for all.

J Thorac Dis 2020 Nov;12(11):6422-6425

Lifespan Cardiovascular Institute, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-1621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711374PMC
November 2020

Myocardial Contractile Reserve and Mortality in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis With Impaired Left Ventricular Function Who Underwent Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

Am J Cardiol 2021 02 25;141:150-152. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Lifespan Cardiovascular Institute, Rhode Island Hospital, Rhode Island; Warren Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Rhode Island.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.11.023DOI Listing
February 2021

Cardiac Surgery Utilization Across Vulnerable Persons After Medicaid Expansion.

Ann Thorac Surg 2020 Nov 11. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

MedStar-Georgetown University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Washington, DC; MedStar Health Research Institute, Washington, DC; MedStar-Georgetown Surgical Outcomes Research Center, Washington, DC. Electronic address:

Background: Medicaid expansion (ME) under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has reduced the number of uninsured patients, though its preferential effects on vulnerable populations has been mixed. This study examined whether ME preferentially improved cardiac surgery utilization by insurance strata, race, and income-level.

Methods: Non-elderly (ages 18-64) adults who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, aortic valve replacement, mitral valve replacement or mitral valve repair were identified in the State Inpatient Databases for three expansion states (Kentucky, New Jersey, and Maryland) and two non-expansion states (North Carolina and Florida) from 2012 to Q3 2015. Adjusted Poisson Interrupted Time Series (ITS) were used to determine the impact of ME on cardiac surgery utilization for Medicaid/uninsured (MCD/UIS) patients, racial/ethnic minorities, and individuals from low-income areas.

Results: In expansion states, utilization among non-white MCD/UIS patients had a positive trend after ME (2.3% per quarter; p=0.156), while utilization for white MCD/UIS patients fell (-1.7% per quarter; p=0.117). In contrast, utilization among non-white MCD/UIS in non-expansion states decreased by 4.4% (p<0.001) which was a greater decline than among white MCD/UIS patients (-1.8% per quarter; p=0.057). There was no substantial effect of ME on cardiac surgery utilization for MCD/UIS patients from low versus high-income areas.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that the utilization of cardiac surgical procedures was generally unchanged following ME, however non-significant trend differences suggest a narrowing gap between vulnerable and non-vulnerable groups in ME states. These preliminary findings help describe the association of insurance coverage as a driver of cardiac surgery utilization among vulnerable patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.08.066DOI Listing
November 2020

Cell-Type Transcriptome Atlas of Human Aortic Valves Reveal Cell Heterogeneity and Endothelial to Mesenchymal Transition Involved in Calcific Aortic Valve Disease.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2020 12 22;40(12):2910-2921. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China (K.X., Y.H., T.Z., M.L., P.Z., J.S., F.L., N.D.).

Objective: Leaflet thickening, fibrosis, and hardening are early pathological features of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). An inadequate understanding of the resident aortic valve cells involved in the pathological process may compromise the development of therapeutic strategies. We aim to construct a pattern of the human aortic valve cell atlas in healthy and CAVD clinical specimens, providing insight into the cellular origins of CAVD and the complex cytopathological differentiation process. Approach and Results: We used unbiased single-cell RNA sequencing for the high-throughput evaluation of cell heterogeneity in 34 632 cells isolated from 6 different human aortic valve leaflets. Cellular experiments, in situ localization, and bulk sequencing were performed to verify the differences between normal, healthy valves and those with CAVD. By comparing healthy and CAVD specimens, we identified 14 cell subtypes, including 3 heterogeneous subpopulations of resident valve interstitial cells, 3 types of immune-derived cells, 2 types of valve endothelial cells, and 6 novel valve-derived stromal cells found particularly in CAVD leaflets. Combining additional verification experiments with single-cell transcriptome profiling provided evidence of endothelial to mesenchymal transition involved in lesion thickening of the aortic valve leaflet.

Conclusions: Our findings deconstructed the aortic valve cell atlas and suggested novel functional interactions among resident cell subpopulations. Our findings may provide insight into future targeted therapies to prevent CAVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.120.314789DOI Listing
December 2020

Intravenous injection of extracellular vesicles to treat chronic myocardial ischemia.

PLoS One 2020 11;15(9):e0238879. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Cardiovascular Research Center, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University Warren Alpert Medical School, Providence, RI, United States of America.

