Publications by authors named "Frank Struyf"

66 Publications

Safety and Efficacy of Single-Dose Ad26.COV2.S Vaccine against Covid-19.

N Engl J Med 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

From Janssen Vaccines and Prevention, Leiden, the Netherlands (J. Sadoff, G. Shukarev, G. Scheper, M.L.G., H.S., J.V.H., M.D.); South African Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa (G.G.); Janssen Research and Development, Beerse, Belgium (A.V., C.T., H.F., B.S., K.O., M.F.R., N.C., T.T., K.H., J.R.G., F.S.); Janssen Research and Development, Spring House, PA (V.C.); Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro (B.G.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (P.A.G.); the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Rockville (K.L.T., M.A.M.), Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring (M.L.R.), and the Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.) - all in Maryland; Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, Washington, DC (J.T.); the Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston (D.H.B.); Janssen Research and Development, Raritan, NJ (J. Stoddard); and Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle (L.C.).

Background: The Ad26.COV2.S vaccine is a recombinant, replication-incompetent human adenovirus type 26 vector encoding full-length severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein in a prefusion-stabilized conformation.

Methods: In an international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned adult participants in a 1:1 ratio to receive a single dose of Ad26.COV2.S (5×10 viral particles) or placebo. The primary end points were vaccine efficacy against moderate to severe-critical coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) with an onset at least 14 days and at least 28 days after administration among participants in the per-protocol population who had tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Safety was also assessed.

Results: The per-protocol population included 19,630 SARS-CoV-2-negative participants who received Ad26.COV2.S and 19,691 who received placebo. Ad26.COV2.S protected against moderate to severe-critical Covid-19 with onset at least 14 days after administration (116 cases in the vaccine group vs. 348 in the placebo group; efficacy, 66.9%; adjusted 95% confidence interval [CI], 59.0 to 73.4) and at least 28 days after administration (66 vs. 193 cases; efficacy, 66.1%; adjusted 95% CI, 55.0 to 74.8). Vaccine efficacy was higher against severe-critical Covid-19 (76.7% [adjusted 95% CI, 54.6 to 89.1] for onset at ≥14 days and 85.4% [adjusted 95% CI, 54.2 to 96.9] for onset at ≥28 days). Despite 86 of 91 cases (94.5%) in South Africa with sequenced virus having the 20H/501Y.V2 variant, vaccine efficacy was 52.0% and 64.0% against moderate to severe-critical Covid-19 with onset at least 14 days and at least 28 days after administration, respectively, and efficacy against severe-critical Covid-19 was 73.1% and 81.7%, respectively. Reactogenicity was higher with Ad26.COV2.S than with placebo but was generally mild to moderate and transient. The incidence of serious adverse events was balanced between the two groups. Three deaths occurred in the vaccine group (none were Covid-19-related), and 16 in the placebo group (5 were Covid-19-related).

Conclusions: A single dose of Ad26.COV2.S protected against symptomatic Covid-19 and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and was effective against severe-critical disease, including hospitalization and death. Safety appeared to be similar to that in other phase 3 trials of Covid-19 vaccines. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development and others; ENSEMBLE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04505722.).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2101544DOI Listing
April 2021

Immunogenicity of the Ad26.COV2.S Vaccine for COVID-19.

JAMA 2021 04;325(15):1535-1544

Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Control of the global COVID-19 pandemic will require the development and deployment of safe and effective vaccines.

Objective: To evaluate the immunogenicity of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) in humans, including the kinetics, magnitude, and phenotype of SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific humoral and cellular immune responses.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Twenty-five participants were enrolled from July 29, 2020, to August 7, 2020, and the follow-up for this day 71 interim analysis was completed on October 3, 2020; follow-up to assess durability will continue for 2 years. This study was conducted at a single clinical site in Boston, Massachusetts, as part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 clinical trial of Ad26.COV2.S.

Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive 1 or 2 intramuscular injections with 5 × 1010 viral particles or 1 × 1011 viral particles of Ad26.COV2.S vaccine or placebo administered on day 1 and day 57 (5 participants in each group).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Humoral immune responses included binding and neutralizing antibody responses at multiple time points following immunization. Cellular immune responses included immunospot-based and intracellular cytokine staining assays to measure T-cell responses.

Results: Twenty-five participants were randomized (median age, 42; age range, 22-52; 52% women, 44% male, 4% undifferentiated), and all completed the trial through the day 71 interim end point. Binding and neutralizing antibodies emerged rapidly by day 8 after initial immunization in 90% and 25% of vaccine recipients, respectively. By day 57, binding and neutralizing antibodies were detected in 100% of vaccine recipients after a single immunization. On day 71, the geometric mean titers of spike-specific binding antibodies were 2432 to 5729 and the geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies were 242 to 449 in the vaccinated groups. A variety of antibody subclasses, Fc receptor binding properties, and antiviral functions were induced. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were induced.

Conclusion And Relevance: In this phase 1 study, a single immunization with Ad26.COV2.S induced rapid binding and neutralization antibody responses as well as cellular immune responses. Two phase 3 clinical trials are currently underway to determine the efficacy of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04436276.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.3645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7953339PMC
April 2021

Interim Results of a Phase 1-2a Trial of Ad26.COV2.S Covid-19 Vaccine.

N Engl J Med 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

From Janssen Vaccines and Prevention, Leiden, the Netherlands (J. Sadoff, M.L.G., G. Shukarev, A.M.G., J. Stoop, S.T., E.C., G. Scheper, J. Hendriks, M.D., J.V.H., H.S.); Janssen Research and Development, Beerse (D.H., C.T., F.S.), Janssen Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Merksem (W.V.D.), the Center for Vaccinology, Ghent University, Gent (I.L.-R.), SGS Life Sciences (P.-J.B.) and the Center for the Evaluation of Vaccination, University of Antwerp (P.V.D.), Antwerp, and the Center for Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (J. de Hoon) - all in Belgium; Optimal Research, Melbourne, FL (M.K.); the Alliance for Multispecialty Research, Knoxville, TN (W.S.); the Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston (K.E.S., D.H.B.); and the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle (S.C.D.R., K.W.C., M.J.M.).

Background: Efficacious vaccines are urgently needed to contain the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A candidate vaccine, Ad26.COV2.S, is a recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector encoding a full-length and stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

Methods: In this multicenter, placebo-controlled, phase 1-2a trial, we randomly assigned healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 55 years (cohort 1) and those 65 years of age or older (cohort 3) to receive the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine at a dose of 5×10 viral particles (low dose) or 1×10 viral particles (high dose) per milliliter or placebo in a single-dose or two-dose schedule. Longer-term data comparing a single-dose regimen with a two-dose regimen are being collected in cohort 2; those results are not reported here. The primary end points were the safety and reactogenicity of each dose schedule.

