Publications by authors named "Frank M Andrews"

30 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prospective Clinical Evaluation of Intra-Articular Injection of Tin-117m (Sn) Radiosynoviorthesis Agent for Management of Naturally Occurring Elbow Osteoarthritis in Dogs: A Pilot Study.

Vet Med (Auckl) 2021 4;12:117-128. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical effects of an intra-articular injection of Sn-colloid for management of canine grade 1 or 2 elbow osteoarthritis (OA).

Patients And Methods: This was a prospective study in 23 dogs with grade 1 or 2 elbow OA. An orthopedic examination and elbow radiographs were performed to confirm the presence of OA. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive unilateral intra-articular (IA) injection of low-dose (LD: 1.0mCi, n =8), medium-dose (MD: 1.75mCi, n =6), or high-dose (HD: 2.5mCi, n =9) of Sn-colloid. The primary outcome measure was peak vertical force (PVF) from force-plate gait analysis and secondary outcome measures included the Canine Brief Pain Inventory score (CBPI) and elbow goniometry. The CBPI was evaluated at pretreatment and then monthly post treatment for 1 year, and goniometry and PVF were evaluated at pretreatment, and at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post treatment.

Results: PVF improved at 3, and 9 months compared to pretreatment values in the HD group. CBPI scores improved at most of the time points in all dose groups. There was no significant difference in elbow goniometry between treated and untreated elbows. There were no self-reports of any adverse effects of the injection by the owners and none were noted by the examining veterinarian at the time of regularly scheduled re-evaluations.

Conclusion: Sn IA injection was free of any obvious adverse effects, improved CBPI scores, and increased weight bearing in limbs with elbow OA providing preliminary evidence that Sn may be beneficial in the management of elbow OA in dogs. Although Sn appeared to be effective for management of elbow OA in these dogs, this pilot study has inherent limitations; therefore, future studies with larger numbers and with placebo group are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VMRR.S295309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187093PMC
June 2021

The Effect of a Seaweed-Derived Calcium Supplement on Gastric Juice pH in the Horse.

J Equine Vet Sci 2020 12 29;95:103265. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Equine Health Studies Program, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA.

Low gastric pH for extended periods of time can increase the risk of gastric ulceration in horses. Therefore, nutritional interventions that buffer stomach acid may be helpful to decrease ulcer risk. The objective of this trial was to evaluate whether the incorporation of calcified Lithothamnion corallioides and Phymatolithon calcareum (Calmin; Celtic Sea Minerals, Cork, Ireland) into an equine ration would buffer equine gastric juice. Nine mature, Thoroughbred-cross horses, including 6 geldings and 3 mares (524 ± 49 kg) were housed in stalls and fed 2 kg/day of a texturized concentrate (Purina Omolene 100) and 1.5% BW grass hay/day. On testing days 0, 7, and 14, the horses received one of three pelleted dietary treatments (CON, MIN1 ×, MIN2 ×) in a randomized, crossover design. CON contained no added Calmin, MIN1 × provided Calmin at a 1 × concentration, and MIN2 × provided a 2 × dose. All horses underwent gastroscopy (Karl Storz, El Segundo, CA) prior to feeding the treatments, and at 2 and 4 hours postfeeding. Gastric juice was aspirated and pH measured using a benchtop pH meter (ThermoOrion pH Meter Model 410A). Overall, there was a significant time effect (P < .0001) with an increase in gastric juice pH from time 0 (2.31 ± 0.58) to 2 hours (5.52 ± 0.48) and 4 hours (3.59 ± 0.48). Gastric juice pH at 2 hours was higher (P = .0122) in MIN1 × (5.92 ± 0.58) and MIN2 × (5.92 ± 0.57) than CON (5.08 ± 0.58). These results demonstrate that adding Calmin to a meal increases buffering capacity at 2 hours postfeeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2020.103265DOI Listing
December 2020

Impact of concurrent treatment with omeprazole on phenylbutazone-induced equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS).

Equine Vet J 2021 Mar 18;53(2):356-363. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Equine Health Studies Program, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

Background: Phenylbutazone is commonly prescribed for treatment of various painful or inflammatory disorders in horses, but is associated with gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects. Anecdotally, many practitioners prescribe omeprazole concurrently with phenylbutazone to reduce development of equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS), but the efficacy and safety of this practice remains unknown.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of omeprazole on phenylbutazone-induced equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD) and equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD).

Study Design: Randomised block experimental design.

