Publications by authors named "Frank S Ciminello"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Laparoscopic-Assisted Relocation of the Umbilicus With Umbilicoplasty in Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction.

Am Surg 2021 Mar 20:31348211003068. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Plastic Surgery & Neurosurgery, 3139Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ, USA.

Patients with complex abdominal wall pathology often present with significant distortion of their umbilicus. Ventral and umbilical hernias often create widening or protrusion of the umbilicus, while obesity and laxity of the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the abdominal wall further exacerbates the deformity. The primary goal of hernia repair is always reduction of the hernia with a tension-free repair; however, an important secondary goal is esthetic improvement of the abdominal wall. Often, in patients with complex hernia defects involving the umbilicus, there is discussion of not salvaging the umbilicus altogether. Although this certainly remains an option for many patients, we present a technique that would not only allow for hernia reduction under direct laparoscopic visualization but also an improved esthetic to the umbilicus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00031348211003068DOI Listing
March 2021

Nodular Fasciitis-A Rare Cause of a Rapidly Growing Ear Lesion in a 19-Month-Old Child.

Eplasty 2020 19;20:ic13. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Craniofacial & Pediatric Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Plastic Surgery & Neurosurgery, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7656156PMC
October 2020

Rigid External Distractors in Midface Fractures: A Review of Relevant and Related Literature.

Eplasty 2020 19;20:e11. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ.

Introduction: Literature discussing the use of rigid external distraction devices in midfacial trauma is limited. Rigid external distraction devices have been described for use in craniofacial surgery, allowing for distraction and stabilization of bony segments. In complex facial trauma, bony fragments are often comminuted and unstable, making traditional approaches with internal fixation difficult. Moreover, these approaches require subperiosteal dissection, limiting blood supply that is important for bone healing.

Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of rigid external distraction devices for the treatment of complex facial trauma.

Methods: We performed a literature review of rigid external distraction devices, as relevant both for facial trauma and for other craniofacial indications, to better elucidate their use and efficacy in complex facial fractures.

Results: The review revealed only 2 articles explicitly describing rigid external distraction devices for facial trauma, while 6 other articles describing its use for other craniofacial cases. An important benefit associated with the use of rigid external distraction devices is their ability to provide controlled traction of bony segments while also allowing for movement as needed for fracture reduction. Various articles describe performing internal fixation following rigid external distraction device usage, while others emphasize that internal fixation is not necessarily indicated if the rigid external distraction device is left intact long enough to ensure bony healing. One potential setback described is unfamiliarity with using the rigid external distraction device, which can preclude its use by many surgeons. In addition, the literature review did not provide any uniform guidelines or recommendations about how long rigid external distraction devices should remain intact.

Conclusion: Based on relevant literature, rigid external distraction devices have been shown to be useful in the stabilization and treatment of complex facial fractures. Further studies should be conducted to better elucidate the specific indications for rigid external distraction devices in complex facial trauma.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7656155PMC
October 2020

Treatment of Osteomyelitic Bone Following Cranial Vault Reconstruction With Delayed Reimplantation of Sterilized Autologous Bone: A Novel Technique for Cranial Reconstruction in the Pediatric Patient.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jan-Feb 01;32(1):338-340

Department of Plastic Surgery, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack.

Abstract: Craniosynostosis, a deformity of the skull caused by premature fusion of ≥1 cranial sutures, is treated surgically via endoscopic approaches or cranial vault remodeling. Postoperative infection is rare. Management of postoperative surgical site infections often involves culture-directed intravenous antibiotics and debridement, with removal of osteomyelitic bone and hardware in refractory cases. Removal of autologous bone in a pediatric patient presents a reconstructive challenge, as alloplastic options are not optimal in a growing child, especially in the setting of infection. Moreover, infants and small children have limited autologous bone options for reconstruction. We present our case of a young child who developed an infectious complication following cranial vault remodeling. The patient's demographic information, clinical presentation and postoperative course, radiologic features, surgical interventions, and treatment outcomes were reviewed. In our case, autologous osteomyelitic bone underwent tissue processing to eradicate the infection and complete skull reconstruction using the patient's own processed autologous bone was performed in a delayed fashion. The patient is now 1 year postoperative with no recurrence of infection. We present this case as a novel technique to eradicate infection in autologous bone, allowing for delayed autologous cranial reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007091DOI Listing
September 2020

Effect of Weekly Specialized Surgeon-led Bedside Wound Care Teams on Pressure Ulcer Time-to-heal Outcomes: Results From a National Dataset of Long-term Care Facilities.

