Publications by authors named "Frank Hensel"

18 Publications

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Towards Better Health.

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2017 10;114(40):663-664

Diözesan-Caritas verband of the archdiocese of Cologne.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2017.0663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5963582PMC
October 2017

A GRP78-Directed Monoclonal Antibody Recaptures Response in Refractory Multiple Myeloma with Extramedullary Involvement.

Clin Cancer Res 2016 Sep 30;22(17):4341-9. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Institute of Pathology, University of Würzburg, Germany, and Comprehensive Cancer Center Mainfranken (CCCMF), Würzburg, Germany.

Purpose: Glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78 is overexpressed in multiple myeloma, and both its surface expression and its biologic significance as key sensor of the unfolded protein response make GRP78 an ideal candidate for immunotherapeutic intervention. The monoclonal antibody PAT-SM6 targets surface GRP78 and leads to disease stabilization when used as single agent in a clinical trial. In this article, we evaluated expression of GRP78 in relapsed-refractory disease and explored PAT-SM6 therapy in combination regimens.

Experimental Design: GRP78 expression was immunohistochemically analyzed during disease progression and development of drug resistance throughout different stages of multiple myeloma. Activity of PAT-SM6 was evaluated in combination with anti-multiple myeloma agents lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone in vitro Finally, we report on a multiple myeloma patient with relapsed-refractory disease treated with PAT-SM6 in combination with bortezomib and lenalidomide.

Results: Although sGRP78 expression was present at all stages, it increased with disease progression and was even strongly elevated in patients with drug-resistant and extramedullary disease. Pretreatment with dexamethasone as well as dual combination of PAT-SM6/lenalidomide further increased sGRP78 expression and consecutively showed synergistic anti-multiple myeloma effects with PAT-SM6 in proliferation assays. As proof of concept, a 62-year-old male with triple resistant multiple myeloma treated with PAT-SM6, bortezomib, and lenalidomide experienced partial remission of both intra- and extramedullary lesions.

Conclusions: PAT-SM6 therapy in combination regimens showed efficacy in relapsed-refractory multiple myeloma. Clin Cancer Res; 22(17); 4341-9. ©2016 AACR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-3111DOI Listing
September 2016

GRP78-directed immunotherapy in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma - results from a phase 1 trial with the monoclonal immunoglobulin M antibody PAT-SM6.

Haematologica 2015 Mar 30;100(3):377-84. Epub 2015 Jan 30.

Institute of Pathology, University of Würzburg, Germany, and Comprehensive Cancer Center Mainfranken, Germany

Unlabelled: The primary objective of this phase 1 study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the anti-glucose regulated protein 78 monoclonal immunoglobulin M antibody PAT-SM6 in subjects with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Twelve heavily pretreated patients received four intravenous infusions of PAT-SM6 at doses of 0.3, 1, 3, and 6 mg/kg within 2 weeks. Efficacy, pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity were followed up until the end of the trial (day 36). In addition, immune cell patterns in peripheral blood were assessed by flow cytometry and glucose regulated protein 78 expression status was evaluated in bone marrow specimens by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry at screening. All doses administered were found to be safe and well tolerated; the maximum tolerated dose was not reached. The most common treatment emergent adverse event was leukopenia (grades 1 and 2) in eight out of the 12 multiple myeloma patients. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated dose-proportional increases in drug serum concentration. The terminal half-life ranged from 5.86 to 8.41 h, the apparent volume of distribution ranged from 101 to 150 mL/kg, and clearance ranged from 8.11 to 16.1 mL/h/kg. All patients showed glucose regulated protein 78 surface expression on multiple myeloma cells. Four out of the 12 patients (33.3 %) had stable disease, according to the International Myeloma Working Group criteria, after PAT-SM6 treatment across the doses 1, 3 and 6 mg/kg. In summary, single-agent PAT-SM6 was well tolerated with modest clinical activity in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Further trials exploring the combination of PAT-SM6 with existing myeloma therapies are planned.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01727778.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2014.117945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4349277PMC
March 2015

Expression and glycoengineering of functionally active heteromultimeric IgM in plants.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014 Apr 31;111(17):6263-8. Epub 2014 Mar 31.