Methods: Twenty-two horses with EGGD and ESGD scores ≤2 were included. Horses were assigned to treatment groups: phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg PO q 12 h; PBZ), phenylbutazone plus omeprazole (4 mg/kg PO q. 24 h; PBZ/OME) or placebo (CON) in a randomised block design based upon initial EGGD score. Horses were treated for up to 14 days. Gastroscopy was performed weekly; CBC and biochemistry were performed at Day 0 and study end. Horses were monitored for signs of colic and/or diarrhoea.

Results: EGGD score increased in PBZ (median change 1, inter-quartile range, [IQR], 0-2) compared to PBZ/OME (median change 0, IQR -1 to 0; P = .05). PBZ/OME (6/8) had more intestinal complications than CON (0/6; difference between proportions = 75%; 95% CI, 23%-93%; P = .03). Plasma protein concentrations decreased in PBZ, compared to CON (mean difference between groups, 14 g/L; 95% CI, 1.04-27; P = .03). Five horses were withdrawn from the study due to intestinal complications (n = 3 PBZ/OME and n = 2 PBZ); one horse (PBZ) was withdrawn due to severe grade 4 EGGD.

Main Limitations: Small sample size and changes in management for the 2-3 days prior to study initiation; variable treatment duration among groups due to development of complications.

Conclusions: Administration of omeprazole ameliorated PBZ-induced EGGD, but was associated with an increase in intestinal complications. Caution should be exercised when co-prescribing NSAIDs and omeprazole in horses, particularly in association with change in management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evj.13323DOI Listing
March 2021

Equine glandular gastric disease: prevalence, impact and management strategies.

Vet Med (Auckl) 2019 16;10:69-76. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Equine Health Studies Program, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge LA, USA.

Equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD) is an increasingly recognized disease of the glandular mucosa of the equine stomach. Diagnosis is confirmed by gastric endoscopy and scored based upon one of several different endoscopic scoring systems. Prevalence appears to be variable, depending upon breed and discipline. Primary identified risk factors include exercise frequency, and stress; therefore, management strategies are focused on reducing exercise and stress. Limiting grain intake and increasing pasture turnout may also be helpful preventative measures. Pharmacologic treatment consists primarily of an approved omeprazole product with or without misoprostol or sucralfate. Further research into the pathophysiology of EGGD may allow for identification of other targeted treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VMRR.S174427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6642651PMC
July 2019

Advances in Diagnostics and Treatments in Horses and Foals with Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers.

Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2018 Apr;34(1):97-111

Equine Health Studies Program, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Skip Bertman Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA. Electronic address:

Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) primarily describes ulceration in the terminal esophagus, nonglandular squamous mucosa, glandular mucosa of the stomach, and proximal duodenum. EGUS is common in all breeds and ages of horses and foals. This article focuses on the current terminology for EGUS, etiologies and pathogenesis for lesions in the nonglandular and glandular stomach, diagnosis, and a comprehensive approach to the treatment and prevention of EGUS in adult horses and foals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cveq.2017.11.007DOI Listing
April 2018

Simultaneous quantification of free curcuminoids and their metabolites in equine plasma by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2018 May 7;154:31-39. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Bioactive Botanical Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, 7 Greenhouse Road, Kingston, RI, 02881, USA. Electronic address:

The human health benefits attributed to turmeric/curcumin spice has resulted in its wide utilization as a dietary supplement for companion pets and other animals including horses. While the quantification of free curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin) and their phase-2 metabolites (curcumin-O-sulfate, curcumin-O-glucuronide) have been extensively investigated in human and rodent biological samples (primarily plasma and serum), there is lack of similar data for horses. Herein, we report a validated LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of the aforementioned free curcuminoids and their metabolites in equine plasma. The linearity of the aforementioned curcuminoids and curcumin-O-sulfate was in the range of 0.5-1000 ng/mL and 1-1000 ng/mL for curcumin-O-glucuronide with 85-115% accuracy and <15% precision in equine plasma. The method was validated based on US FDA criteria and applied to characterize the pharmacokinetics of curcumin-O-sulfate in equine plasma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2018.03.014DOI Listing
May 2018

Therapeutics for Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome.

Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2017 Apr;33(1):141-162

Equine Health Studies Program, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Skip Bertman Drive, LA 70803, USA. Electronic address:

Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is an umbrella term used to describe ulcers in the nonglandular squamous and glandular mucosa, terminal esophagus, and proximal duodenum. Gastric ulcers in the squamous and glandular regions occur more often than esophageal or duodenal ulcers and likely have a different pathogenesis. At present, omeprazole is accepted globally as the best pharmacologic therapy for both regions of the stomach; however, the addition of coating agents and synthetic prostaglandins could add to its effectiveness in treatment of EGUS. Dietary and environmental management are necessary for prevention of recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cveq.2016.11.004DOI Listing
April 2017

A recombinant fusion protein consisting of West Nile virus envelope domain III fused in-frame with equine CD40 ligand induces antiviral immune responses in horses.