Background: Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) appear to be a very exciting treatment option for heart disease. Here, we used a swine model of chronic myocardial ischemia to evaluate the efficacy of a less-invasive method of injection of EVs via a peripheral intravenous route.

Methods: Sixteen Yorkshire swine underwent placement of an ameroid constrictor on the left circumflex (LCx) artery at age 11 weeks to induce chronic myocardial ischemia. Two weeks later, they were divided into two groups: control (CON; n = 8), and intravenous injection of EVs (EVIV; n = 8). At 18 weeks of age, animals underwent final analysis and euthanasia. The chronically ischemic myocardium (LCx territory) was harvested for analysis.

Results: Intravenous injection (IV) of EVs induced several pro-angiogenic markers such as MAPK, JNK but not Akt. Whereas IV injections of EVs decreased VEGFR2 expression and inhibited apoptotic signaling (caspase 3), they increased expression of VEGFR1 that is believed to be anti-angiogenic. Injection of EVs did not result in an increase in vessel density and blood flow when compared to the control group.

Conclusions: Although IV injection of EVs upregulated several pro-angiogenic signaling pathways, it failed to induce changes in vascular density in the chronically ischemic myocardium. Thus, a lack of increase in vascular density at the doses tested failed to elicit a functional response in ischemic myocardium.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238879PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7485873PMC
November 2020

The predictive role of circulating telomerase and vitamin D for long-term survival in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG).

PLoS One 2020 13;15(8):e0237477. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Backgrounds: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality all over the globe. Inflammation is believed to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of CVD. While there are studies on the interrelationship of telomerase and vitamin D and their involvement in CVD, their independent contributions to long-term outcomes in patients with CVD are not well-defined. This study aimed to investigate the association of both telomerase and vitamin D concentrations with 10-year survival among candidates of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery.

Methods: Participants were 404 patients from Tehran Heart Center-Coronary Outcome Measurement (THC-COM) cohort who were recruited from CABG surgery candidates in 2006. In addition to demographic and clinical data including risk factors for coronary artery disease, laboratory parameters such as markers of inflammation as well as baseline serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and telomerase concentrations were measured. Cardiac function indexes alongside outcome measures such as mortality and survival days were recorded for every patient up to 10 years after CABG. Cox-proportional hazard model was used to study the association between all-cause mortality and research parameters.

Results: The mean serum telomerase enzyme level was 24.92 ±21.4 nmol/L and the mean serum 25(OH)D was 27.27±10.3 ng/mL. 10-year mortality was reported in 64 (15.8%) patients. 25(OH)D was categorized into three groups (<20, 20-30, and >30) and the cut-point for telomerase was set at 25.0 nmol/L. In Cox regression analysis, higher levels of telomerase (>25 nmol/L) were significantly associated with longer survival (p = 0.041), whereas 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with survival time. Further analysis showed that telomerase concentrations significantly predicted survival only in the presence of insufficient levels of 25(OH)D (20-30 ng/mL) (p = 0.037).

Conclusions: Telomerase can be regarded as a potential predictor of long-term outcomes in patients who underwent CABG. However, the association of telomerase with the mortality may be modified by vitamin D concentrations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0237477PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7425905PMC
October 2020

The urgent need for integrated science to fight COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.

J Transl Med 2020 05 19;18(1):205. Epub 2020 May 19.

Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), , .

The COVID-19 pandemic has become the leading societal concern. The pandemic has shown that the public health concern is not only a medical problem, but also affects society as a whole; so, it has also become the leading scientific concern. We discuss in this treatise the importance of bringing the world's scientists together to find effective solutions for controlling the pandemic. By applying novel research frameworks, interdisciplinary collaboration promises to manage the pandemic's consequences and prevent recurrences of similar pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02364-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236639PMC
May 2020

Calpain inhibition decreases myocardial fibrosis in chronically ischemic hypercholesterolemic swine.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020 Mar 29. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Cardiovascular Research Center, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI. Electronic address:

Objectives: Calpain activation during ischemia is known to play critical roles in myocardial remodeling. We hypothesize that calpain inhibition (CI) may serve to reverse and/or prevent fibrosis in chronically ischemic myocardium.

