Publications by authors named "Frank Laturnus"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Reliable test methods for the determination of a natural production of chloroform in soils.

Environ Monit Assess 2012 Mar 12;184(3):1231-41. Epub 2011 Apr 12.

DHI Water, Environment, Health, 2970 Hørsholm, Denmark.

Chloroform is one of the most frequently found anthropogenic groundwater contaminants. Recent investigations, however, suggested that chloroform in groundwater may also originate from a natural production in soils. As societies response to the occurrence of chloroform in groundwater may depend upon its origin as anthropogenic or naturally produced, test methods are needed to measure the potential of natural soil chloroform production. Field measurements of ambient air and soil air, and field and laboratory incubation studies were evaluated for measurement of relative soil chloroform production at a site with four different vegetation types (spruce forest, beech forest, grassland, and grain field) on comparable geological soil. All test methods showed varying soil production of chloroform with spruce forest soil being most productive and grain field soil being least productive. Field measurements of the ratio of soil air to ambient air chloroform concentrations exhibited the smallest difference between high production and low production areas, whereas laboratory incubation studies showed the largest difference. Thus, laboratory incubation studies are suggested as most efficient for estimating relative chloroform production in soil. The study indicated that soil samples should be tested not more than 14 days after sampling. Furthermore, it was found that potentially limiting compounds, such as chloride or nitrate, are not needed to be added in spike experiments to obtain reliable production results. However, it should be recognized that the processes of soil chloroform production are not known yet in all details. Other factors than those studied here may affect the test methods for soil chloroform production too.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2035-5DOI Listing
March 2012

Chloride - a precursor in the formation of volatile organochlorines by forest plants?

J Environ Radioact 2008 Jan 11;99(1):119-25. Epub 2007 Sep 11.

Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, Linköping University, 60174 Norrköping, Sweden.

Two plants, a fern (Athyrium filix-femina) and a moss (Polytrichum commune Hedw.), both commonly occurring in Northern Temperate forests, were exposed in a laboratory study to a solution of (36)Cl-chloride. The uptake of (36)Cl-chloride by the plants was investigated and the emission of volatile chlorine 36 by the plants was determined. Furthermore, speciation of the emitted volatile organochlorine compounds (VOCls) was investigated. For the fern and the moss a rapid uptake of (36)Cl-chloride was observed within a 1-h exposure period. The uptake rates for the fern and the moss, respectively, were 16 microg (36)Cl-chloride g(-1) fresh weight (FW) h(-1) and 3.0 microg (36)Cl-chloride g(-1) FW h(-1), respectively. The study also suggested that after uptake by the plants (36)Cl-chloride is incorporated into VOCls, which were emitted by the plants into the atmosphere. Speciation analysis of the VOCls revealed the emission of chloroform, tetrachloromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2007.07.008DOI Listing
January 2008

Natural formation and degradation of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soil--challenges to understanding.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2005 Jul;12(4):233-44

The Swedish Institute for Climate Science and Policy Research, ITUF, Linköpings universitet, 601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.

Goal, Scope And Background: The anthropogenic environmental emissions of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines have been under scrutiny in recent years because the two compound groups are suspected to contribute to forest dieback and stratospheric ozone destruction, respectively. The two organochlorine groups are linked because the atmospheric photochemical oxidation of some volatile organochlorine compounds is one source of phytotoxic chloroacetic acids in the environment. Moreover, both groups are produced in higher amounts by natural chlorination of organic matter, e.g. by soil microorganisms, marine macroalgae and salt lake bacteria, and show similar metabolism pathways. Elucidating the origin and fate of these organohalogens is necessary to implement actions to counteract environmental problems caused by these compounds.

Main Features: While the anthropogenic sources of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines are relatively well-known and within human control, knowledge of relevant natural processes is scarce and fragmented. This article reviews current knowledge on natural formation and degradation processes of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soils, with particular emphasis on processes in the rhizosphere, and discusses future studies necessary to understand the role of forest soils in the formation and degradation of these compounds.

Results And Discussion: Reviewing the present knowledge of the natural formation and degradation processes of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soil has revealed gaps in knowledge regarding the actual mechanisms behind these processes. In particular, there remains insufficient quantification of reliable budgets and rates of formation and degradation of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soil (both biotic and abiotic processes) to evaluate the strength of forest ecosystems regarding the emission and uptake of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines, both on a regional scale and on a global scale.

Conclusion: It is concluded that the overall role of forest soil as a source and/or sink for chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines is still unclear; the available laboratory and field data reveal only bits of the puzzle. Detailed knowledge of the natural degradation and formation processes in forest soil is important to evaluate the strength of forest ecosystems for the emission and uptake of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines, both on a regional scale and on a global scale.