Wounds 2019 Oct 31;31(10):257-261. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Advantage Wound Care, El Segundo, CA.

Introduction: Delayed healing of pressure ulcers (PUs) in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) is associated with increased morbidity and expense.

Objective: The authors hypothesize that guideline-based, weekly coordinated care using specialized wound care surgeon-led bedside teams (SLBTs) may improve PU time-to-heal (TTH) outcomes when compared with usual care (UC).

Materials And Methods: Using a deidentified United States nationwide database, the authors retrospectively compared TTH outcomes of PUs diagnosed in LTCFs treated by either weekly SLBTs or UC. The SLBTs included an external specialized wound care surgeon (with or without a physician assistant and nurse practitioner) collaborating with facility nurses. Usual care was defined as all patient encounters not known to incorporate this team process. Variables assessed included patient age, gender, and comorbidities. The primary outcome measure was TTH; the TTH outcomes then were compared graphically and statistically between groups. Statistical significance was double-sided P ⟨ .05.

Results: In 2014, there were 39 459 consecutive PUs treated by UC and 5985 by SLBTs. The 5985 SLBT wounds originated from 3435 patients in 10 states and all geographic regions (mean age, 76.6 years; 55.9% female; 42.8% with hypertension; 23.7% with diabetes). The mean TTH for wounds managed by SLBTs was 47.5 days (median, 21 days) versus 69.0 days (median, 28 days) for wounds managed by UC, corresponding to an absolute TTH decrease of 21.5 days in wounds managed by SLBTs versus UC. Wounds managed by SLBTs also were significantly more likely to heal in less than 28 days (P ⟨ .0001).

Conclusions: Pressure ulcers managed by coordinated nursing and weekly SLBTs appear to heal significantly faster than wounds managed by UC. Further studies are required to confirm these hypothesis-generating results.
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October 2019

Nasal Dorsal Augmentation with Freeze-Dried Allograft Bone: 10-Year Comprehensive Review.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2019 Jan;143(1):49e-61e

From private practice; Sutter Hospital; Plastic Surgery Center; the University of California, Davis Medical Center; the Division of Plastic Surgery, University of California Medical Center.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-dried cortical allograft bone for nasal dorsal augmentation. The 42-month report on 18 patients was published in 2009 in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery with 89 percent success at level II evidence, and this article is the 10-year comprehensive review of 62 patients.

Methods: All grafts met standards recommended by the American Association of Tissue Banks, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Objective evaluation of the persistence of graft volume was obtained by cephalometric radiography, cone beam volumetric computed tomography, and computed tomography at up to 10 years. Vascularization and incorporation of new bone elements within the grafts were demonstrated by fluorine-18 sodium fluoride positron emission tomography at up to 10 years. Subjective estimation of graft volume persisting up to 10 years was obtained by patient response to a query conducted by an independent surveyor.

Results: The authors report objective proof of persistence of volume alone or combined with proof of neovascularization in 16 of 19 allografts. The authors report the patient's subjective opinion of volume persistence in 37 of 43 grafts. The dorsal augmentation was assessed overall to be successful in 85 percent of 62 patients evaluated between 1 and 10 years, with a mean of 4.7 years.

Conclusions: Freeze-dried allograft bone is a safe and equal alternative for dorsal augmentation without donor-site morbidity. Further studies are needed to (1) confirm these findings for young patients needing long-term reconstruction, and (2) partially demineralize allograft bone to allow carving with a scalpel.