Vet Microbiol 2017 Jan 8;198:51-58. Epub 2016 Dec 8.

Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA. Electronic address:

West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in the US and causes severe neurologic disease in horses since its introduction in 1999. There is no effective pharmaceutical treatment for WNV infection rendering vaccination as the only approach to prevention and control of disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a recombinant vaccine containing domain III (DIII) of the WNV envelope glycoprotein with and without a natural adjuvant equine (CD40L) in producing virus neutralizing antibodies in horses. Serum IgG1 concentration in the groups of horses vaccinated with the DIII-CD40L+TiterMax and DIII-CD40L proteins were significantly increased (p<0.05) after the second booster vaccination compared to other groups. Serum IgG4 and IgG7, IgG3 and IgG5 concentrations were not significantly increased among all groups. Western blot results showed that animals immunized with the DIII-CD40L protein (with or without TiterMax) exhibited the highest specific anti-DIII antibody activities after vaccinations. Moreover, animals immunized with the DIII-CD40L protein (with or without TiterMax) exhibited significantly stronger neutralization activity (p<0.05) compared to other groups starting at week eight. The DIII-CD40L protein (with or without TiterMax) stimulated more CD8T cells, but not CD4T cells in equine PMBCs. The results demonstrated that vaccination with recombinant WNV E DIII-CD40L protein induced superior humoral and cellular immune response in healthy horses that may be protective against WNV-associated disease in infected animals. CD40L could be utilized as a non-toxic, alternative adjuvant to boost the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines in horses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.008DOI Listing
January 2017

Effect of pectin, lecithin, and antacid feed supplements (Egusin®) on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH and blood gas values in horses.

BMC Vet Res 2014 7;10 Suppl 1:S4. Epub 2014 Jul 7.

Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of two commercial feed supplements, Egusin 250® [E-250] and Egusin SLH® [E-SLH], on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH, and blood gas values in stall-confined horses undergoing feed-deprivation.

Methods: Nine Thoroughbred horses were used in a three-period crossover study. For the three treatment groups, sweet feed was mixed with E-250, E-SLH, or nothing (control group) and fed twice daily. Horses were treated for 21 days, then an additional 7 days while on an alternating feed-deprivation model to induce or worsen ulcers (period one). In periods two and three, horses (n=6) were treated for an additional 7 days after feed-deprivation. Gastroscopies were performed on day -1 (n=9), day 21 (n=9), day 28 (n=9) and day 35 (n=6). Gastric juice pH was measured and gastric ulcer scores were assigned. Venous blood gas values were also measured.

Results: Gastric ulcers in control horses significantly decreased after 21 days, but there was no difference in ulcer scores when compared to the Egusin® treated horses. NG gastric ulcer scores significantly increased in E-250 and control horses on day 28 compared to day 21 as a result of intermittent feed-deprivation, but no treatment effect was observed. NG ulcer scores remained high in the control group but significantly decreased in the E-SLH- and E-250-treated horses by day 35. Gastric juice pH values were low and variable and no treatment effect was observed. Mean blood pCO2 values were significantly increased two hours after feeding in treated horses compared to controls, whereas mean blood TCO2 values increased in the 24 hour sample, but did not exceed 38 mmol/l.

Conclusions: The feed-deprivation model increased NG gastric ulcer severity in the horses. However, by day 35, Egusin® treated horses had less severe NG gastric ulcers compared to untreated control horses. After 35 days, Egusin® products tested here ameliorate the severity of gastric ulcers in stall-confined horses after feed stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-10-S1-S4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4123152PMC
May 2015

Characterization of IgE-mediated cutaneous immediate and late-phase reactions in nonallergic horses.

Am J Vet Res 2014 Jul;75(7):633-41

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.

Objective: To characterize the response of skin of nonallergic horses following ID injection of polyclonal rabbit anti-canine IgE (anti-IgE) and rabbit IgG.

Animals: 6 healthy horses.

Procedures: Skin in the cervical area was injected ID with anti-IgE and IgG. Wheal measurements and skin biopsy specimens were obtained before and 20 minutes and 6, 24, and 48 hours after injection. Tissue sections were evaluated for inflammatory cells at 4 dermal depths. Immunohistochemical analysis for CD3, CD4, and CD8 was performed, and cell counts were evaluated.