Results: After the administration of the first vaccine dose in 805 participants in cohorts 1 and 3 and after the second dose in cohort 1, the most frequent solicited adverse events were fatigue, headache, myalgia, and injection-site pain. The most frequent systemic adverse event was fever. Systemic adverse events were less common in cohort 3 than in cohort 1 and in those who received the low vaccine dose than in those who received the high dose. Reactogenicity was lower after the second dose. Neutralizing-antibody titers against wild-type virus were detected in 90% or more of all participants on day 29 after the first vaccine dose (geometric mean titer [GMT], 224 to 354) and reached 100% by day 57 with a further increase in titers (GMT, 288 to 488), regardless of vaccine dose or age group. Titers remained stable until at least day 71. A second dose provided an increase in the titer by a factor of 2.6 to 2.9 (GMT, 827 to 1266). Spike-binding antibody responses were similar to neutralizing-antibody responses. On day 14, CD4+ T-cell responses were detected in 76 to 83% of the participants in cohort 1 and in 60 to 67% of those in cohort 3, with a clear skewing toward type 1 helper T cells. CD8+ T-cell responses were robust overall but lower in cohort 3.

Conclusions: The safety and immunogenicity profiles of Ad26.COV2.S support further development of this vaccine candidate. (Funded by Johnson & Johnson and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority of the Department of Health and Human Services; COV1001 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04436276.).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2034201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7821985PMC
January 2021

Efficacy of the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine in young Chinese women with oncogenic HPV infection at baseline: post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Apr 12;17(4):955-964. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are efficacious against HPV infections and associated lesions in women HPV-naïve at vaccination. However, vaccine efficacy (VE) against oncogenic, high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types in women infected with any other HR-HPV type at first vaccination (baseline) remains unclear. This post-hoc analysis of a phase II/III study (NCT00779766) evaluated AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 (AS04-HPV-16/18) VE against HR-HPV type infection in 871 Chinese women aged 18-25 years over a 72-month follow-up period. Study participants were DNA-negative at baseline to HR-HPV type(s) considered for VE and DNA-positive to any other HR-HPV type. Initial serostatus was not considered. Baseline DNA prevalence was 14.6% for any HR-HPV type and 10.6% excluding HPV-16/18. In the total vaccinated cohort for efficacy, VE against 6-month and 12-month HPV-16/18 persistent infections (PIs) in women DNA-negative to HPV-16/18 but DNA-positive to any other HR-HPV type at baseline was 100.0% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 79.8-100.0) and 100.0% (95%CI: 47.2-100.0), respectively. VE against HPV-16/18 incident infections in women DNA-positive to one vaccine type but DNA-negative to the other one at baseline was 66.8% (95%CI: -18.9-92.5). VE against HPV-31/33/45 incident infections, in women DNA-positive to HPV-16/18 and DNA-negative to the considered HPV type at baseline was 71.0% (95%CI: 27.3-89.8). No HPV-16/18 PIs were observed in vaccinated women with non-vaccine HPV A7/A9 species cervical infection at baseline. These findings indicated that women with existing HR-HPV infection at vaccination might still benefit from the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine. However, this potential benefit needs further demonstration in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1829411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018349PMC
April 2021

Efficacy of AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine against clearance of incident HPV infections: Pooled analysis of data from the CVT and PATRICIA randomized trials.

J Infect Dis 2020 Sep 5. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

Divison of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA.

Clinical trial data and real-world evidence suggest the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 (AS04-HPV-16/18) vaccine provides nearly 90% protection against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or greater (CIN3+) irrespective of type, among females vaccinated prior to sexual debut. This high efficacy is not fully explained by cross-protection. Although AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccination does not impact clearance of prevalent infections, it may accelerate clearance of newly acquired infections. We pooled data from two large-scale randomized controlled trials to evaluate efficacy of the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine against clearance of non-targeted incident infections. Results of our analysis do not suggest an effect in expediting clearance of incident infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa561DOI Listing
September 2020

Long-term persistence of immune response to the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine in Chinese girls aged 9-17 years: Results from an 8-9-year follow-up phase III open-label study.

Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 2020 Dec 11;16(6):392-399. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

Aim: In 9-17-year-old Chinese girls, the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine (AS04-HPV-16/18) given as three-dose schedule induced high antibody levels, which were noninferior 1 month after the third dose to those observed in 18-25-year-old Chinese women in a large efficacy study. We assessed the persistence of antibodies 8-9 years after vaccination in the same subjects.

Methods: This follow-up phase III, open-label study (NCT03355820) included subjects who had received three doses of AS04-HPV-16/18 in the initial trial (NCT00996125). Serum antibody concentrations were assessed by ELISA and compared to antibody persistence observed in 18-25-year-old Chinese women 6 years after first vaccination in the efficacy study (NCT00779766).

Results: Out of the 227 enrolled subjects, 223 were included in the per-protocol immunogenicity analysis. Mean interval from first AS04-HPV-16/18 dose to blood sampling was 101.4 months (8.5 years). For antibodies against HPV-16 and -18, 8.5 years after first vaccine dose all subjects remained seropositive and antibody. Geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were 1236.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1121.8; 1362.4) and 535.6 (95% CI: 478.6; 599.4) ELISA Units/mL, respectively. These seropositivity rates and antibody GMCs were higher than those observed 6 years after first vaccination of 18-25-year-old women.

Conclusion: Sustained anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune responses were observed 8-9 years after AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccination of 9-17 year-old Chinese girls that were higher than the ones observed 6 years after first vaccination in Chinese adult women in whom AS04-HPV-16/18 efficacy against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade ≥2 was demonstrated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajco.13398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754390PMC
December 2020

Immunogenicity and safety of the AS04-HPV-16/18 and HPV-6/11/16/18 human papillomavirus vaccines in asymptomatic young women living with HIV aged 15-25 years: A phase IV randomized comparative study.

EClinicalMedicine 2020 Jun 25;23:100353. Epub 2020 May 25.

GSK, Avenue Fleming 20, 1300 Wavre, Belgium.

Background: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at higher risk of acquisition and progression of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Evidence on effect of HPV vaccination in this population is limited.