Clinical Question/level Of Evidence: Therapeutic, IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000005166DOI Listing
January 2019

A Single-Center Review of Facial Fractures as the Result of High-Speed Projectile Injuries.

Eplasty 2018 9;18:e16. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers Biomedical Health Sciences, Newark.

Gunshot injuries to the face that result in fractures of the underlying skeleton present a challenge in management. The goal of this study was to evaluate patterns of facial fractures as a result of gunshot injuries and strategies for management. A retrospective review of facial fractures resulting from gunshot injuries in a level 1 trauma center was performed for the years 2000 to 2012. Data were collected for patient demographics, fracture distribution, concomitant injuries, and surgical management strategies. A total of 190 patients sustained facial fractures from a gunshot injury. The average age was 29.9 years, and 90% were male. Sixteen injuries were self-inflicted. The most common fractures were of the mandible and the orbit. Uncontrolled hemorrhage was noted on presentation in 68 patients; 100 patients were intubated on arrival. The average Glasgow Coma Scale score on arrival was 11.9. Concomitant injuries included skull fracture, intracranial hemorrhage, and intrathoracic injury. Surgical management was required in 89 patients. Nine patients required soft-tissue coverage. Thirty patients expired. Gunshot injuries to the face resulting in fractures of the underlying skeleton have high instances of morbidity and mortality. Life-threatening concomitant injuries can complicate management of facial fractures in this population.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5896170PMC
April 2018

Intracranial Migration of Hardware 16 Years Following Craniosynostosis Repair.

Eplasty 2018 15;18:e2. Epub 2018 Jan 15.

Craniofacial and Pediatric Plastic Surgery, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ.

The techniques used to fixate osteotomized segments of bone have evolved alongside the treatment of craniosynostosis. The use of nonresorbable metal plates and screws offered a method of rigidly stabilizing repositioned segments of bone. Several reports specify the tendency for these fixation systems to "migrate" transcranially. We present a unique case of a patient who initially underwent treatment of multisuture craniosynostosis utilizing titanium miniplates at 6 months of age. At 16 years of age, the patient was returned to the operating room with complaints of pain and contour irregularities, and intracranial migration of the screws and plates was observed. The hardware was extracted and the cranium reconstructed. Symptoms resolved and bony contour was improved. The craniofacial surgeon considering metal plate fixation in the pediatric population should be aware of the possibility for transcranial plate and screw migration.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5773937PMC
January 2018

A Single-Center Review of Palatal Fractures: Etiology, Patterns, Concomitant Injuries, and Management.

Eplasty 2017 14;17:e20. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Rutgers Biomedical Health Sciences, New Jersey Medical School, Newark.

Palatal fractures are frequently associated with facial trauma and Le Fort fractures. The complex anatomy of the midfacial skeleton makes diagnosing and treating these injuries a challenge. The goal of this study was to report our experience with the presentation, concomitant injuries, and management of palatal fractures at a level I trauma center in an urban environment. Data were collected for all palatal fractures diagnosed between January 2000 and December 2012 at the University Hospital in Newark, NJ. Data on patient demographics, Glasgow Coma Scale score on presentation, concomitant facial fractures, extrafacial injuries, and management strategies were collected from these records. Of the 3147 facial fractures treated at our institution during this time period, 61 were associated with a palatal fracture following blunt trauma. There was a strong male predominance (87%) and a mean age of 35.6 years in this subset of patients. The most common causes of injury were assault and motor vehicle accident. The most common fracture patterns were alveolar, parasagittal, and para-alveolar, whereas sagittal and transverse fractures were rare. The most frequently encountered facial and extrafacial injuries were orbital fractures and intracranial hemorrhage, respectively. There was a significant association between type II sagittal fractures and traumatic brain injury ( < .05). Our study examines a single center's experience with palatal fractures in terms of presentation, concomitant injuries, and management strategies. Palatal fractures are most often associated with high-energy mechanisms, and the severity of injury appears to correlate with the type of palatal fracture.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5475306PMC
June 2017

Craniosynostosis in a 22-month-old.