Department of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, 1190 Vienna, Austria.

IgM antibodies are an important player of the human's innate defense mechanisms and increasingly have gained interest as therapeutics. Although the expression of IgM antibodies in mammalian cell culture is established, this approach remains costly and alternative methods have not been developed yet. Plants have a proven record for the production of therapeutically relevant recombinant proteins. However, whether they are able to express proteins like IgM antibodies, which range among the most complex human proteins, remains unknown so far. Here we report the in planta generation of the functionally active monoclonal antitumor IgM PAT-SM6 (SM6). SM6 efficiently accumulates in plant leaves and assembles correctly into heterooligomers (pentamers and hexamers). Detailed glycosylation analysis exhibited complex and oligomannosidic N-glycans in a site-specific manner on human-serum IgM and on plant- and human-cell-line-produced SM6. Moreover, extensive in planta glycoengineering allowed the generation of SM6 decorated with sialylated human-type oligosaccharides, comparable to plasma-derived IgM. A glycosylated model of pentameric IgM exhibits different accessibility of the glycosylation sites, explaining site-specific glycosylation. Biochemical and biophysical properties and importantly biological activities of plant-derived SM6 glycoforms are comparable to the human-cell-derived counterparts. The in planta generation of one of the most complex human proteins opens new pathways toward the production of difficult-to-express proteins for pharmaceutical applications. Moreover, the generation of IgMs with a controlled glycosylation pattern allows the study of the so far unknown contribution of sugar moieties to the function of IgMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1320544111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4035941PMC
April 2014

Ten-year follow-up of a prospective trial for the targeted therapy of gastric cancer with the human monoclonal antibody PAT-SC1.

Oncol Rep 2014 Mar 20;31(3):1059-66. Epub 2014 Jan 20.

Sana Kliniken Ostholstein GmbH, Eutin, Germany.

The fully human monoclonal antibody PAT-SC1 is specific for an isoform of CD55 (decay-accelerating factor) designated CD55PAT-SC1. This antigen is expressed in the majority (80%) of gastric cancers (GCs), and the antibody induces tumour cell-specific apoptosis in vitro as well as in vivo. PAT-SC1, therefore, has been deemed promising as a therapeutic agent. Here, we describe the results of an academic clinical study performed in a neoadjuvant setting with resectable GC patients. Patients undergoing treatment for GC between 1997 and 2001 were tested for CD55PAT-SC1 expression. Fifty-one resectable patients that tested positively received a single administration of 20 mg PAT-SC1 48 h prior to surgery. They underwent standard surgery with either subtotal or total gastrectomy with bursectomy, omentectomy and a modified D2-lymphadenectomy, aimed at R0 resection. Primary endpoints of the present study were to evaluate side-effects of the PAT-SC1 antibody treatment and to evaluate histopathological effects such as tumour regression and induction of apoptosis. Long-term survival was a secondary endpoint. Administration of PAT-SC1 appeared safe with only reversible side-effects according to WHO grade I and II. Despite the low‑dose of the antibody, 81.6% of the patients showed signs of increased apoptosis within the primary tumour and 60% showed signs of tumour cell regression. Comparison of the 10-year survival rates of the R0-resected CD55PAT-SC1-positive patients treated with the PAT-SC1 antibody with a historical collective of R0-resected CD55PAT-SC1-positive patients not treated with PAT-SC1 indicated a survival benefit in the treated patients. Furthermore, comparison of the patient survival of CD55PAT‑SC1-positive vs. CD55PAT-SC1-negative groups suggested that CD55PAT-SC1 antigen expression is an independent predictor of poor survival in a Cox regression analysis. Antibody PAT-SC1 may be a useful additive therapeutic agent in the treatment of patients with CD55PAT-SC1-expressing GCs. In combination with radical standard surgery, PAT-SC1 given as an adjuvant or neoadjuvant immunotherapeutic agent induces apoptosis in tumour cells which may improve survival of these patients. Because of the human origin and its specific binding to the CD55PAT-SC1 antigen, PAT-SC1 was well tolerated in this trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2014.2987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3926647PMC
March 2014

Early development of PAT-SM6 for the treatment of melanoma.