Methods: This phase IV randomized controlled observer-blind study assessed immunogenicity and safety of two HPV vaccines (AS04-HPV-16/18 vs. 4vHPV) given in WLWH (stage 1) and HIV- females aged 15-25 years. Co-primary endpoints were to demonstrate, in WLWH subjects, non-inferiority (and if demonstrated, superiority) of AS04-HPV-16/18 vs. 4vHPV for HPV-16 and HPV-18 by pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA) at month 7 and safety. Non-inferiority criteria was lower limit (LL) of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the GMT ratio AS04-HPV-16/18/4vHPV above 0.5, in the according to protocol population. NCT01031069.

Findings: Among 873 subjects recruited between 26-Oct-2010 and 14-May-2015, 546 were randomized (1:1) and received at least one vaccine dose (total vaccinated cohort, TVC): 257 were WLWH (129 AS04-HPV-16/18; 128 4vHPV) and 289 were subjects without HIV (144 AS04-HPV-16/18; 145 4vHPV). Baseline CD4 cell count in WLWH was at least 350 cells/mm.At month 7, AS04-HPV-16/18 showed immunological superiority to 4vHPV in WLWH. Neutralizing anti-HPV-16 and HPV-18 antibody GMTs were 2·74 (95% CI: 1·83; 4·11) and 7·44 (95% CI: 4·79; 11·54) fold higher in AS04-HPV-16/18 vs. 4vHPV (LL of the GMT ratio >1 in TVC, <0·0001), respectively. Similar results were observed by ELISA up to month 24.Solicited local and general symptoms were in line with product labels. The number of reported serious adverse events (SAEs) was balanced throughout the study.

Interpretation: Both vaccines showed an acceptable safety profile in all subjects. Despite the absence of an immunological correlate of protection for HPV, differences in immune responses elicited by the vaccines especially for HPV-18 may translate into longer lasting or more robust protection against cervical cancer with the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine in WLWH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329699PMC
June 2020

Meta-analysis of the risk of autoimmune thyroiditis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease following vaccination with AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2020 09 24;29(9):1159-1167. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Research and Development, GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

Purpose: To assess the risk of three autoimmune diseases - autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - in females following AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccination.

Methods: This meta-analysis included data from 18 randomized controlled trials, one cluster-randomized trial, two large observational retrospective cohort studies, and one case-control study. Following vaccination, a risk window of 2 years was defined for AIT and IBD and 42 days for GBS. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using three methods: meta-analysis inverse-variance with continuity correction (primary analysis), pooled estimate, and beta-binomial regression.

Results: In all studies apart from the case-control study, 154 398 exposed and 1 504 322 non-exposed subjects were included, among whom there were 141 and 1972 cases of (autoimmune) thyroiditis; 2 and 2 cases of GBS; and 43 and 401 cases of IBD, respectively. In the case-control study, there were 97 cases of AIT and 13 of GBS; matched with 802 and 130 controls, respectively. The primary analysis OR estimates were 1.46 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-1.76), 11.14 (2.00-61.92), and 1.11 (0.75-1.66) for (autoimmune) thyroiditis, GBS, and IBD, respectively.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis did not show an increased risk of IBD following vaccination with AS04-HPV-16/18. The 1.5-fold increased risk of (autoimmune) thyroiditis does not allow us to conclude about a causal association. For GBS, the very low number of cases and wide 95% CIs negate any firm conclusion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pds.5063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539912PMC
September 2020

Safety of the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine in adolescents aged 12-15 years: end-of-study results from a community-randomized study up to 6.5 years.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 06 12;16(6):1392-1403. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

GSK , Wavre, Belgium.

This manuscript discloses end-of-study safety data of a community-randomized controlled trial in Finland (NCT00534638), assessing the effectiveness of two vaccination strategies (gender-neutral versus females only) using the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 (AS04-HPV-16/18) vaccine. The total vaccination cohort included 32,175 adolescents aged 12-15 y at vaccination of whom 14,837 received the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine and 17,338 received the hepatitis-B virus vaccine (control). Spontaneous reporting of serious adverse events (SAEs) combined with surveillance using nation-wide health registries showed an acceptable safety profile of the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine. During the study period (up to 6.5 y), the incidences (per 100,000 person-years) of reported SAEs considered as possibly related to vaccination were 39.1 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 25.3-57.7) and 39.8 (95%CI: 26.8-56.8) in the HPV and control groups, respectively. The most frequently reported new-onset autoimmune diseases (NOADs) were ulcerative colitis (incidence rates of 28.2 and 33.1 per 100,000 person-years in the HPV and control groups, respectively), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (21.9 and 37.1), Crohn's disease (15.6 and 22.5), celiac disease (15.6 and 21.2), and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (14.1 and 15.9). Of 1,344 pregnancies reported (777 and 567 in the HPV and control groups, respectively), most resulted in elective termination (58.4% and 58.6%), birth of a live infant (32.7% and 32.3%), or in spontaneous abortion (8.0% and 7.9%). No major, registered congenital anomalies were identified. The incidence rates of NOADs and pregnancy outcomes were generally balanced between groups. No specific safety signals were identified in the population-based health registry surveillance. Plain Language Summary What is the context? ● Since first licensure in 2007 of the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine (, GSK), large quantity of safety data has been collected and confirmed its safety profile. This study provides further unique, population-based safety data from vaccinated Finnish adolescents monitored via health registries up to 6.5 y of follow-up. What is new? ● The vaccine has shown an acceptable safety profile in girls and boys. The risk of new-onset autoimmune diseases (NOADs) was similar between the HPV vaccine group and the control group and in line with the expectations for the studied population. ● The study supports that safety surveillance via national health registries is in general more sensitive than the conventional safety reporting, notably for monitoring specific chronic diseases, e.g. autoimmune disorders. What is the impact? ● This study highlights the importance of health registries in long-term vaccination safety surveillance. The population-based safety data reported in this study further support the routine administration of the HPV vaccine to girls and boys.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1692557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7482795PMC
June 2020

Prevalence and Incidence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection Before and After Pregnancy: Pooled Analysis of the Control Arms of Efficacy Trials of HPV-16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Dec 4;6(12):ofz486. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

Objective: Data on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence around pregnancy were inconsistent. We assessed HPV prevalence before and after pregnancy, HPV incidence after pregnancy, and risk factors for HPV infection.