Eplasty 2013 25;13:ic21. Epub 2013 Jan 25.

Division of Plastic Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry, Newark, NJ.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3558847PMC
February 2013

Pain control following breast augmentation: a qualitative systematic review.

Aesthet Surg J 2012 Nov 22;32(8):964-72. Epub 2012 Aug 22.

Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, New Jersey Medical School-UMDNJ, Newark, 07103, USA.

Breast augmentation is among the most popular plastic surgery procedures in the United States. Postoperative pain management following breast surgery has traditionally involved intravenous and oral narcotics. However, pain control is not always adequately achieved through these means and may cause unwanted side effects, including headache, nausea, vomiting, constipation, altered mental status, sleep disturbance, and respiratory depression. Alternative forms of pain control have been used successfully in other surgical fields but have been utilized only recently in breast surgery. In this article, the authors systematically review the existing database of high-quality studies involving pain control following cosmetic breast augmentation to determine the best options currently available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1090820X12457014DOI Listing
November 2012

Platysma-based myocutaneous clavicular island flap for intraoral reconstruction.

Ann Plast Surg 2011 Dec;67(6):S55-69

Division of Plastic Surgery, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

The clavicular myocutaneous island flap, with circulation provided by the platysma and superficial cervical fascia, was first performed by Paul Tessier in 1970, taking his motivation from the prior experience of John Barron with subcutaneous island flaps. A manuscript written by Dr. Tessier on his experience of 120 cases using the flap (which we will refer to as the BT, or Barron-Tessier flap) has been translated and is presented, as well the experiences of Matthews and Wolfe, who learned the procedure from Dr. Tessier, and Kamerer, an ENT/Head and Neck surgeon who learned the procedure from Matthews. In aggregate, we will present our joint experience with 443 cases of the BT flap. Because of its ease and speed of harvest, reliability, and provision of thin, pliable skin, we feel that, in many instances, it is equivalent, or even superior to microsurgical free flap for reconstruction of intraoral lining defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0b013e3182183652DOI Listing
December 2011

Analysis of comprehensibility of patient information regarding complex craniofacial conditions.

J Craniofac Surg 2011 Jul;22(4):1179-82

Purpose: Health care consumers are increasingly turning to the Internet for information regarding medical and surgical procedures. When an elective procedure is under consideration, the Internet is often the first resource used by a patient. Caregivers of craniofacial patients are typically overwhelmed during the surgical planning process. A firm understanding of craniofacial condition and the associated procedures is crucial to obtain satisfactory outcomes. Furthermore, health care providers are increasingly referring their patients to on-line sources of patient education material. Currently, the National Institutes of Health suggests the information be at the fourth- to sixth-grade reading level to maximize comprehension. Much of the information available regarding health care targeted at patients is written at a 10th-grade reading level or higher. The purpose of this study was to evaluate readily available on-line patient education information for readability; being aware of this information will aid craniofacial surgeons in appropriately educating their patients.

Methods: Texts were extracted from commonly used craniofacial educational Web sites regarding reconstructive procedures. Three objective and accepted methods (SMOG, Flesch-Kincaid, and Dale-Chall) were used to assess readability of each condition and its corresponding procedure's text.

Results: The results from all 3 of the methods used were higher than the recommended seventh-grade reading level. The mean reading level for eMedicine was 13.8, 15.2, and 15 for the Flesch-Kincaid, SMOG, and Dale-Chall methods, respectively. Likewise, the mean reading levels for FACES were 7.5, 10.7, and 8.3; and for World Craniofacial Foundation, the levels were 11.9, 13.8, and 13.