Melanoma Res 2013 Aug;23(4):264-75

Patrys GmbH, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Despite the recent development of novel therapies for patients with metastatic melanoma, this disease remains fatal in the majority of those who develop a relapse. Here, we report the preclinical and early clinical development of a novel IgM antibody PAT-SM6 that specifically binds to a cancer-specific isoform of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and low-density lipoprotein. Finding a GRP78 cancer-specific form on the surface of cancer cells, but not normal cells in vivo, presents an opportunity for cancer-specific targeting. PAT-SM6 binding to the cell surface induces apoptosis in a variety of tumors, including melanoma. Recent studies show the specificity of PAT-SM6 binding to the surface of melanoma cells and primary tissue but not to normal tissue. They also confirm, for the first time, cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis through classical apoptotic pathways as well as induction of lipid accumulation in melanoma cells. These in-vitro data are supported by positive in-vivo data using PAT-SM6 in a xenograft C8161 model. Furthermore, PAT-SM6 was well tolerated in pharmacokinetic/toxicology studies in monkeys. On the basis of these preclinical observations, a clinical study of PAT-SM6 was carried out in patients with 'in-transit' melanoma. Even with microdosing, histological analyses of tumor biopsies detected the presence of PAT-SM6 as well as apoptosis. Although there are many small molecules and monoclonal antibodies currently in clinical development for patients with melanoma, PAT-SM6 is the only therapeutic targeting the cancer-specific isoform of GRP78. These PAT-SM6 preclinical data and positive findings from the phase 1 safety study provide strong support for the further development of this novel antibody.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CMR.0b013e328362cbc8DOI Listing
August 2013

The natural human IgM antibody PAT-SM6 induces apoptosis in primary human multiple myeloma cells by targeting heat shock protein GRP78.

PLoS One 2013 7;8(5):e63414. Epub 2013 May 7.

Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

In contrast to other haematological malignancies, targeted immunotherapy has not entered standard treatment regimens for de novo or relapsed multiple myeloma (MM) yet. While a number of IgG-formatted monoclonal antibodies are currently being evaluated in clinical trials in MM, our study aimed to investigate whether the fully human IgM monoclonal antibody PAT-SM6 that targets a tumour-specific variant of the heat shock protein GRP78 might be an attractive candidate for future immunotherapeutic approaches. We here show that GRP78 is stably and consistently expressed on the surface on tumour cells from patients with de novo, but also relapsed MM and that binding of PAT-SM6 to MM cells can specifically exert cytotoxic effects on malignant plasma cells, whereas non-malignant cells are not targeted. We demonstrate that the induction of apoptosis and, to a lesser extent, complement dependent cytotoxicity is the main mode of action of PAT-SM6, whereas antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity does not appear to contribute to the cytotoxic properties of this antibody. Given the favourable safety profile of PAT-SM6 in monkeys, but also in a recent phase I trial in patients with malignant melanoma, our results form the basis for a planned phase I study in patients with relapsed MM.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0063414PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3646784PMC
December 2013

Simultaneous binding of the anti-cancer IgM monoclonal antibody PAT-SM6 to low density lipoproteins and GRP78.