Methods: Yorkshire swine were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 4 weeks followed by placement of an ameroid constrictor on the left circumflex artery to induce myocardial ischemia. 3 weeks later, animals received either: no drug; high-cholesterol control group (CON; n = 8); low-dose CI (0.12 mg/kg; LCI, n = 9); or high-dose CI (0.25 mg/kg; HCI, n = 8). The high-cholesterol diet and CI were continued for 5 weeks, after which myocardial tissue was harvested. Tissue samples were analyzed by western blot for changes in protein content.

Results: In the setting of hypercholesterolemia and chronic myocardial ischemia, CI decreased the expression of collagen in ischemic and nonischemic myocardial tissue. This reduced collagen content was associated with a corresponding decrease in Jak/STAT/MCP-1 signaling pathway, suggesting a role for Jak 2 signaling in calpain activity. CI also decreases the expression of focal adhesion proteins (vinculin) and stabilizes the expression of cytoskeletal and structural proteins (N-cadherin, α-fodrin, desmin, vimentin, filamin, troponin-I). CI had no significant effect on metabolic and hemodynamic parameters.

Conclusions: Calpain inhibition may be a beneficial medical therapy to decrease collagen formation in patients with coronary artery disease and associated comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2019.11.150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7529741PMC
March 2020

Serum alpha-1 antitrypsin in acute ischemic stroke: A prospective pilot study.

J Clin Neurosci 2020 Jun 20;76:20-24. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Neurology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Background: Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a potent anti-protease enzyme which may play a role in arterial wall stability. A variant of its encoding gene has been recently linked to ischemic stroke due to large artery atherosclerosis (LAA). We sought to explore potential relationships between ischemic stroke mechanisms, atherosclerosis burden and serum AAT levels.

Methods: We performed a prospective observational study of consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who were admitted to an academic comprehensive stroke center over a three-month period. Blood samples were collected within 24 h of hospital admission, and stroke subtype classification was determined based on modified TOAST criteria. Modified Woodcock scoring system was used to quantify calcification of major cervico-cranial arteries as a surrogate for atherosclerosis burden. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between serum AAT levels and calcification scores, both as continuous variables.

Results: Among eighteen patients met our inclusion criteria and were enrolled in our study, 10 patients (56%) were men; mean age was 66 (SD 12.5); median NIH stroke scale was 4 (IQR 9.5); 8 patients (44%) had stroke due to LAA. The median serum level of AAT was 140 mg/dl (IQR 41.7) for patients with LAA-related stroke, and 148.5 mg/dl (IQR 37.7) for patients with other stroke mechanisms (p = 0.26). Higher serum AAT levels was associated with lower modified Woodcock calcification scores. (p-value = 0.038) CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of AAT levels in patients with acute stroke is feasible, and there may be associations between AAT levels and stroke mechanism that warrant further study in larger samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2020.04.074DOI Listing
June 2020

Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 patients: Risk factors, predictors, and complications: A review.

J Card Surg 2020 Jun 19;35(6):1302-1305. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

Background: Respiratory complications have been well remarked in the novel coronavirus disease (SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19), yet an emerging body of research indicates that cardiac involvement may be implicated in poor outcomes for these patients.

Aims: This review seeks to gather and distill the existing body of literature that describes the cardiac implications of COVID-19.

Materials And Methods: The English literature was reviewed for papers dealing with the cardiac effects of COVID-19.

Results: Notably, COVID-19 patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease are counted in greater frequency in intensive care unit settings, and ultimately suffer greater rates of mortality. Other studies have noted cardiac presentations for COVID-19, rather than respiratory, such as acute pericarditis and left ventricular dysfunction. In some patients there has been evidence of acute myocardial injury, with correspondingly increased serum troponin I levels. With regard to surgical interventions, there is a dearth of data describing myocardial protection during cardiac surgery for COVID-19 patients. Although some insights have been garnered in the study of cardiovascular diseases for these patients, these insights remain fragmented and have yet to cement clear guidelines for actionable clinical practice.

Conclusion: While some information is available, further studies are imperative for a more cohesive understanding of the cardiac pathophysiology in COVID-19 patients to promote more informed treatment and, ultimately, better clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocs.14538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264604PMC
June 2020

Metabolic regulation of endothelial SK channels and human coronary microvascular function.

Int J Cardiol 2020 08 12;312:1-9. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Diabetic (DM) inactivation of small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels contributes to coronary endothelial dysfunction. However, the mechanisms responsible for this down-regulation of endothelial SK channels are poorly understood. Thus, we hypothesized that the altered metabolic signaling in diabetes regulates endothelial SK channels and human coronary microvascular function.