Method: Data from 15 754 women in control arms of 5 AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine efficacy trials were analyzed, including 3001 women with at least 1 pregnancy. Results of HPV deoxyribonucleic acid testing on cervical samples were available. We analyzed risk factors, including age, region, pregnancy and its outcomes, duration from pregnancy resolution to collection of first postresolution cervical sample, previous HPV infection, cigarette smoking, and number of sexual partners with Cox regression.

Results: Prevalence of high-risk oncogenic (hr)-HPV types was similar before and after pregnancy (20.8% vs 19.8%). Incidence of hr-HPV was 40.1 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.4-64.2) at 0-3 months, 266.7 (95% CI, 217.4-323.7) at 3-6 months, and 95.7 (95% CI, 83.9-108.7) at >6 months after pregnancy. Risk factors associated with HPV infection after pregnancy are previous HPV infection, elective abortion, and younger age at pregnancy resolution.

Conclusions: Pregnancy could not be confirmed as a risk factor for HPV infection in this population despite an increased incidence detected 3-6 months after pregnancy resolution. Most women remained HPV negative after pregnancy.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT001226810 (HPV-008 trial), NCT00294047 (HPV-015 trial), NCT00316693 and NCT00929526 (HPV-032/063 trials), and NCT00779766 (HPV-039 trial).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6892569PMC
December 2019

VIVIANE study of HPV vaccination - Authors' reply.

Lancet Infect Dis 2019 12;19(12):1282-1283

GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30641-3DOI Listing
December 2019

Effectiveness of the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine in reducing oropharyngeal HPV infections in young females-Results from a community-randomized trial.

Int J Cancer 2020 07 14;147(1):170-174. Epub 2019 Dec 14.

GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

We studied effectiveness of the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 (AS04-HPV-16/18) vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) oropharyngeal infections associated with the increase of head/neck cancers in western countries. All 38,631 resident adolescents from 1994 to 1995 birth cohorts of 33 Finnish communities were invited in this community-randomized trial (NCT00534638). During 2008-2009, 11,275 girls and 6,129 boys were enrolled in three arms of 11 communities each. In Arm A, 90% of vaccinated girls/boys, and in Arm B, 90% of vaccinated girls received AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine. Other Arm A/B and all Arm C vaccinated participants received control vaccine. All Arm A participants and Arm B female participants were blinded to vaccine allocation. Oropharyngeal samples were analyzed from 4,871 18.5-year-old females who attended follow-up visit 3-6 years postvaccination. HPV DNA prevalence was determined by SPF-10 LiPA and Multiplex type-specific PCR. Total vaccine effectiveness (VE) was defined as relative reduction of oropharyngeal HPV prevalence in pooled Arms A/B HPV-vaccinated females vs. all Arm C females. VE against oropharyngeal HPV-16/18, HPV-31/45 and HPV-31/33/45 infections were 82.4% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 47.3-94.1), 75.3% (95%CI: 12.7-93.0) and 69.9% (95% CI: 29.6-87.1), respectively. In conclusion, the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine showed effectiveness against vaccine and nonvaccine HPV-types oropharyngeal infections in adolescent females up to 6 years postvaccination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318585PMC
July 2020

Efficacy of the AS04-Adjuvanted HPV16/18 Vaccine: Pooled Analysis of the Costa Rica Vaccine and PATRICIA Randomized Controlled Trials.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 08;112(8):818-828

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD.

Background: The AS04-adjuvanted HPV16/18 (AS04-HPV16/18) vaccine provides excellent protection against targeted human papillomavirus (HPV) types and a variable degree of cross-protection against others, including types 6/11/31/33/45. High efficacy against any cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or greater (CIN3+; >90%) suggests that lower levels of protection may exist for a wide range of oncogenic HPV types, which is difficult to quantify in individual trials. Pooling individual-level data from two randomized controlled trials, we aimed to evaluate AS04-HPV16/18 vaccine efficacy against incident HPV infections and cervical abnormalities .

Methods: Data were available from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (NCT00128661) and Papilloma Trial Against Cancer in Young Adults trial (NCT00122681), two large-scale, double-blind randomized controlled trials of the AS04-HPV16/18 vaccine. Primary analyses focused on disease-free women with no detectable cervicovaginal HPV at baseline.

Results: A total of 12 550 women were included in our primary analyses (HPV arm = 6271, control arm = 6279). Incidence of 6-month persistent oncogenic and nononcogenic infections, excluding known and accepted protected types 6/11/16/18/31/33/45 (focusing on 34/35/39/40/42/43/44/51/52/53/54/56/58/59/66/68/73/70/74), was statistically significantly lower in the HPV arm than in the control arm (efficacy = 9.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7% to 17.4%). Statistically significant efficacy (P < .05) was observed for individual oncogenic types 16/18/31/33/45/52 and nononcogenic types 6/11/53/74. Efficacy against cervical abnormalities (all types) increased with severity, ranging from 27.7% (95% CI = 21.7% to 33.3%) to 58.7% (95% CI = 34.1% to 74.7%) for cytologic outcomes (low-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia lesion or greater, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia lesion or greater, respectively) and 66.0% (95% CI = 54.4% to 74.9%) to 87.8% (95% CI = 71.1% to 95.7%) for histologic outcomes (CIN2+ and CIN3+, respectively). Comparing Costa Rica Vaccine Trial and Papilloma Trial Against Cancer in Young Adults results, there was no evidence of heterogeneity, except for type 51 (efficacy = -28.6% and 20.7%, respectively; two-sided P = .03).

Conclusions: The AS04-HPV16/18 vaccine provides some additional cross-protection beyond established protected types, which partially explains the high efficacy against CIN3+.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825474PMC
August 2020

Long-term Immunogenicity and Safety of the AS04-adjuvanted Human Papillomavirus-16/18 Vaccine in Four- to Six-year-old Girls: Three-year Follow-up of a Randomized Phase III Trial.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 10;38(10):1061-1067

From the GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

Background: The burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) diseases is high in Latin America. HPV vaccines licensed from 2006 onwards offer protection against most HPV-related cancers, especially when introduced into national immunization programs. Barriers to optimal vaccine uptake are, however, lowering the impact of adolescent HPV vaccination programs. Immunization of children might overcome these barriers and be a strategy of choice for some countries.

Methods: This multicenter phase III randomized, controlled, single-blind study (NCT01627561) was conducted in Colombia, Mexico and Panama to assess safety and immunogenicity of 2-dose vaccination with AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine in girls 4-6 years of age. We report safety outcomes and anti-HPV-16/18 antibody titers measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in HPV-vaccinated girls that were followed over a 36-month period.