PLoS One 2013 19;8(4):e61239. Epub 2013 Apr 19.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

The tumour-derived monoclonal IgM antibody PAT-SM6 specifically kills malignant cells by an apoptotic mechanism linked to the excessive uptake of plasma lipids. The mechanism is postulated to occur via the multi-point attachment of PAT-SM6 to the unfolded protein response regulator GRP78, located on the surface of tumour cells, coupled to the simultaneous binding of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL). We prepared and characterised LDL and oxidized LDL using sedimentation velocity and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) techniques indicated apparent dissociation constants of approximately 20 nM for the binding of LDL or oxidized LDL to PAT-SM6. ELISA experiments showed cross competition with LDL inhibiting PAT-SM6 binding to immobilised GRP78, while, in the reverse experiment, GRP78 inhibited PAT-SM6 binding to immobilized LDL. In contrast to the results of the ELISA experiments, sedimentation velocity experiments indicated relatively weak interactions between LDL and PAT-SM6, suggesting immunoabsorbance to the microtiter plate is driven by an avidity-based binding mechanism. The importance of avidity and the multipoint attachment of antigens to PAT-SM6 was further investigated using antigen-coated polystyrene beads. Absorption of GRP78 or LDL to polystyrene microspheres led to an increase in the inhibition of PAT-SM6 binding to microtiter plates coated with GRP78 or LDL, respectively. These results support the hypothesis that the biological action of PAT-SM6 in tumour cell apoptosis depends on the multivalent nature of PAT-SM6 and the ability to interact simultaneously with LDL and multiple GRP78 molecules clustered on the tumour cell surface.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0061239PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3631193PMC
November 2013

The anti-cancer IgM monoclonal antibody PAT-SM6 binds with high avidity to the unfolded protein response regulator GRP78.

PLoS One 2012 19;7(9):e44927. Epub 2012 Sep 19.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

The monoclonal IgM antibody PAT-SM6 derived from human tumours induces apoptosis in tumour cells and is considered a potential anti-cancer agent. A primary target for PAT-SM6 is the unfolded protein response regulator GRP78, over-expressed externally on the cell surface of tumour cells. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of human GRP78 showed a two-domain dumbbell-shaped monomer, while SAXS analysis of PAT-SM6 revealed a saucer-shaped structure accommodating five-fold symmetry, consistent with previous studies of related proteins. Sedimentation velocity analysis of GRP78 and PAT-SM6 mixtures indicated weak complex formation characterized by dissociation constants in the high micromolar concentration range. In contrast, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISAs) showed strong and specific interactions between PAT-SM6 and immobilized GRP78. The apparent binding constant estimated from a PAT-SM6 saturation curve correlated strongly with the concentration of GRP78 used to coat the microtiter tray. Experiments using polyclonal antiGRP78 IgG antibodies or a monoclonal IgG derivative of PAT-SM6 did not show a similar dependence. Competition experiments with soluble GRP78 indicated more effective inhibition of PAT-SM6 binding at low GRP78 coating concentrations. These observations suggest an avidity-based binding mechanism that depends on the multi-point attachment of PAT-SM6 to GRP78 clustered on the surface of the tray. Analysis of ELISA data at high GRP78 coating concentrations yielded an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 4 nM. We propose that the biological action of PAT-SM6 in tumour cell apoptosis may depend on the multivalent nature of PAT-SM6 and the high avidity of its interaction with multiple GRP78 molecules clustered on the tumour cell surface.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0044927PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3446985PMC
March 2013

Chromatographic behavior of IgM:DNA complexes.

J Chromatogr A 2011 Apr 23;1218(17):2405-12. Epub 2010 Dec 23.

Bioprocessing Technology Institute, 20 Biopolis Way, Centros, Singapore.

