Publications by authors named "Frank A Maffei"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Resuscitation of a Pediatric Drowning in Hypothermic Cardiac Arrest.

Air Med J 2016 Mar-Apr;35(2):86-7

Department of Pediatric Critical Care, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA.

The prognosis of pediatric patients who require prolonged resuscitation after ice water drowning and hypothermic cardiac arrest remains guarded. We report a case of successful prolonged resuscitation of a pediatric patient in hypothermic cardiac arrest who showed severe metabolic derangements and went on to make a rapid and full neurologic recovery without the use of extracoproreal rewarming or mechanical cardiac support. Many ground and air medical emergency medical service programs have policies against interfacility transfer of patients in hypothermic cardiac arrest, calling into question the need to revise current protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amj.2015.12.006DOI Listing
January 2017

Discordant identification of pediatric severe sepsis by research and clinical definitions in the SPROUT international point prevalence study.

Crit Care 2015 Sep 16;19:325. Epub 2015 Sep 16.

Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Introduction: Consensus criteria for pediatric severe sepsis have standardized enrollment for research studies. However, the extent to which critically ill children identified by consensus criteria reflect physician diagnosis of severe sepsis, which underlies external validity for pediatric sepsis research, is not known. We sought to determine the agreement between physician diagnosis and consensus criteria to identify pediatric patients with severe sepsis across a network of international pediatric intensive care units (PICUs).

Methods: We conducted a point prevalence study involving 128 PICUs in 26 countries across 6 continents. Over the course of 5 study days, 6925 PICU patients <18 years of age were screened, and 706 with severe sepsis defined either by physician diagnosis or on the basis of 2005 International Pediatric Sepsis Consensus Conference consensus criteria were enrolled. The primary endpoint was agreement of pediatric severe sepsis between physician diagnosis and consensus criteria as measured using Cohen's κ. Secondary endpoints included characteristics and clinical outcomes for patients identified using physician diagnosis versus consensus criteria.

Results: Of the 706 patients, 301 (42.6%) met both definitions. The inter-rater agreement (κ ± SE) between physician diagnosis and consensus criteria was 0.57 ± 0.02. Of the 438 patients with a physician's diagnosis of severe sepsis, only 69% (301 of 438) would have been eligible to participate in a clinical trial of pediatric severe sepsis that enrolled patients based on consensus criteria. Patients with physician-diagnosed severe sepsis who did not meet consensus criteria were younger and had lower severity of illness and lower PICU mortality than those meeting consensus criteria or both definitions. After controlling for age, severity of illness, number of comorbid conditions, and treatment in developed versus resource-limited regions, patients identified with severe sepsis by physician diagnosis alone or by consensus criteria alone did not have PICU mortality significantly different from that of patients identified by both physician diagnosis and consensus criteria.

Conclusions: Physician diagnosis of pediatric severe sepsis achieved only moderate agreement with consensus criteria, with physicians diagnosing severe sepsis more broadly. Consequently, the results of a research study based on consensus criteria may have limited generalizability to nearly one-third of PICU patients diagnosed with severe sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-015-1055-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4572676PMC
September 2015

Donation after cardiocirculatory death: a call for a moratorium pending full public disclosure and fully informed consent.

Philos Ethics Humanit Med 2011 Dec 29;6:17. Epub 2011 Dec 29.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Stollery Children's Hospital, Edmonton Clinic Health Academy 11405-87 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 1C9, Canada.