Results: Over 36 months (ie, 30 months after the second vaccine dose), among 74 girls included in the HPV group, 1 serious adverse event unrelated to vaccination has been reported. No withdrawal because of (serious) adverse events has been reported. At month 36, all girls in the per-protocol-cohort were still seropositive for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 with geometric mean concentrations of 1680.6 and 536.4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units/mL, respectively.

Conclusions: The AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine administered according to a 2-dose schedule to girls 4-6 years of age induced a high and sustained immunologic response with an acceptable safety profile during the 30 months following vaccination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002437DOI Listing
October 2019

Efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine in Chinese women aged 18-25 years: End-of-study results from a phase II/III, randomised, controlled trial.

Cancer Med 2019 10 15;8(14):6195-6211. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

Background: Cervical cancer is a major public health concern in China. We report the end-of-study results of a phase II/III trial to assess the efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the AS04-human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine in Chinese women aged 18-25 years followed for up to 72 months after first vaccination. Results of approximately 57 months following first vaccination have been previously reported.

Methods: Healthy 18-25-year-old women (N = 6051) were randomized (1:1) to receive three doses of AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine or Al(OH) (control) at Months 0-1-6. Vaccine efficacy against HPV-16/18 infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), cross-protective vaccine efficacy against infections and lesions associated with nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types, immunogenicity, and safety were assessed. Efficacy was assessed in the according-to-protocol efficacy (ATP-E) cohort (vaccine N = 2888; control N = 2892), total vaccinated cohort for efficacy (TVC-E; vaccine N = 2987; control N = 2985) and TVC-naïve (vaccine N = 1660; control N = 1587).

Results: In initially HPV-16/18 seronegative/DNA-negative women, vaccine efficacy against HPV-16/18-associated CIN grade 2 or worse was 87.3% (95% CI: 5.5, 99.7) in the ATP-E, 88.7% (95% CI: 18.5, 99.7) in the TVC-E, and 100% (95% CI: 17.9, 100) in the TVC-naïve. Cross-protective efficacy against incident infection with HPV-31, HPV-33 and HPV-45 was 59.6% (95% CI: 39.4, 73.5), 42.7% (95% CI: 15.6, 61.6), and 54.8% (95% CI: 19.3, 75.6), respectively (ATP-E). At Month 72, >95% of initially seronegative women who received HPV vaccine in the ATP cohort for immunogenicity (N = 664) remained seropositive for anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies; anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 geometric mean titers were 678.1 EU/mL (95% CI: 552.9, 831.5) and 343.7 EU/mL (95% CI: 291.9, 404.8), respectively. Serious adverse events were infrequent (1.9% vaccine group [N = 3026]; 2.7% control group [N = 3025]). Three and zero women died in the control group and the vaccine group respectively. New onset autoimmune disease was reported in two women in the vaccine group and two in the control group.

Conclusions: This is the first large-scale randomized clinical trial of HPV vaccination in China. High and sustained vaccine efficacy against HPV-16/18-associated infection and cervical lesions was demonstrated up to Month 72. The vaccine had an acceptable safety profile. Combined with screening, prophylactic HPV vaccination could potentially reduce the high burden of HPV infection and cervical cancer in China.

Trial Registration: NCT00779766.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6797633PMC
October 2019

Risk of newly detected infections and cervical abnormalities in adult women seropositive or seronegative for naturally acquired HPV-16/18 antibodies.

Cancer Med 2019 08 5;8(10):4938-4953. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Institut Català d'Oncologia (ICO), IDIBELL, CIBER-ESP, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Catalonia, Spain.

Background: Infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 account for ~70% of invasive cervical cancers but the degree of protection from naturally acquired anti-HPV antibodies is uncertain. We examined the risk of HPV infections as defined by HPV DNA detection and cervical abnormalities among women >25 years in the Human Papilloma VIrus Vaccine Immunogenicity ANd Efficacy trial's (VIVIANE, NCT00294047) control arm.

Methods: Serum anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies were determined at baseline and every 12 months in baseline DNA-negative women (N = 2687 for HPV-16 and 2705 for HPV-18) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from blood samples. HPV infections were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) every 6-months, and cervical abnormalities were confirmed by cytology every 12 months. Data were collected over a 7-year period. The association between the risk of type-specific infection and cervical abnormalities and serostatus was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models.

Results: Risk of newly detected HPV-16-associated 6-month persistent infections (PI) (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.56 [95%CI:0.32; 0.99]) and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US+) (HR = 0.28 [0.12; 0.67]) were significantly lower in baseline seropositive vs baseline seronegative women. HPV-16-associated incident infections (HR = 0.81 [0.56; 1.16]) and 12-month PI (HR = 0.53 [0.24; 1.16]) showed the same trend. A similar trend of lower risk was observed in HPV-18-seropositive vs -seronegative women (HR = 0.95 [0.59; 1.51] for IIs, HR = 0.43 [0.16; 1.13] for 6-month PIs, HR = 0.31 [0.07; 1.36] for 12-month PIs, and HR = 0.61 [0.23; 1.61] for ASC-US+).

Conclusions: Naturally acquired anti-HPV-16 antibodies were associated with a decreased risk of subsequent infection and cervical abnormalities in women >25 years. This possible protection was lower than that previously reported in 15- to 25-year-old women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6712465PMC
August 2019

A ten-year study of immunogenicity and safety of the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine in adolescent girls aged 10-14 years.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 17;15(7-8):1970-1979. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

f GSK , Wavre/Rixensart , Belgium.

This study assessed long-term immunogenicity and safety following 3 doses of AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine in females 10-14 years old. Girls included in the immunogenicity subset in the primary controlled, observer-blinded, randomized study (NCT00196924) who received 3 doses were invited for a 10-year follow-up (NCT00316706 and NCT00877877). Serum antibody responses against HPV-16/18 (vaccine types) and HPV-31/45 (non-vaccine types) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using type-specific VLP as coating antigens. Serious adverse events (SAEs) and pregnancy information were recorded. At Month (M) 120, all subjects (N = 418, according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort) were seropositive for anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 1589.9 ELISA Units [EU]/mL (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1459.8-1731.6) for anti-HPV-16 and 597.2 EU/mL (95% CI: 541.7-658.5) for anti-HPV-18 in subjects seronegative at baseline for the type analyzed. mathematical modeling predicted a durability ≥50 years for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18. For the non-vaccine humoral type response, all initially seronegative subjects had seroconverted at M7, with anti-HPV-31 GMT of 2030.5 EU/mL (95% CI: 1766.2-2334.4) and anti-HPV-45 GMT of 2300.8 EU/mL (95% CI: 2036.8-2599.0). At M120, 87.7% and 85.1% remained seropositive for anti-HPV-31 with GMT of 242.9 EU/mL (95% CI: 201.4-293.0) and anti-HPV-45 with GMT of 204.7 EU/mL (95% CI: 170.0-246.6). During the 10-year follow-up, no SAEs or abnormal pregnancy outcomes were causally related to vaccination. Three doses of the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine induced high and sustained antibody response against HPV-16,18,31 and 45 in girls aged 10-14 years during the 10-year follow-up, with an acceptable long-term safety profile.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1625644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6746471PMC
March 2020

Long-term Cross-reactivity Against Nonvaccine Human Papillomavirus Types 31 and 45 After 2- or 3-Dose Schedules of the AS04-Adjuvanted Human HPV-16/18 Vaccine.