Conclusions: Patient education and understanding is a critical factor in planning for surgery; this is especially true of reconstructive craniofacial procedures. Craniofacial surgery is a diverse field, and its surgeons have correspondingly diverse practices. It is up to each individual surgeon to determine what is appropriate for his or her patients. Our results show that on-line educational material is at a level that is substantially higher than the national reading average. The ultimate impact of this fact will vary from practice to practice, but all surgeons should be aware of the possible conflicts between information distributed and the patient's ability to comprehend that information. This may assist surgeons in preoperative evaluations by discussing conditions with more level appropriate means.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0b013e31821c00e4DOI Listing
July 2011

Tongue suture placement after cleft palate repair.

J Craniofac Surg 2010 Sep;21(5):1601-3

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California, Davis, Medical Center, Sacramento, California 95817, USA.

Objective: Postoperative airway obstruction is a complication of cleft palate repair. A technique to control the airway is to place a suture through the tongue at the conclusion of the palate repair, but it is not uniformly adopted by surgeons. Although it has been frequently performed, the use and effectiveness of the tongue suture have not been studied. Our purpose was to determine the usefulness of tongue suture placement.

Design: We surveyed health care providers as to their frequency of use and the value of the tongue suture in postoperative airway management of the cleft palate patient. The survey was sent via e-mail to 2080 members of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association, with a total of 396 responders.

Results: Surgeons were nearly equally split on placing a tongue suture, with 41.1% responders reporting that they use a tongue suture all of the time and 41.1% of responders reporting that they never used a tongue suture. Some criterion used for placement was the complexity of the case, syndromic patients, and overseas cleft missions.

Conclusions: Many cleft palate repairs are done annually without using tongue sutures, but it does not seem to affect the outcomes among surgeons, thus confounding the question of effectiveness. At this time, tongue suture placement after cleft palate repair is variable and subjective. Further studies need to be performed to assess outcomes after placing a tongue suture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0b013e3181ebccb1DOI Listing
September 2010

The effect of anchoring sutures on medicinal leech mortality.

Eplasty 2009 Jul 21;9:e29. Epub 2009 Jul 21.

New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, USA.

Objective: The implementation of leech therapy for surgical flaps is not always logistically easy or comfortable for patients or healthcare providers. We examine different methods of placing sutures in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, to make the implementation of leech therapy easier.

Methods: Sixteen leeches were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group, a deep anchoring suture group, and a superficial anchoring suture group. The leeches were observed to determine if either of these methods had an adverse effect on survival compared with the control group.

Results: No difference in survival time was observed across the different groups.

Conclusion: The placement of anchoring sutures in leeches can ease the implementation of leech therapy by allowing for greater control of the leeches and thus increased patient comfort.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2714198PMC
July 2009

The Arrhinias.

Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg 2009 ;43(4):177-96

The Arrhinias consist of three groups of malformations: the Total Arrhinias (T-AR), the Hemi-Arrhinias (H-AR, often called Hemi-Nasal Ageneses) and the Proboscis Lateralis (P.L.) This work deals with 51 cases of Arrhinias gathered within 35 years (8 T-AR, 25 H-AR, and 18 P.L): their anatomy, clinical signs, and some indications for treatment; but it does not extend to a discussion for their etiopathology. However, the T-AR and the H-AR represent ageneses, whereas the P.L represents a dysgenesis. The anomalies common to the three groups of Arrhinias are many: the agenesis of the nasal bones, the telecanthus which is often in contrast to the hypo-telorbitism, the obstruction of the naso-lacrimal passage, the ectasia of the lacrimal sac with an erosion of the inferomedial angle of the orbit, the hypopneumatization of the maxillary sinus and a small maxilla, the unerrupted canines, the flattened fronto-nasal process, the obliteration of the cribriform plate, the dysplasia in the root of the eyebrows, the transverse hypoplasia of the upper lip, the frequency of microphthalmia, colobomas of the iris and nystagmus. Cleft lip and palate are frequently associated with the Arrhinias (see Table I) and also other facial malformations, but in different proportions, according to groups. They are: cryptophtalmias, eyelid coloboma, fronto-orbital encephalocele, agenesis of the premaxilla or prolabium, microtia. (See Table II) The basic principles of the treatment are the following: In the T-AR, a nasal passage should initially be bored through the maxilla, or there should be a displacement of the two halves of the mid-face by a procedure known as "facial bipartition". This nasal passage should be epithelialized and maintained wide open to the pharynx until the nasal construction. In the H-AR, it is sufficient to create an epithelialized passage through the curtain of bone where one would expect the pyriform rim to be and carry this passage through the septum into the contralateral nasal airway. Then, regardless of the type of arrhinia, the nasal construction is carried out with a forehead flap and bone grafts. The first grafts are either iliac or tibial, and subsequent ones are generally outer table calvarial grafts harvested from the parietal region. Later, there are further procedures: a maxillary advancement, a lengthening of the central midface, the final stages of the nasal construction, the elevation of the medial canthus, and the restoration of the infero-medial angle of the orbit (but rarely an efficient lacrimal drainage). The earliest stage for surgery can be debated. A strategy for treatment is suggested. Finally, 20 brief comments are made, which are as much questions asked concerning the three groups of arrhinia and their relationship with other centro-facial and latero-facial malformations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02844310802517259DOI Listing
October 2009