Results: Anti-IgE wheals were significantly larger than IgG wheals at 20 minutes and 6 and 24 hours after injection. There were significantly more degranulated mast cells after anti-IgE injection than after IgG injection. There were significantly more eosinophils at 6, 24, and 48 hours and neutrophils at 6 hours after anti-IgE injection, compared with cell numbers at those same times after IgG injection. There were significantly more eosinophils in the deeper dermis of anti-IgE samples, compared with results for IgG samples. No significant differences between treatments were detected for CD3(+), CD4(+), or CD8(+) cells.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Injection of anti-IgE antibodies was associated with the development of gross and microscopic inflammation characterized by mast cell degranulation and accumulation of inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils and neutrophils. This pattern appeared to be similar to that of horses with naturally developing allergic skin disease, although lymphocytes were not increased; thus, ID injection of anti-IgE in horses may be of use for evaluating allergic skin diseases of horses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.75.7.633DOI Listing
July 2014

Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model.

J Vet Med 2014 12;2014:239495. Epub 2014 Nov 12.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.

Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), affecting 0.5-1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/239495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590861PMC
October 2015

Effects of top-dress formulations of suxibuzone and phenylbutazone on development of gastric ulcers in horses.

Vet Ther 2009 ;10(3):113-20

Equine Health Studies Program, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.

Eighteen mature, healthy horses were divided into three groups (six per group) receiving either no treatment, 15 consecutive days of phenylbutazone (PBZ), or 15 consecutive days of suxibuzone (SBZ) at recommended label doses. Horses underwent endoscopy before and after the treatment period and were assigned gastric ulcer scores. Gastric ulcer number and severity scores were similar across treatment groups. These findings suggest that when administered at the recommended label dose for 15 days, neither PBZ nor SBZ causes an increase in the number or severity of gastric ulcers over what would be expected with traditional stabling and intermittent feeding patterns. Also, PBZ-treated horses did not have more severe gastric ulcers than SBZ-treated horses, indicating that SBZ does not appear to offer an advantage over PBZ in preventing gastric ulcers when used at recommended label doses. However, ulcers in other regions of the gastrointestinal tract (e.g., right dorsal colon, duodenum) were not evaluated in horses in this study.
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January 2010

Age-dependent regulation of sodium-potassium adenosinetriphosphatase and sodium-hydrogen exchanger mRNAs in equine nonglandular mucosa.

Am J Vet Res 2009 Sep;70(9):1124-8

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

Objective: To determine whether expression of mRNA for sodium-potassium adenosine-triphosphatase (NAKA) and sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in samples of the nonglandular portion of the equine gastric mucosa was altered by exposure to volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in an acidic environment.

Animals: 10 horses (5 < or = 5 years old and 5 > or = 12 years old).

Procedures: Samples of the nonglandular portion of the gastric mucosa were collected and exposed in Ussing chambers to Ringer's solution (control samples), Ringer's solution containing a mixture of VFAs (pH, 1.5 or 4.0), or Ringer's solution containing acetic acid (pH, 1.5 or 4.0). Expression of mRNA for the gene for the beta1 subunit of NAKA and the gene for the NHE-3 isoform was determined by means of real-time PCR assays.

Results: For horses < or = 5 years old, relative expression of mRNA for NAKA was significantly decreased and expression of mRNA for NHE was significantly increased following exposure to the mixture of VFAs or acetic acid, compared with expression in control samples. In contrast, for horses > or = 12 years old, relative expression of mRNA for both NAKA and NHE was significantly increased following exposure to the mixture of VFAs or acetic acid, compared with expression in control samples.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Results suggested that relative expression of mRNA for NAKA, but not NHE, in samples of the nonglandular portion of the equine gastric mucosa in response to exposure to VFAs in an acidic environment was an age-dependent event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.70.9.1124DOI Listing
September 2009

New perspectives in equine gastric ulcer syndrome.

Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2009 Aug;25(2):283-301

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, The University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is common in horses. A history of mild intermitted recurrent colic signs after eating is noted in many horses. Management of horses with abdominal pain caused by gastric ulcers is especially difficult, because non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, typically used to control abdominal pain, may exacerbate this condition. Effective pharmacologic agents are available to treat EGUS and eliminate abdominal pain, but more comprehensive measures of environmental and dietary management are needed to manage horses with EGUS and prevent recurrence. This article focuses on the history, clinical signs, diagnosis, and management of horses with abdominal pain associated with gastric ulcers. The primary goal is to provide an understanding of EGUS and to review effective pain management and specific antiulcer treatments and management strategies in horses with EGUS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cveq.2009.04.013DOI Listing
August 2009

The bacterial community of the horse gastrointestinal tract and its relation to fermentative acidosis, laminitis, colic, and stomach ulcers.

Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2009 Aug;25(2):199-215

School of Animal Studies, The Faculty of Natural Resources, Agricultural and Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton Campus, Queensland 4343, Australia.