Methods: Human atrial tissue, coronary arterioles and coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) obtained from DM and non-diabetic (ND) patients (n = 12/group) undergoing cardiac surgery were used to analyze metabolic alterations, endothelial SK channel function, coronary microvascular reactivity and SK gene/protein expression/localization.

Results: The relaxation response of DM coronary arterioles to the selective SK channel activator SKA-31 and calcium ionophore A23187 was significantly decreased compared to that of ND arterioles (p < 0.05). Diabetes increases the level of NADH and the NADH/NAD ratio in human myocardium and HCAECs (p < 0.05). Increase in intracellular NADH (100 μM) in the HCAECs caused a significant decrease in endothelial SK channel currents (p < 0.05), whereas, intracellular application of NAD (500 μM) increased the endothelial SK channel currents (p < 0.05). Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) of HCAECs and NADPH oxidase (NOX) and PKC protein expression in the human myocardium and coronary microvasculature were increased respectively (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Diabetes is associated with metabolic changes in the human myocardium, coronary microvasculature and HCAECs. Endothelial SK channel function is regulated by the metabolite pyridine nucleotides, NADH and NAD, suggesting that metabolic regulation of endothelial SK channels may contribute to coronary endothelial dysfunction in the DM patients with diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.03.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7388214PMC
August 2020

Coronary endothelial dysfunction prevented by small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activator in mice and patients with diabetes.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020 12 19;160(6):e263-e280. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate coronary endothelial protection of a small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel activator against a period of cardioplegic-hypoxia and reoxygenation (CP-H/R) injury in mice and patients with diabetes (DM) and those without diabetes (nondiabetic [ND]).

Methods: Mouse small coronary arteries/heart endothelial cells (MHECs) and human coronary arterial endothelial cells (HCAECs) were dissected from the harvested hearts of mice (n = 16/group) and from discarded right atrial tissue samples of patients with DM and without DM (n = 8/group). The SK current density of MHECs was measured. The in vitro small arteries/arterioles, MHECs, and HCAECs were subjected to 60 minutes of CP hypoxia, followed by 60 minutes of oxygenation. Vessels were treated with or without the selective SK activator NS309 for 5 minutes before and during CP hypoxia.

Results: DM and/or CP-H/R significantly inhibited the total SK currents of MHECs and HCAECs and significantly diminished the mouse coronary relaxation response to NS309. Administration of NS309 immediately before and during CP hypoxia significantly improved the recovery of coronary endothelial function, as demonstrated by increased relaxation responses to adenosine 5'-diphosphate and substance P compared with those seen in controls (P < .05). This protective effect was more pronounced in vessels from ND mice and patients compared with DM mice and patients (P < .05). Cell surface membrane SK3 expression was significantly reduced after hypoxia, whereas cytosolic SK3 expression was greater than that of the sham control group (P < .05).

Conclusions: Application of NS309 immediately before and during CP hypoxia protects mouse and human coronary microvasculature against CP-H/R injury, but this effect is diminished in the diabetic coronary microvasculature. SK inhibition/inactivation and/or internalization/redistribution may contribute to CP-H/R-induced coronary endothelial and vascular relaxation dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.01.078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7439127PMC
December 2020

Anticoagulation and amiodarone for new atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting: Prescription patterns and 30-day outcomes in the United States and Canada.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020 Feb 19. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass; Smith Center for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Objective: We sought to elucidate national practice patterns regarding anticoagulation and antiarrhythmic medication use at discharge and examine short-term patient outcomes.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed the data of patients from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database from July 2011 to June 2018 who underwent first-time isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and developed new post-CABG atrial fibrillation (AF) without significant complications. In total, 166,747 patients met study criteria. We examined 30-day outcomes.

Results: In total, 166,747 patients were analyzed and divided into 4 groups based on discharge medications: amiodarone with or without anticoagulation, anticoagulation alone, and neither. Demographic characteristics were similar among the 4 groups. In total, 25.7% of patients were discharged on anticoagulation with an average CHADS-VASc score of 3.2 ± 1.3. Anticoagulation use at discharge was not associated with lower 30-day stroke readmissions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-1.16; P = .35). Adjusted 30-day readmissions for major bleeding were significantly more common in anticoagulated patients (AOR, 4.30; 95% CI, 3.69-5.03; P < .0001). Among those discharged off anticoagulation, there was no significant difference in adjusted 30-day stroke rates based on amiodarone use at discharge (AOR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.85-1.66; P = .31).