Cleft lip and palate: review.

Compr Ther 2009 ;35(1):37-43

Division of Plastic Surgery, Miami Children's Hospital, Miami, FL, USA.

The most common craniofacial malformation in the newborn is the orofacial cleft, consisting of cleft lip with or without cleft palate and isolated cleft palate. Given its prevalence it is important to understand the etiology of the deformity, medical management prior to surgical correction, surgical techniques and timing.
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April 2009

Craniofacial distractor applicator.

J Craniofac Surg 2009 Mar;20(2):475-7

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

Craniofacial distraction can be planned using cephalograms, computed tomography, medical models, and other forms of anatomic data. However, it is often difficult to translate this plan to the patient. Specifically, it is difficult to obtain true parallel placement of bilateral midface and mandibular distractors. Intraoperative translation of preoperatively determined vectors is also troublesome. One method of application uses computed tomography data with radiofrequency triangulation technology in a specially equipped room. This helps with the issue of placement on the patient but does not establish parallelism. We have developed a simple-to-use craniofacial application stabilization device that allows equal placement of bilateral distractors and measurement of distraction vectors. The applicator measures 20 cm in length in its open configuration. The terminal portion of the device has a coupler that holds the distractor during placement. The device is hinged in 3 points so that it can be easily folded into a compact and autoclavable device (7 x 3 cm). The hinges allow equal placement of bilateral distractors. Each hinge can be calibrated to determine the vector of distraction and confirm equal application. Lastly, the stabilizer can be fixed to nasion with a Steinmann pin for reference, allowing intraoperative translation of distraction vectors. We demonstrated on skull models that the craniofacial distractor applicator can accurately allow parallel intraoperative placement of craniofacial distractors. We demonstrated simultaneous placement of the distractors allowing a more precise determination of end points.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0b013e31819b9939DOI Listing
March 2009

Distraction osteogenesis of the cleft maxilla.

Facial Plast Surg 2008 Nov 25;24(4):467-71. Epub 2008 Nov 25.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, USA.

Distraction osteogenesis is a method of enhancing bony deficiencies of the hypoplastic cleft maxilla. Whether it is the result of inherited growth deficiency or of iatrogenic causes from operative intervention, 20 to 25% of cleft maxilla patients require maxillary advancement. Traditionally, this has been done by standard orthognathic surgery at varying LeFort levels. Predictable results have been achieved with standard techniques in minor to moderate maxillary hypoplasia; however, limited advancement and relapse is common in severe cases. Distraction osteogenesis has improved results in these patients by allowing soft tissue relaxation and gradual bone generation. Therefore, greater movement of the craniofacial skeleton is possible in severe cases of maxillary retrusion with lower relapse rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1102910DOI Listing
November 2008