The gastrointestinal tract of the horse has unique characteristics that make it well suited for the ingestion and utilization of roughage. The horse is considered a simple-stomached herbivore and is classed as a hindgut fermenter. The upper segments of the gastrointestinal tract resemble those of a typical simple-stomached animal. The lower have undergone modification to become voluminous and host to a large number of microbial populations similar to those of the compartmental stomach of ruminant animals. The main advantage of this arrangement is the ability of the horse to extract valuable nutrients from the diet before digesta reaches the hindgut where the rigid structural components that resisted enzymatic digestion at the small intestinal level undergo extensive fermentation processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cveq.2009.04.005DOI Listing
August 2009

Preface. New perspectives in equine colic.

Authors:
Frank M Andrews

Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2009 Aug;25(2):xiii-xiv

Equine Health Studies Program, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Skip Bertman Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cveq.2009.05.002DOI Listing
August 2009

Nutrition and dietary management of equine gastric ulcer syndrome.

Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2009 Apr;25(1):79-92, vi-vii

Department of Animal Sciences and Large Animal Clinical Sciences, The University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, Knoxville, TN, USA.

Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is common in horses. Diagnosis is based on history, clinical signs, gastroscopic examination, and response to treatment. Effective pharmacologic agents are available to treat EGUS, but more comprehensive measures of environmental and dietary management are needed to decrease ulcer severity and recurrence. This article provides an understanding of dietary components and how feeds interact with stomach mucosal barrier function to cause EGUS. In addition, a secondary goal is to provide information on how diet and environmental management can reduce ulcer severity and prevent recurrence in horses with EGUS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cveq.2008.11.004DOI Listing
April 2009

A multicenter case-control study of risk factors for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007 Dec;231(12):1857-63

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475, USA.

Objective: To identify risk factors for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) among horses examined at 11 equine referral hospitals.

Design: Case-control study.

Animals: 183 horses with EPM, 297 horses with neurologic disease other than EPM (neurologic controls), and 168 horses with non-neurologic diseases (non-neurologic controls) examined at 11 equine referral hospitals in the United States.

Procedures: A study data form was completed for all horses. Data were compared between the case group and each of the control groups by means of bivariate and multivariate polytomous logistic regression.

Results: Relative to neurologic control horses, case horses were more likely to be > or = 2 years old and to have a history of cats residing on the premises. Relative to non-neurologic control horses, case horses were more likely to be used for racing or Western performance.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Results indicated that cats may play a role in the natural epidemiology of EPM, that the disease is less common among horses < 2 years of age relative to other neurologic diseases, and that horses used for particular types of competition may have an increased risk of developing EPM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.231.12.1857DOI Listing
December 2007

In vitro effects of hydrochloric acid and various concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric, or valeric acids on bioelectric properties of equine gastric squamous mucosa.

Am J Vet Res 2006 Nov;67(11):1873-82

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

Objective: To compare the effects of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and various concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on tissue bioelectric properties of equine stomach nonglandular (NG) mucosa.

Sample Population: Gastric tissues obtained from 48 adult horses.

Procedures: NG gastric mucosa was studied by use of Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference (PD) were measured and electrical resistance (R) and conductance calculated for tissues after addition of HCl and VFAs (5, 10, 20, and 40 mM) in normal Ringer's solution (NRS).

Results: Mucosa exposed to HCl in NRS (pH of 1.5 and, to a lesser extent, 4.0) had a significant decrease in Isc, PD, and R, whereas tissues exposed to acetic acid at a pH of < 4.0, propionic and butyric acids at a pH of
Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: The VFAs, especially acetic acid, in the presence of HCl at a pH of
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.67.11.1873DOI Listing
November 2006

Effects of intravenously administrated omeprazole on gastric juice pH and gastric ulcer scores in adult horses.

J Vet Intern Med 2006 Sep-Oct;20(5):1202-6

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37996, USA.

The study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of omeprazole powder in sterile water, administered intravenously, on gastric juice pH in adult horses with naturally occurring gastric ulcers. Omeprazole (0.5 mg/kg, IV) was administered once daily for 5 days to 6 adult horses with gastric ulcers. Gastric juice was aspirated through the biopsy channel of an endoscope and pH was measured before and 1 hour after administration of omeprazole on day 1, and then before and after administration of omeprazole on day 5. Gastric ulcer scores were recorded on day 1 before administration of omeprazole and on day 5, 23 hours after the 4th daily dose. Gastric juice pH and ulcer scores were compared between the times. When compared with the pre-injection value (2.01 +/- 0.42), mean +/- SD gastric juice pH was significantly higher when measured 1 hour after administration of the initial dose (4.35 +/- 2.31), and before (5.27 +/- 1.74) and 1 hour after (7.00 +/- 0.25) administration of omeprazole on day 5. Nonglandular gastric ulcer number score significantly decreased from a mean +/- SD of 3.2 +/- 0.80 to 2.0 +/- 1.1, but nonglandular gastric ulcer severity score remained the same. Few glandular ulcers were seen in the study, and scores did not change. Because of its potent and long duration of action on gastric juice pH, this intravenous formulation of omeprazole may show promise for treatment of equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) in horses with dysphagia, gastric reflux, or other conditions that restrict oral intake of omeprazole paste. Aspiration of gastric juice and measurement of pH can be of use to determine whether the desired pH > 4.0 has been reached after omeprazole treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1892/0891-6640(2006)20[1202:eoiaoo]2.0.co;2DOI Listing
November 2006