This study documents the presence of stable complexes between monoclonal IgM and genomic DNA in freshly harvested mammalian cell culture supernatants. 75% of the complex population elutes from size exclusion chromatography with the same retention volume as IgM. DNA comprises 24% of the complex mass, corresponding to an average of 347 base pairs per IgM molecule, distributed among fragments smaller than about 115 base pairs. Electrostatic interactions appear to provide most of the binding energy, with secondary stabilization by hydrogen bonding and metal affinity. DNA-dominant complexes are unretained by bioaffinity chromatography, while IgM-dominant complexes are retained and coelute with IgM. DNA-dominant complexes are repelled from cation exchangers, while IgM-dominant complexes are retained and partially dissociated. Partially dissociated forms elute in order of decreasing DNA content. The same pattern is observed with hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All complex compositions bind to anion exchangers and elute in order of increasing DNA content. A porous particle anion exchanger was unable to dissociate DNA from IgM. Monolithic anion exchangers, offering up to 15-fold higher charge density, achieved nearly complete complex dissociation. The charge-dense monolith surface appears to outcompete IgM for the DNA. Monoliths also exhibit more than double the IgM dynamic binding capacity of the porous particle anion exchanger, apparently due to better surface accessibility and more efficient mass transfer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2010.12.066DOI Listing
April 2011

High level expression of functional human IgMs in human PER.C6 cells.

MAbs 2009 Mar-Apr;1(2):163-71. Epub 2009 Mar 24.

Percivia LLC, Cambridge, MA 02135, USA.

Natural IgM antibodies play an important role in the body's defense mechanisms against transformed cells in the human body and are currently being exploited both in prognoses of malignant lesions and in the therapy of cancer patients. However, despite growing interest and clinical promise, thus far the IgM class of antibodies has failed to gain widespread commercial interest as these are considered to be difficult to produce recombinantly. IgMs are polymeric and have a relatively large mass. In addition, IgM molecules are heavily glycosylated and, when produced in non-human cell lines, they may contain non-human glycan structures which may be potentially immunogenic. Clearly, production systems capable of expressing human recombinant IgM antibodies are needed. We have successfully used PER.C6 cells-a human cell line-to generate three separate human recombinant monoclonal IgMs in suspension cultures in protein-free medium. All three of the IgMs were constructed with joining (J) chain and were expressed in the pentameric form. One of the IgMs was also expressed as a hexamer without J chain. Clones with cell specific productivities greater than 20 pg/cell/day were generated, which led to yields of 0.5 g/L to 2g/L in fed-batch production. All the IgMs expressed were biologically active as shown in binding and cytotoxicity assays. These studies demonstrate the potential of PER.C6 cells for the production of high levels of functional recombinant IgM and other polymeric molecules, using a straightforward and rapid stable cell line generation method.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2725415PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/mabs.1.2.7945DOI Listing
March 2010

Diagnostic and therapeutic potential of a human antibody cloned from a cancer patient that binds to a tumor-specific variant of transcription factor TAF15.

Cancer Res 2010 Jan;70(1):398-408

Institute of Pathology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Human hybridoma technologies permit the cloning of patient antibodies that may have desirable qualities. In this study, we report the isolation of a natural IgG antibody from a stomach cancer patient that illustrates novel diagnostic and therapeutic uses. Human antibody PAT-BA4 recognizes a tumor-specific variant of the transcription factor TATA-binding protein-associated factor 15 (TAF15) that is expressed on the plasma membrane of stomach cancer and melanoma cells but not healthy tissues. TAF15 is a member of the multifunctional TET protein family involved in mRNA transcription, splicing, and transport that is normally expressed only in the cytoplasm and nucleus of fetal or adult tissue cells. However, in malignant cells, TET family members including TAF15 seem to be involved in cell adhesion and spreading. In support of this likelihood, we found that PAT-BA4 inhibited tumor cell motility and tumor cell adhesion. Our findings define a role for a tumor-specific TAF15 antigen in malignant processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-2186DOI Listing
January 2010

A new tumor-specific variant of GRP78 as target for antibody-based therapy.

Lab Invest 2008 Apr 11;88(4):375-86. Epub 2008 Feb 11.