J Infect Dis 2019 05;219(11):1799-1803

GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

This analysis focused on long-term cross-reactive immunogenicity against nonvaccine human papillomavirus (HPV) types 31 and 45 following 2 doses of AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine in girls aged 9-14 years or following 3 doses in women aged 15-25 years, for up to 3 years (HPV-070 study) and up to 5 years (HPV-048 study) after the first vaccination. Both schedules elicited antibodies against HPV-31 and HPV-45 up to 5 years after first dose. The antibody concentration was similar in young girls as compared to women. Specific CD4+ T-cell and B-cell responses to HPV-31 and HPV-45 at month 36 were similar across groups. Clinical trials registration: NCT01381575 and NCT00541970.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy743DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6500548PMC
May 2019

Safety and Immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted Vaccine in 4-6-year-old Girls: Results to Month 12 From a Randomized Trial.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 04;37(4):e93-e102

Background: The burden of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is high in Latin America. The suboptimal HPV vaccination coverage in adolescents could be improved by pediatric immunization. HPV vaccination has not yet been reported in girls <9 years of age.

Methods: This ongoing phase III, controlled, randomized, single-blind, multicenter study conducted in Colombia, Mexico and Panama (NCT01627561) evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine in 4-6-year-old girls. Healthy girls (randomized 1:1) received either 2 doses of AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine (HPV group, N=74) or 1 dose of each measles-mumps-rubella and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis vaccines (control group, N=74) 6 months apart. We report the safety and serum anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) up to 6 months postvaccination, that is, month (M) 12.

Results: Injection site pain was the most frequently reported solicited local symptom in HPV vaccinees. The incidence of other solicited and unsolicited symptoms after each vaccination was similar between the HPV and control group. Until M12, 1 girl in the HPV group and 2 in the control group reported serious adverse events; all serious adverse events were assessed as unrelated to study vaccines. No potential immune-mediated diseases were identified. All girls seroconverted for both antigens after 2 doses of AS04-HPV-16/18. In initially seronegative girls, anti-HPV-16 geometric mean concentrations were 20080.0 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units (EU)/mL at M7 and 3246.5 EU/mL at M12; anti-HPV-18 geometric mean concentrations were 10621.8 EU/mL at M7 and 1216.6 EU/mL at M12.

Conclusions: Two-dose vaccination with AS04-HPV-16/18 was well tolerated and induced adequate antibody responses in 4-6-year-old girls.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000001871DOI Listing
April 2018

Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and 4vHPV vaccine administered according to two- or three-dose schedules in girls aged 9-14 years: Results to month 36 from a randomized trial.

Vaccine 2018 01 23;36(1):98-106. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

This observer-blind study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01462357) compared the immunogenicity and safety of two doses (2D) of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (2D of AS04-HPV-16/18) vs. two or three doses of the 4vHPV vaccine [2D or 3D of 4vHPV] in 1075 healthy girls aged 9-14 years. Girls were randomized (1:1:1) to receive 2D of AS04-HPV-16/18 at months (M) 0, 6 (N = 359), 2D of 4vHPV at M0, 6 (N = 358) or 3D of 4vHPV at M0, 2, 6 (N = 358). 351, 339 and 346 girls, respectively, returned for the concluding visit at M36. Superiority was demonstrated at M7 and M12; comparison of the immune response to both vaccine antigens was made between 2D of AS04-HPV-16/18 and 2D or 3D of 4vHPV at subsequent time points in the according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort (ATP-I; N = 958 at M36) and the total vaccinated cohort (TVC: N = 1036 at M36). HPV-16/18-specific T-cell- and B-cell-mediated immune responses and safety were also investigated. At M36, anti-HPV-16/18 ELISA responses in the 2D AS04-HPV-16/18 group remained superior to those of the 2D and 3D 4vHPV groups. In the M36 TVC, geometric mean titers were 2.78-fold (HPV-16) and 6.84-fold (HPV-18) higher for 2D of AS04-HPV-16/18 vs. 2D of 4vHPV and 2.3-fold (HPV-16) and 4.14-fold (HPV-18) higher vs. 3D of 4vHPV. Results were confirmed by vaccine pseudovirion-based neutralisation assay. Numbers of circulating CD4 T cells and B cells appeared similar across groups. Safety was in line with the known safety profiles of both vaccines. In conclusion, superior HPV-16/18 antibody responses were elicited by 2D of the AS04-HPV-16/18 compared with 2D or 3D of the 4vHPV vaccine in girls aged 9-14 years.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT0146235.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.11.034DOI Listing
January 2018

Ten-year immune persistence and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in females vaccinated at 15-55 years of age.

Cancer Med 2017 Nov 5;6(11):2723-2731. Epub 2017 Oct 5.

GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

Women remain at risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection for most of their lives. The duration of protection against HPV-16/18 from prophylactic vaccination remains unknown. We investigated the 10-year immune response and long-term safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine) in females aged between 15 and 55 years at first vaccination. Females who received primary vaccination with three doses of AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine in the primary phase-III study (NCT00196937) were invited to attend annual evaluations for long-term immunogenicity and safety. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies in serum and cervico-vaginal secretions (CVS) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded throughout the follow-up period. Seropositivity rates for anti-HPV-16 remained high (≥96.3%) in all age groups 10 years after first vaccination. It was found that 99.2% of 15-25-year olds remained seropositive for anti-HPV-18 compared to 93.7% and 83.8% of 26-45-year olds and 45-55-year olds, respectively. Geometric mean titers (GMT) remained above natural infection levels in all age groups. Anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 titers were at least 5.3-fold and 3.1-fold higher than titers observed after natural infection, respectively, and were predicted to persist above natural infection levels for ≥30 years in all age groups. At Year 10, anti-HPV-16/18 antibody titers in subjects aged 15-25 years remained above plateau levels observed in previous studies. Correlation coefficients for antibody titers in serum and CVS were 0.64 (anti-HPV-16) and 0.38 (anti-HPV-18). This study concluded that vaccinated females aged 15-55 years elicited sustained immunogenicity with an acceptable safety profile up to 10 years after primary vaccination, suggesting long-term protection against HPV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5673947PMC
November 2017

Ten-year follow-up of human papillomavirus vaccine efficacy against the most stringent cervical neoplasia end-point-registry-based follow-up of .