Evaluation of the combined dexamethasone suppression/ thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test for detection of pars intermedia pituitary adenomas in horses.

J Vet Intern Med 2006 Jul-Aug;20(4):987-93

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37996, USA.

Background: A combined dexamethasone (DEX) suppression/thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test (DEX/TRH test) has been developed to evaluate horses for presence of a pars intermedia pituitary adenoma (PIPA), but to the authors' knowledge, the accuracy of this test has not been previously determined.

Hypothesis: The sensitivity and specificity of the DEX/TRH test can be determined by comparing test results with histopathologic examination findings.

Animals: Age of 42 horses of various breeds ranged from 2 to 33 years.

Methods: Plasma cortisol concentration was measured before and 24 hours after IV administration of 40 microg of DEX/kg of body weight, and before and 30 minutes after IV administration of 1 mg of TRH that had been given 3 hours after the injection of DEX. Results of the DEX/TRH test were considered positive if either the plasma cortisol concentration exceeded 10 ng/mL 24 hours after DEX administration, or if the change in plasma cortisol concentration 30 minutes after injection of TRH was > or = 66% above the 3-hour baseline. Diagnosis of PIPA was determined by histologic examination of the pituitary gland.

Results: PIPA was detected in 17 of 42 (40%) horses. The DEX/TRH test had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative (NPV) predictive value of 88, 76, 71, and 90%, respectively.

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: The combined DEX/TRH test was more sensitive than either of its component tests and had a high NPV, but was not as specific as the TRH component alone (92%). The DEX/TRH test should be used to screen older horses for PIPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1892/0891-6640(2006)20[987:eotcdt]2.0.co;2DOI Listing
October 2006

Use of a multivariable model to estimate the probability of discharge in hospitalized foals that are 7 days of age or less.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006 Jun;228(11):1748-56

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

Objective: To create a mathematical model to assist in early prediction of the probability of discharge in hospitalized foals < or= 7 days old.

Study Design: Prospective study.

Animals: 1,073 foals.

Procedures: Medical records from 910 hospitalized foals < or = 7 days old for which outcome was recorded as died or discharged alive were reviewed. Thirty-four variables including historical information, physical examination findings, and laboratory results were examined for association with survival. Variables associated with being discharged alive were entered into a multivariable logistic regression model. Accuracy of the model was validated prospectively on data from 163 foals.

Results: Factors in the final model included age group, ability to stand, presence of a suckle reflex, WBC count, serum creatinine concentration, and anion gap. Sensitivity and specificity of the model to predict live discharge were 92% and 74%, respectively, in the retrospective population and 90% and 46%, respectively, in the prospective population. Accuracy of an equine clinician's initial prediction of the foal being discharged alive was 83%, and accuracy of the model's prediction was 81%. Combining the clinician's prediction of probability of live discharge with that of the model significantly increased (median increase, 12%) the accuracy of the prediction for foals that were discharged and nonsignificantly decreased (median decrease, 9%) the accuracy of the predication for nonsurvivors.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Combining the clinician's initial predication of the probability of a foal being discharged alive with that of the model appeared to provide a more precise early estimate of the probability of live discharge for hospitalized foals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.228.11.1748DOI Listing
June 2006

Effects of dietary oils on the development of gastric ulcers in mares.

Am J Vet Res 2005 Nov;66(11):2006-11

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37996, USA.

Objective: To assess antiulcerogenic properties of 3 dietary oils.

Animals: 8 healthy adult mares.

Procedure: A protocol to induce gastric ulcers was used and included 240 mL of water plus corn oil, refined rice bran oil, or crude rice bran oil administered each day for 6 weeks according to a 4 x 4 Latin square randomized crossover design with 5-week washout intervals. A 7-day alternating feed deprivation period was included between weeks 5 and 6. Omeprazole was administered daily for the last 14 days of each washout interval. Endoscopic examinations of the stomach were performed at 0, 5, and 6 weeks, and the number (0 to 4 scale) and severity (0 to 5 scale) of ulcers were scored. Gastric fluid was collected at 0 and 5 weeks.