Institute of Pathology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

The chaperone GRP78 is a member of the heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) family and is responsible for cellular homeostasis by preventing stress-induced apoptosis. GRP78 is expressed in all cells of the body. In malignant cells, which are permanently exposed to environmental stress, GRP78 is overexpressed and increased levels can be found in the cytoplasm and on the cell membrane. Thus, GRP78 promotes tumor proliferation, survival, metastases and resistance to a wide variety of therapies. Like other tumor-specific membrane molecules, GRP78 can also be present on cancer cells in a variant form. This modification qualifies it as a target for immune surveillance and antibody responses. The fully human monoclonal IgM antibody, SAM-6, was isolated from a gastric cancer patient and it binds to a new variant of GRP78 with a molecular weight of 82 kDa. The epitope is an O-linked carbohydrate moiety and is specific for malignant cells. These data show that cancer-specific modifications of cell-surface protection molecules are (a) subject of an immune response and (b) ideal targets for new therapeutical approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/labinvest.2008.2DOI Listing
April 2008

The human IgM antibody SAM-6 induces tumor-specific apoptosis with oxidized low-density lipoprotein.

Mol Cancer Ther 2007 Jan;6(1):326-33

Institute of Pathology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, 97080 Germany.

Lipids are essential for normal and malignant cells during growth and differentiation. The turnover is strictly regulated because an uncontrolled uptake and accumulation is cytotoxic and can lead to lipoapoptosis: lipoptosis. The human monoclonal antibody SAM-6 binds to a cell surface receptor on malignant cells and to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). SAM-6 induces an excess of intracellular lipids, by overfeeding malignant cells with oxidized LDL, via a receptor-mediated endocytosis. The treated cells overaccumulate depots of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. This lipid overaccumulation is tumor specific; nonmalignant cells neither bind the antibody nor harvest lipids after incubation. Because for both forms of apoptosis, the death domain dependent ("extrinsic") and independent ("intrinsic"), the activation of proteases is crucial, we also investigated this pathway in more detail. It was found that shortly after internalization of antibody/oxidized LDL/receptor complex and formation of lipid depots, cytochrome c is released by mitochondria. Followed by this, initiator caspase-8 and caspase-9 and effector caspase-3 and caspase-6 are activated. The mechanism of mitochondrial trigger (e.g., by free fatty acids) is under investigation. However, the present data indicate that the SAM-6 antibody induces an intrinsic-like form of apoptosis by overfeeding malignant cells with lipoproteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-06-0399DOI Listing
January 2007

Human antibody SC-1 reduces disseminated tumor cells in nude mice with human gastric cancer.

Oncol Rep 2005 Apr;13(4):765-70

Department of Surgery, Chirurgische Klinik I, Center of Operative Medicine, University of Würzburg, Oberdürrbacher Str. 6, D-97080 Würzburg, Germany.

Advanced gastric cancer is a systemic disease that requires adjuvant therapy targeted at eliminating disseminated tumor cells (DTCs). We investigated whether the apoptosis-inducing human monoclonal IgM antibody SC-1 was able to reduce the number of disseminated gastric cancer cells in blood and bone marrow. Human gastric tumor specimens with positive expression of the SC-1 receptor were transplanted in nude mice with metastasizing gastric cancer. After tumor growth (4-6 weeks) animals were randomly allocated to intraperitoneal 100 microg SC-1 (n=23) or 100 microg human IgM (n=23). One week later, animals were sacrificed and blood and bone marrow specimens were obtained. A nested RT-PCR for cytokeratin 20 (CK-20) from blood and bone marrow of mice was performed for detection of disseminated tumor cells. Animals receiving SC-1 had significantly fewer DTCs than did control animals (p=0.0011). None of the SC-1 mice had DTCs simultaneously in both blood and bone marrow versus four of the control animals (p=0.0363). The reduction of DTCs in SC-1 animals was due to reduction in bone marrow (p=0.032 compared to controls), but not in blood (p=0.1158). Treatment with SC-1 significantly reduced the number of DTCs in bone marrow in this animal model.
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April 2005

PAM-1, a natural human IgM antibody as new tool for detection of breast and prostate precursors.

Hum Antibodies 2004 ;13(4):97-104

Institute of Pathology, University of Würzburg, Josef-Schneider-Str. 2, D-97080 Würzburg, Germany.