BMJ Open 2017 Aug 18;7(8):e015867. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: Due to long lag time between infection/cancer diagnoses human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs will deliver vaccine efficacy (VE) estimates against cancer end-points late. Cancer registry follow-up of population-based, randomised trial cohorts of vaccinated and unvaccinated women was undertaken for the estimation of VE against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade three and invasive cancer (CIN3+).

Methods: We report interim results with 98 561 person years of Finnish Cancer Registry -based follow-up of individually and/or cluster randomised cohorts of HPV-16/18 vaccinated and unvaccinated adolescent women enrolled in June 2003/2005, and between May 2004 and April 2005, respectively. The cohorts comprised 15 627 18- to 19-year-old unvaccinated women (NCT01393470), and 2 401 and 64 16- to 17-year-old HPV-16/18 vaccinated women participating the PATRICIA (NCT00122681) and HPV-012 (NCT00169494) trials, respectively. The age-aligned passive follow-up started 6 months after the clinical trials' end.

Results: During the follow-up of 4.5 to 10 years post enrolment we identified 75 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and 4 cases of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in the unvaccinated cohort, and 4 CIN3 cases in the HPV-16/18 vaccinated women. Diagnostic blocks were available for HPV typing from 87% of the cases. CIN3+ lesions were detectable in 54 cases. HPV16 was found in 26 of 50 unvaccinated CIN3+ cases, and in 3 CIN3+ cases in the HPV-16/18 vaccinated women. The latter were all baseline positive for cervical HPV16 DNA. Baseline data was not available for the unvaccinated women. Intention-to-treat VE against any CIN3+ was 66% (95% CI 8, 88).

Conclusions: Ten years post vaccination the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine shows continued efficacy against CIN3+ irrespectively of HPV type. Vaccine efficacy was not observed in baseline HPV16 DNA positive subjects.

Trial Registration Number: NCT01393470.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-015867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5629648PMC
August 2017

Sustained Immunogenicity of 2-dose Human Papillomavirus 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted Vaccine Schedules in Girls Aged 9-14 Years: A Randomized Trial.

J Infect Dis 2017 06;215(11):1711-1719

GSK.

Background: We previously reported the noninferiority 1 month after the last dose of 2-dose human papillomavirus 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted (AS04-HPV-16/18) vaccine schedules at months 0 and 6 (2D_M0,6) and months 0 and 12 (2D_M0,12) in girls aged 9-14 years compared with a 3-dose schedule at months 0, 1, and 6 (3D_M0,1,6) in women aged 15-25 years. Here, we report the results at study end (month 36 [M36]).

Methods: Girls were randomized 1:1 and received 2 vaccine doses either 6 months (2D_M0,6) or 12 months apart (2D_M0,12); women received 3 doses at months 0, 1, and 6 (3D_M0,1,6). Endpoints included noninferiority of HPV-16/18 antibodies for 2D_M0,6 versus 3D_M0,1,6; 2D_M0,12 versus 3D_M0,1,6; and 2D_M0,12 versus 2D_M0,6; and assessment of neutralizing antibodies, T cells, B cells, and safety.

Results: At M36, the 2D_M0,6 and 2D_M0,12 schedules remained noninferior to the 3D_M0,1,6 schedule in terms of seroconversion rates and 3D/2D geometric mean titers for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18. All schedules elicited sustained immune responses up to M36.

Conclusions: Both 2-dose schedules in young girls remained noninferior to the 3-dose schedule in women up to study conclusion at M36. The AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine administered as a 2-dose schedule was immunogenic and well tolerated in young girls.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jix154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5853959PMC
June 2017

Evaluation of Type Replacement Following HPV16/18 Vaccination: Pooled Analysis of Two Randomized Trials.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2017 01 28;109(7). Epub 2017 Jan 28.

Affiliations of authors: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (JET, ARK, MS, AH); GSK Vaccines, Wavre, Belgium (FS, DB); National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland (MM); Proyecto Epidemiológico Guanacaste, Fundación INCIENSA, San José, Costa Rica (PG); Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO)-IDIBELL, CIBER-ESP, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain (XC); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Federal University of Paraná, Infectious Diseases in Gynecology and Obstetrics Sector/Clinics Hospital, Curitiba, Brazil (NSdC); Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Women's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia (SMG); Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia (SMG); Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Parkville, Australia (SMG); Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH (DMH); GSK Vaccines, Bangalore, India (NK); Berner Heerweg 157, Hamburg, Germany (KP); Department of Gynaecology, University Hospital KU Leuven Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium (WAJP); Proyecto Epidemiológico Guanacaste, Fundación INCIENSA, San José, Costa Rica (CP, ACR, RH); DDL Diagnostic Laboratory, Rijswijk, the Netherlands (WQ); Information Management Systems, Rockville, MD (JS); Vaccines Trials Group, Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Perth, WA, and Sydney University Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Children's Hospital Westmead, Sydney, NSW, Australia (SRS); Department of Gynecology, Oncology Division-CAISM, State University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil (JCT); University of Tampere, School of Public Health, Tampere, Finland (ML).

Background: Current HPV vaccines do not protect against all oncogenic HPV types. Following vaccination, type replacement may occur, especially if different HPV types competitively interact during natural infection. Because of their common route of transmission, it is difficult to assess type interactions in observational studies. Our aim was to evaluate type replacement in the setting of HPV vaccine randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Methods: Data were pooled from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT; NCT00128661) and PATRICIA trial (NCT001226810)-two large-scale, double-blind RCTs of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine-to compare cumulative incidence of nonprotected HPV infections across trial arms after four years. Negative rate difference estimates (rate in control minus vaccine arm) were interpreted as evidence of replacement if the associated 95% confidence interval excluded zero. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: After applying relevant exclusion criteria, 21 596 women were included in our analysis (HPV arm = 10 750; control arm = 10 846). Incidence rates (per 1000 infection-years) were lower in the HPV arm than in the control arm for grouped nonprotected oncogenic types (rate difference = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9 to 2.3) and oncogenic/nononcogenic types (rate difference = 0.2, 95% CI = -0.3 to 0.7). Focusing on individual HPV types separately, no deleterious effect was observed. In contrast, a statistically significant protective effect (positive rate difference and 95% CI excluded zero) was observed against oncogenic HPV types 35, 52, 58, and 68/73, as well as nononcogenic types 6 and 70.