Conclusions: Post-CABG anticoagulation for new AF is associated with increased bleeding and no difference in stroke at 30 days. Prospective randomized studies are needed to formalize safe and efficacious short- and long-term management strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.01.077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7434648PMC
February 2020

Lower preoperative hematocrit, longer hospital stay, and neurocognitive decline after cardiac surgery.

Surgery 2020 07 14;168(1):147-154. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Brown University School of Medicine, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI. Electronic address:

Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass may be associated with postoperative neurocognitive dysfunction; however, risk factors have not been clearly identified. We hypothesize that lower hematocrit levels are correlated with postoperative neurocognitive dysfunction.

Methods: A total of 30 patients underwent cardiac operations utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass and screening for neurocognitive dysfunction preoperatively and on postoperative day 4. Patients were analyzed according to hematocrit preoperatively, 6 hours postoperatively, and on postoperative day 4, and whether they received intra or postoperative transfusions of packed red blood cells. Neurocognitive data is presented as a difference in Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status standardized score from baseline to postoperative day 4 and analyzed by unpaired two-tailed Spearman test and unpaired Mann-Whitney U test.

Results: There was a significant correlation between patients with lower hematocrit before surgery and a decline in neurocognitive function at postoperative day 4 (P < .05). All patients experienced a decrease in hematocrit during their hospital stay, but the hematocrit 6 hours postoperatively and postoperative day 4 did not impact cognition. Receiving a transfusion was also not associated with neurocognitive dysfunction. Patients with low hematocrit preoperatively had a consistently lower hematocrit throughout their stay. Prolonged total length of stay was also significantly associated with neurocognitive decline.

Conclusion: A lower preoperative hematocrit and prolonged length of hospital stay are correlated with neurocognitive decline after cardiac surgery utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.02.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311300PMC
July 2020

Commentary: Del Nido cardioplegic solution: Is it really better than any other?

Authors:
Frank W Sellke

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020 Feb 7. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.01.061DOI Listing
February 2020

Swine Disease Models for Optimal Vascular Engineering.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2020 06 2;22:25-49. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Cardiovascular Research Center, Rhode Island Hospital and Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02903, USA.

Swine disease models are essential for mimicry of human metabolic and vascular pathophysiology, thereby enabling high-fidelity translation to human medicine. The worldwide epidemic of obesity, metabolic disease, and diabetes has prompted the focus on these diseases in this review. We highlight the remarkable similarity between Ossabaw miniature swine and humans with metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Although the evidence is strongest for swine models of coronary artery disease, findings are generally applicable to any vascular bed. We discuss the major strengths and weaknesses of swine models. The development of vascular imaging is an example of optimal vascular engineering in swine. Although challenges regarding infrastructure and training of engineers in the use of swine models exist, opportunities are ripe for gene editing, studies of molecular mechanisms, and use of swine in coronary artery imaging and testing of devices that can move quickly to human clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-082919-053009DOI Listing
June 2020

Metabolomics and the pig model reveal aberrant cardiac energy metabolism in metabolic syndrome.

Sci Rep 2020 02 26;10(1):3483. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, The Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, 02903, United States.

Although metabolic syndrome (MS) is a significant risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the cardiac response (MR) to MS remains unclear due to traditional MS models' narrow scope around a limited number of cell-cycle regulation biomarkers and drawbacks of limited human tissue samples. To date, we developed the most comprehensive platform studying MR to MS in a pig model tightly related to human MS criteria. By incorporating comparative metabolomic, transcriptomic, functional analyses, and unsupervised machine learning (UML), we can discover unknown metabolic pathways connections and links on numerous biomarkers across the MS-associated issues in the heart. For the first time, we show severely diminished availability of glycolytic and citric acid cycle (CAC) pathways metabolites, altered expression, GlcNAcylation, and activity of involved enzymes. A notable exception, however, is the excessive succinate accumulation despite reduced succinate dehydrogenase complex iron-sulfur subunit b (SDHB) expression and decreased content of precursor metabolites. Finally, the expression of metabolites and enzymes from the GABA-glutamate, GABA-putrescine, and the glyoxylate pathways significantly increase, suggesting an alternative cardiac means to replenish succinate and malate in MS. Our platform discovers potential therapeutic targets for MS-associated CVD within pathways that were previously unknown to corelate with the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60387-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044421PMC
February 2020

Commentary: Ionic heterogeneity in vessel grafts.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2019 Nov 27. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Cardiovascular Research Center, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2019.11.036DOI Listing
November 2019

Robust effect of metabolic syndrome on major metabolic pathways in the myocardium.