Results: Median body weight significantly increased by 29 kg (range, 10 to 50 kg). Mean +/- SE gastric fluid pH significantly decreased from 4.9 +/- 0.4 to 3.1 +/- 0.3 over 5 weeks, and total volatile fatty acid concentration significantly decreased over time. Mean +/- SE severity of nonglandular ulcers significantly increased from 0.4 +/- 0.1 to 1.2 +/- 0.2 over 5 weeks. Nonglandular ulcers significantly increased in number (mean +/- SE, 1.3 +/- 0.2 to 3.0 +/- 0.2) and severity (mean +/- SE, 1.2 +/- 0.2 to 2.6 +/- 0.2) during the 7-day alternating feed deprivation period. No effects of treatment were detected.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: In this model dietary oils did not prevent gastric ulcers from forming in the nonglandular portion of the stomach of horses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.2005.66.2006DOI Listing
November 2005

Physiologic assessment of blood glucose homeostasis via combined intravenous glucose and insulin testing in horses.

Am J Vet Res 2005 Sep;66(9):1598-604

Department of Comparative Medicine, Physiology Section, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

Objective: To characterize the physiologic response to i.v. bolus injection of glucose and insulin for development of a combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) in horses.

Animals: 6 healthy mares and 1 mare each with pituitary adenoma and urolithiasis.

Procedure: Horses were given a CGIT (glucose, 150 mg/kg; insulin, 0.1 U/kg); results were compared with a singular i.v. glucose tolerance test (GTT; 150 mg/kg) and a singular i.v. insulin sensitivity test (IST; 0.1 U/kg). Healthy horses were also given a CGIT after receiving xylazine and undergoing stress.

Results: Physiologically, the CGIT resulted in a 2-phase curve with positive (hyperglycemic) and negative (hypoglycemic) portions; the positive phase came first (250% of baseline at 1 minute). The descending segment declined linearly to baseline by approximately 30 minutes and to a nadir at 58% of baseline by 75 minutes. After a 35-minute valley, a linear ascent to baseline began. Addition of insulin in the CGIT increased glucose utilization by approximately 4.5 times during the positive phase but not during the negative phase. The diseases' effects and experimental inhibition of insulin secretion with xylazine and stress were detectable by use of the 2 phases of the CGIT. Only a single positive phase resulted from the GTT and a single negative phase from the IST CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The CGIT resulted in a consistent, well-defined glycemia profile, which can be disrupted experimentally or by a disease process. The CGIT has clinical potential because it provides integrated information and more information than either the singular GTT or IST.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.2005.66.1598DOI Listing
September 2005

Effect of a 24-hour infusion of an isotonic electrolyte replacement fluid on the renal clearance of electrolytes in healthy neonatal foals.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005 Oct;227(7):1123-9

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

Objective: To determine the effects of a 24-hour infusion of an isotonic electrolyte replacement fluid (IERF) on weight, serum and urine electrolyte concentrations, and other clinicopathologic variables in healthy neonatal foals.

Animals: 4 healthy 4-day-old foals.

Design: Prospective study.

Procedure: An IERF was administered to each foal at an estimated rate of 80 mL/kg/d (36.4 mL/lb/d) for 24 hours. Body weight was measured before and after the infusion period. Urine was collected via catheter during 4-hour periods; blood samples were collected at 4-hour intervals. Variables including urine production; urine and serum osmolalities; sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations in urine and serum; urine and serum creatinine concentrations; urine osmolality-to-serum osmolality ratio (OsmR); transtubular potassium gradient (TTKG); and percentage creatinine clearance (Cr(cl)) of electrolytes were recorded at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 hours during the infusion period. Immediately after the study period, net fluid and whole-body electrolyte changes from baseline values were calculated.

Results: Compared with baseline values, urine and serum sodium and chloride serum concentrations, urine and serum osmolalities, OsmR, and percentage Cr(cl) of sodium and chloride were significantly increased at various time points during the infusion; urine production did not change significantly. After 24 hours, weight, TTKG, serum creatinine concentration, and whole-body potassium had significantly decreased from baseline values.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Results suggest that administration of an IERF containing a physiologic concentration of sodium may not be appropriate for use in neonatal foals that require maintenance fluid therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.2005.227.1123DOI Listing
October 2005

Treatment and prevention of equine gastric ulcer syndrome.

Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2003 Dec;19(3):575-97

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, The University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, Knoxville 37996, USA.