Early detection and differential analysis of premalignant lesions are very important for both prognosis and therapy of cancer patients. A good source of diagnostic tools is the natural antibody pool of humans. Tumor-specific antibodies can be established by using hybridoma technology. The fully human germline-coded monoclonal IgM antibody PAM-1 was isolated from a patient with a stomach carcinoma. PAM-1 reacts with a post-transcriptionally modified isoform of membrane receptor CFR-1 which is overexpressed on almost all epithelial cancers of all types and origins. The expression of CFR-1/PAM-1 on precancerous stages of breast and prostate cancer was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and compared with normal breast and prostate tissue as well as adenocarcinomas of both. In addition FACS analysis was performed to detect receptor expression on benign and malign prostate cells. 73 different tissue samples of prostate and breast precancerous stages and prostate and breast carcinomas were analysed for CFR-1/PAM-1 expression immunohistochemically. The CFR-1/PAM-1 receptor was expressed on nearly all precancerous stages and carcinomas while normal breast and prostate tissue showed negative results. These results were confirmed by FACS analysis showing a CFR-1/PAM-1 expression only on prostate carcinoma cells but not on benign prostate hyperplasia cells. The unique expression of this new CFR-1/PAM-1 receptor makes the PAM-1 antibody an ideal diagnostic and even therapeutic tool for precancerous and cancerous epithelial lesions of the breast and the prostate.
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May 2005

Human monoclonal IgM antibodies with apoptotic activity isolated from cancer patients.

Hum Antibodies 2002 ;11(4):107-19

Institute of Pathology, Josef-Schneider-Str 2, D-97080 Würzburg, Germany.

Monoclonal antibodies are accepted as ideal adjuvant therapeutic reagents for all kinds of diseases. Polyvalent (cross-linking) and low-mutated IgM antibodies (less immunogenic) are believed to be the most effective weapons against cancer. The best sources for these types of antibodies are the cancer patients themselves. Using conventional hybridoma technology, not only are fully human monoclonal IgM antibodies isolated, but also new tumor-related targets can be identified using the same experimental approach. The resulting antibodies can be used directly for therapeutic purposes without further modulation and manipulation. This report describes five newly established human monoclonal IgM antibodies; antibody LM-1 that was isolated from a patient with lung cancer, antibodies PM-1 und PM-2 that were isolated from a patient with pancreatic cancer, and antibodies CM-1 and CM-2 which were isolated from a patient with colon carcinoma. The mainly germ-line encoded antibodies are specific for malignant tissues and show only restricted reactivity with healthy cells. When tested for in vitro functional activity, all five antibodies inhibit tumor cell proliferation of carcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis.
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June 2003

Cysteine-rich fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, a new marker for precancerous epithelial lesions defined by the human monoclonal antibody PAM-1.

Cancer Res 2003 May;63(9):2052-61

Institute of Pathology, University of Würzburg, Germany.

Precancerous epithelial lesions are sites of uncontrolled cellular proliferation, generated by irreversible genetic changes. Not all of these lesions progress to invasive cancer, some may even regress, but early detection of abnormal cells can be crucial for survival of the patient. Diagnosis is mainly performed by using morphological parameters. Proliferation markers can facilitate the analysis, if they show a consistent expression, and distinguish between healthy and malignant cells. The fully human monoclonal IgM antibody PAM-1 was isolated from a patient with stomach carcinoma and binds to a new variant of cysteine-rich fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (CFR-1). This CFR-1/PAM-1 receptor is expressed on nearly all of the epithelial cancers of every type and origin, but not on healthy tissue. It is also present on precursor lesions found in: Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia of the stomach, ulcerative colitis-related dysplasia and adenomas of the colon, Barrett's metaplasia and dysplasia of the esophagus, squamous cell metaplasia and dysplasia of the lung, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The unique, growth-dependent expression of this new CFR-1 isoform makes the PAM-1 antibody an ideal diagnostic tool for the detection of precancerous and cancerous lesions.
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May 2003
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