Recommendation And Perspective: As the natural formation and degradation processes of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soil can be influenced by human activities, evaluation of the extent of this influence will help to identify what future actions are needed to reduce human influences and thus prevent further damage to the environment and to human health caused by these compounds.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1065/espr2005.06.262DOI Listing
July 2005

Ultraviolet radiation affects emission of ozone-depleting substances by marine macroalgae: results from a laboratory incubation study.

Environ Sci Technol 2004 Dec;38(24):6605-9

The Swedish Institute for Climate Science and Policy Research, Department of Thematic Studies, Linköpings Universitet, 601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.

The depletion of stratospheric ozone due to the effects of ozone-depleting substances, such as volatile organohalogens, emitted into the atmosphere from industrial and natural sources has increased the amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface. Especially in the subpolar and polar regions, where stratospheric ozone destruction is the highest, individual organisms and whole ecosystems can be affected. In a laboratory study, several species of marine macroalgae occurring in the polar and northern temperate regions were exposed to elevated levels of ultraviolet radiation. Most of the macroalgae released significantly more chloroform, bromoform, dibromomethane, and methyl iodide-all volatile organohalogens. Calculating on the basis of the release of total chlorine, bromine, and iodine revealed that, except for two macroalgae emitting chlorine and one alga emitting iodine, exposure to ultraviolet radiation caused macroalgae to emit significantly more total chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Increasing levels of ultraviolet radiation due to possible further destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer as a result of ongoing global atmospheric warming may thus increase the future importance of marine macroalgae as a source for the global occurrence of reactive halogen-containing compounds.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es049527sDOI Listing
December 2004

Biodegradation of chlorinated solvents in a water unsaturated topsoil.

Chemosphere 2003 Apr;51(2):143-52

Plant Research Department, Risø National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.

In order to investigate topsoils as potential sinks for chlorinated solvents from the atmosphere, the degradation of trichloromethane (CHCl(3)), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (CH(3)CCl(3)), tetrachloromethane (CCl(4)), trichloroethene (C(2)HCl(3)) and tetrachloroethene (C(2)Cl(4)) was studied in anoxic laboratory experiments designed to simulate denitrifying conditions in water unsaturated topsoil. Active denitrification was demonstrated by measuring the release of 15N in N(2) to the headspace from added 15N labeled nitrate. The degradation of chlorinated aliphatic compounds was followed by measuring their concentrations in the headspace above the soil. The headspace concentrations of all the chlorinated solvents except CH(3)CCl(3) were significantly (P
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00851-2DOI Listing
April 2003

Remediation of BTEX and trichloroethene. Current knowledge with special emphasis on phytoremediation.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2002 ;9(1):86-94

Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2BP, UK.

The widespread use of industrial chemicals in our highly industrialized society has often caused contamination of large terrestrial and marine areas due to the deliberate and accidental release of organic pollutants into the soil and groundwater. In this review, environmental problems arising from the use of chlorinated solvents and BTEX compounds are described, and an overview about active management strategies for remediation with special emphasis on phytoremediation are presented to achieve a reduction of the total mass of chlorinated solvents and BTEX compounds in contaminated areas. Phytoremediation has been proposed as an efficient, low-cost remediation technique to restore areas contaminated with chlorinated solvents and BTEX compounds. The feasibility of phytoremediation as a remediation tool for these compounds is discussed with particular reference to the uptake and metabolism of these compounds, and a future perspective on the use of phytoremediation for the removal of chlorinated solvents and BTEX compounds is given.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02987319DOI Listing
March 2002

Sulphonated aromatic pollutants. Limits of microbial degradability and potential of phytoremediation.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2002 ;9(1):62-72

Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology (LBE), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Many synthetic sulphonated aromatic compounds are used as starting material to produce dyes and pigments, or are released as by-products in the effluents of the textile and dye industry. A large number of these chemicals are poorly biodegradable and cannot be eliminated by classical wastewater treatment plants. To limit the impact of these pollutants on the environment, new processes, based on the use of higher plants (constructed wetlands or hydroponic systems), are under development. Detergents and surfactants are essential for both industrial and domestic applications, the most important family being the alkylbenzene sulphonates. Originally, the alkyl side chains were branched and thus recalcitrant to biodegradation. Therefore, they have been replaced by linear alkylbenzene sulphonates. Although more acceptable, present formulations still have adverse environmental and toxic effects. In this context, phytoremediation appears to be a promising approach to remove these compounds from contaminated soils and waters.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02987317DOI Listing
March 2002