EGUS is a common problem in horses and foals. Acids are the important causative factors and current therapy targets the suppression of gastric HCl and creation of a permissive environment for ulcer healing. Diagnosis is based on history, clinical signs, gastroscopy, and response to treatment. Of the products available, only GastroGard (FDA approved) and ranitidine have been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of EGUS. Ranitidine is often associated with treatment failure as a result of incorrect dosing and lack of owner compliance, because of the three times daily dosing required. Also, EGUS occurs in critically ill neonatal foals, but the pathogenesis may be different than in adult horses and acid-suppressive therapy may not be as effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cveq.2003.08.012DOI Listing
December 2003

Effects of hydrochloric, valeric, and other volatile fatty acids on pathogenesis of ulcers in the nonglandular portion of the stomach of horses.

Am J Vet Res 2003 Apr;64(4):413-7

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

Objective: To identify in vitro effects of hydrochloric acid, valeric acid, and other volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on the pathogenesis of ulcers in the nonglandular portion of the equine stomach.

Sample Population: Gastric tissues from 13 adult horses.

Procedure: Nonglandular gastric mucosa was studied by use of Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference were measured and electrical resistance and conductance calculated after tissues were bathed in normal Ringer's solution (NRS) or NRS and hydrochloric, valeric, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. Treated tissues were examined histologically.

Results: Incubation in 60mM valeric acid at pH < or = 7.0 abruptly and irreversibly abolished Isc, which was followed by a slower decrease in resistance and an increase in conductance. Incubation in 60mM acetic, propionic, and butyric acids and, to a lesser extent, hydrochloric acid at pH < or = 7.0 significantly decreased Isc, which was followed by an increase in resistance and a decrease in conductance.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Incubation in valeric acid at pH < or = 7.0 caused a dramatic decrease in mucosal barrier function in the nonglandular portion of the stomach. Changes in barrier function attributable to exposure to valeric acid were associated with histopathologic evidence of cellular swelling in all layers of the nonglandular mucosa. Because of its high lipid solubility, valeric acid penetrates the nonglandular gastric mucosa, resulting in inhibition of sodium transport and cellular swelling. Valeric acid and other VFAs in gastric contents may contribute to the pathogenesis of ulcers in the nonglandular portion of the stomach of horses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.2003.64.413DOI Listing
April 2003

Effects of hydrochloric, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids on pathogenesis of ulcers in the nonglandular portion of the stomach of horses.

Am J Vet Res 2003 Apr;64(4):404-12

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

Objective: To identify the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers by comparing injury to the nonglandular gastric mucosa of horses caused by hydrochloric acid (HCl) or volatile fatty acids (VFAs).

Sample Population: Gastric tissues from 30 horses.

Procedure: Nonglandular gastric mucosa was studied by use of Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference were measured and electrical resistance calculated for tissues after addition of HCl and VFAs to normal Ringer's solution (NRS). Tissues were examined histologically.

Results: Mucosa exposed to HCl in NRS (pH, 1.5) had a significant decrease in Isc, compared with Isc for mucosa exposed to NRS at pH 4.0 or 7.0. Also, exposure to 60mM acetic, propionic, and butyric acids (pH, 4.0 or 1.5) caused an immediate significant decrease in Isc. Recovery of sodium transport was detected only in samples exposed to acetic acid at pH 4.0. Recovery of sodium transport was not seen in other mucosal samples exposed to VFAs at pH < or = 4.0.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Acetic, butyric, and propionic acids and, to a lesser extent, HCl caused decreases in mucosal barrier function of the nonglandular portion of the equine stomach. Because of their lipid solubility at pH < or = 4.0, undissociated VFAs penetrate cells in the nonglandular gastric mucosa, which causes acidification of cellular contents, inhibition of sodium transport, and cellular swelling. Results indicate that HCl alone or in combination with VFAs at gastric pH < or = 4.0 may be important in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers in the nonglandular portion of the stomach of horses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.2003.64.404DOI Listing
April 2003

Interviewing older adults: validity of self-reports of satisfaction.

Psychol Aging 1988 Sep;3(3):264-272

U Michigan Inst for Social Research, Survey Research Ctr, Ann Arbor.

Respondents in a personal interview study were asked to evaluate several domains of their lives using several different response scales that included both verbal and pictorial response alternatives. Structural equation models were specified to permit estimation of the validity of these survey measures. Across all of the items, the concept factors explain an average of about one half of the total variance, method factors explain about one tenth of the variance, and the remaining one third or so of the variance is unique to each item. Comparisons of the validity of reports by respondents of different ages indicate that method factors explain almost twice as much of the variance in the responses of older respondents as in those of younger respondents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.3.3.264DOI Listing
September 1988
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