Conclusion: HPV type replacement does not occur among vaccinated individuals within four years and is unlikely to occur in vaccinated populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djw300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5967353PMC
January 2017

The safety of Cervarix? - Authors' reply.

Lancet Infect Dis 2017 01;17(1):20-21

GSK Vaccines, Wavre, Belgium.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30540-0DOI Listing
January 2017

Efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in Chinese women aged 18-25 years: event-triggered analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

Cancer Med 2017 01 20;6(1):12-25. Epub 2016 Dec 20.

GSK Vaccines, Wavre, Belgium.

We previously reported the results of a phase II/III, double-blind, randomized controlled study in Chinese women (NCT00779766) showing a 94.2% (95% confidence interval: 62.7-99.9) HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine efficacy (VE) against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher (CIN1+) and/or 6-month (M) persistent infection (PI) with a mean follow-up of <2 years, and immunogenicity until 7 months post-dose 1. Here, we report efficacy and safety results from an event-triggered analysis with ~3 years longer follow-up, and immunogenicity until M24. Healthy 18-25-year-old women (N = 6051) were randomized (1:1) to receive three doses of HPV-16/18 vaccine or Al(OH) (control) at M0, 1, 6. VE against HPV-16/18-associated CIN2+, and cross-protective VE against infections with nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types, immunogenicity, and safety were assessed. In the according-to-protocol efficacy cohort, in initially seronegative/DNA-negative women (vaccine group: N = 2524; control group: N = 2535), VE against HPV-16/18-associated CIN2+ was 87.3% (5.3-99.7); VE against incident infection or against 6-month persistent infection associated with HPV-31/33/45 was 50.1% (34.3-62.3) or 52.6% (24.5-70.9), respectively. At least, 99.6% of HPV-16/18-vaccines remained seropositive for anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies; anti-HPV-16 and -18 geometric mean titers were 1271.1 EU/mL (1135.8-1422.6) and 710.0 EU/ml (628.6-801.9), respectively. Serious adverse events were infrequent (1.7% vaccine group [N = 3026]; 2.5% control group [N = 3026]). Of the 1595 reported pregnancies, nine had congenital anomalies (five live infants, three elective terminations, one stillbirth) that were unlikely vaccination-related (blinded data). VE against HPV-16/18-associated CIN2+ was demonstrated and evidence of cross-protective VE against oncogenic HPV types was shown. The vaccine was immunogenic and had an acceptable safety profile.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5269697PMC
January 2017

Safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in adolescents aged 12-15 years: Interim analysis of a large community-randomized controlled trial.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2016 12;12(12):3177-3185

e GSK Vaccines , King of Prussia , PA , USA.

This community-randomized controlled trial was initiated to assess the overall and herd effects of 2 different human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization strategies in over 80,000 girls and boys aged 12-15 y in 33 communities in Finland (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00534638). Overall, 14,838 adolescents received HPV-16/18 vaccine (2,440 boys and 12,398 girls) and 17,338 received hepatitis-B virus (HBV) vaccine (9,221 boys and 8,117 girls). In an interim analysis, vaccine safety was assessed by active monitoring and surveillance via health registry linkage. Active monitoring showed that the HPV-16/18 vaccine has acceptable safety and reactogenicity in boys. In all study participants, the observed incidences (per 100,000 person-years) of serious adverse events (SAEs) possibly related to vaccination were 54.3 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 34.0-82.1) in the HPV-16/18 group and 64.0 (95% CI: 43.2-91.3) in the HBV group. During the follow-up period for this interim analysis, the most common new-onset autoimmune diseases (NOADs; with incidence rate ≥15 per 100,000) in any group based on hospital discharge registry (HILMO) download were ulcerative colitis, juvenile arthritis, celiac disease, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and Crohn's disease. No increased NOAD incidences were observed in HPV-16/18 vaccine recipients compared to HBV vaccine recipients. In both the SAE possibly related- and HILMO-analyses, a lower incidence of IDDM was observed in HPV-16/18 vaccinees compared to HBV vaccinees (relative risks, 0.26 [95% CI: 0.03-1.24] and 0.16 [95% CI: 0.03-0.55], respectively).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2016.1183847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5215585PMC
December 2016

Prior human papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccination prevents recurrent high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia after definitive surgical therapy: Post-hoc analysis from a randomized controlled trial.

Int J Cancer 2016 Dec 9;139(12):2812-2826. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, PA, USA.

We evaluated the efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preventing HPV-related disease after surgery for cervical lesions in a post-hoc analysis of the PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults (PATRICIA; NCT00122681). Healthy women aged 15-25 years were randomized (1:1) to receive vaccine or control at months 0, 1 and 6 and followed for 4 years. Women were enrolled regardless of their baseline HPV DNA status, HPV-16/18 serostatus, or cytology, but excluded if they had previous or planned colposcopy. The primary and secondary endpoints of PATRICIA have been reported previously; the present post-hoc analysis evaluated efficacy in a subset of women who underwent an excisional procedure for cervical lesions after vaccination. The main outcome was the incidence of subsequent HPV-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater (CIN2+) 60 days or more post-surgery. Other outcomes included the incidence of HPV-related CIN1+, and vulvar or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN/VaIN) 60 days or more post-surgery. Of the total vaccinated cohort of 18,644 women (vaccine = 9,319; control = 9,325), 454 (vaccine = 190, control = 264) underwent an excisional procedure during the trial. Efficacy 60 days or more post-surgery for a first lesion, irrespective of HPV DNA results, was 88.2% (95% CI: 14.8, 99.7) against CIN2+ and 42.6% (-21.1, 74.1) against CIN1+. No VIN was reported and one woman in each group had VaIN2+ 60 days or more post-surgery. Women who undergo surgical therapy for cervical lesions after vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine may continue to benefit from vaccination, with a reduced risk of developing subsequent CIN2+.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.30391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5412942PMC
December 2016