PLoS One 2019 2;14(12):e0225857. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Department of Surgery, Rhode Island Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States of America.

Although the high-fat-diet-induced metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a precursor of human cardiac pathology, the myocardial metabolic state in MetS is far from clear. The discrepancies in metabolite handling between human and small animal models and the difficulties inherent in obtaining human tissue complicate the identification of the myocardium-specific metabolic response in patients. Here we use the large animal model of swine that develops the hallmark criteria of human MetS. Our comparative metabolomics together with transcriptomics and computational nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) interpretation of the data exposes significant decline in metabolites related to the fatty acid oxidation, glycolysis, and pentose phosphate pathway. Behind the reversal lies decreased expression of enzymes that operate in the pathways. We showed that diminished glycogen deposition is a metabolic signature of MetS in the pig myocardium. The depletion of glycogen arises from disbalance in expression of genes that break down and synthesize glycogen. We show robust acetoacetate accumulation and activated expression of key enzymes in ketone body formation, catabolism and transporters, suggesting a shift in fuel utilization in MetS. A contrasting enrichment in O-GlcNAcylated proteins uncovers hexosamine pathway and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) expression involvement in the myocardial response to MetS. Although the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) activity and the availability of the UDP-GlcNAc substrate in the MetS myocardium is low, the level of O-GlcNacylated proteins is high as the O-GlcNacase is significantly diminished. Our data support the perception of transcriptionally driven myocardial alterations in expression of standard fatty acids, glucose metabolism, glycogen, and ketone body related enzymes and subsequent paucity of their metabolite products in MetS. This aberrant energy metabolism in the MetS myocardium provide insight into the pathogenesis of CVD in MetS.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0225857PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6886832PMC
March 2020

Commentary: Hyperglycemia during myocardial infarction: Can sound waves improve outcomes?

Authors:
Frank W Sellke

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 04 31;161(4):e307-e308. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2019.10.094DOI Listing
April 2021

Jostling with jargon.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020 05 6;159(5):1925-1926. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2019.07.152DOI Listing
May 2020

Dabigatran Reversal With Idarucizumab in Patients Requiring Urgent Surgery: A Subanalysis of the RE-VERSE AD Study.

Ann Surg 2019 Oct 9. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.

Objective: To further examine anticoagulation reversal and clinical outcomes in dabigatran treated patients requiring urgent surgery or procedural interventions.

Background: Idarucizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody fragment, reverses dabigatran anticoagulation.

Methods: Data from surgical and procedural patients in RE-VERSE AD, a multicenter, open-label, single-arm, prospective cohort of dabigatran reversal were evaluated. A total of 202 patients in this group received 5 g of idarucizumab before surgery or procedures.

Results: The interventions included 49 abdominal, 45 orthopedic, 34 vascular, 8 neurologic, and 4 genitourinary surgical procedures, or 29 catheter-based cases, 20 cases for drainage, and 8 diagnostic procedures. Five patients did not undergo their intended intervention after receiving idarucizumab. Complete reversal of the dabigatran anticoagulant effect occurred within minutes in almost all patients, with normal hemostasis in more than 91% of patients. The median time from the first vial of idarucizumab to surgery or procedures was less than 2 hours in all groups except neurosurgery, where it was 3.3 hours. Fresh frozen plasma and packed red cells were the most frequently transfused blood products. Postreversal thromboembolic events occurred in 10 (5%) patients at 30 days, 5 of whom had restarted anticoagulation before the event. Overall 30-day mortality was 12.6%. There were no serious adverse safety signals due to idarucizumab dosing.

Conclusions: Idarucizumab facilitates management of patients requiring urgent procedures by providing rapid dabigatran reversal, and is the only agent of its class studied in surgical patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003638DOI Listing
October 2019