Many believe that the ethical problems of donation after cardiocirculatory death (DCD) have been "worked out" and that it is unclear why DCD should be resisted. In this paper we will argue that DCD donors may not yet be dead, and therefore that organ donation during DCD may violate the dead donor rule. We first present a description of the process of DCD and the standard ethical rationale for the practice. We then present our concerns with DCD, including the following: irreversibility of absent circulation has not occurred and the many attempts to claim it has have all failed; conflicts of interest at all steps in the DCD process, including the decision to withdraw life support before DCD, are simply unavoidable; potentially harmful premortem interventions to preserve organ utility are not justifiable, even with the help of the principle of double effect; claims that DCD conforms with the intent of the law and current accepted medical standards are misleading and inaccurate; and consensus statements by respected medical groups do not change these arguments due to their low quality including being plagued by conflict of interest. Moreover, some arguments in favor of DCD, while likely true, are "straw-man arguments," such as the great benefit of organ donation. The truth is that honesty and trustworthiness require that we face these problems instead of avoiding them. We believe that DCD is not ethically allowable because it abandons the dead donor rule, has unavoidable conflicts of interests, and implements premortem interventions which can hasten death. These important points have not been, but need to be fully disclosed to the public and incorporated into fully informed consent. These are tall orders, and require open public debate. Until this debate occurs, we call for a moratorium on the practice of DCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1747-5341-6-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3313846PMC
December 2011

National survey of bedside ultrasound use in pediatric critical care.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2011 Nov;12(6):655-9

Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Janet Weis Children's Hospital, Danville, PA, USA.

Objectives: The use of bedside ultrasound in critically ill adults has become standard practice. The current state of bedside ultrasound use in pediatric critical illness is unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of bedside ultrasound in critically ill children with an emphasis on its use for establishing central vascular access. We also sought to describe current methods of training for bedside ultrasound use in pediatric critical care.

Design: We conducted a cross-sectional survey on the use of bedside ultrasound in pediatric intensive care units in the United States.

Measurements And Main Results: Pediatric critical care medical directors or their representatives from 128 of 230 eligible hospitals responded (56% response rate). The use of bedside ultrasound for vascular access was statistically more likely in units with >12 beds, >1,000 yearly admissions, and those with an active fellowship or pediatric cardiothoracic surgery program. Ultrasound was used at least once for vascular access in 82% (105 of 128) of responders, with 86% (90 of 105) using it on a regular basis. When using bedside ultrasound for vascular access, the preferred site is the internal jugular vein. A significant portion of responders use bedside ultrasound for nonvascular procedures such as assessing pleural or pericardial effusions. Despite the widespread use of bedside ultrasound, formal training is rare, occurring in only 20% (18 of 90) of current institutions that utilize bedside ultrasound.

Conclusions: This national survey of the use of bedside ultrasound in pediatric critical care reveals widespread use of the technology. When using bedside ultrasound for vascular access, the preferred site is the internal jugular vein. Despite widespread use of bedside ultrasound, formal training that occurs routinely in other subspecialties is lacking. This survey provides meaningful demographic data that can be useful in planning future prospective studies and implementing formal training in bedside ultrasound for pediatric critical care fellows.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0b013e3182266a51DOI Listing
November 2011

An international assessment of a web-based diagnostic tool in critically ill children.

Technol Health Care 2008 ;16(2):103-10

Penn State Children's Hospital and The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA.

Improving diagnostic accuracy is essential. The extent of diagnostic uncertainty at patient admission is not well described in critically ill children. Therefore, we studied the extent that pediatric trainee diagnostic performance could be improved with the aid of a computerized diagnostic tool. Data regarding patient admissions to five Pediatric Intensive Care Units were collected. Information included patients' clinical details, admitting team's diagnostic workup and discharge diagnosis. An attending physician assessed each case independently and suggested additional diagnostic possibilities. Diagnostic accuracy was calculated using the discharge diagnosis as the gold standard. 206 out of 927 patients (22.2%) admitted to the PICUs did not have an established diagnosis at admission. The trainee teams considered a median of three diagnoses in their workup (IQR 3-5) and made an accurate diagnosis in 89.4% cases (95% CI 84.6%-94.2%). Diagnostic accuracy improved to 92.5% with use of the diagnostic tool alone, and to 95% with the addition of attending physicians' diagnostic suggestions. We conclude that a modest proportion of admissions to these PICUs were characterized by diagnostic uncertainty during initial assessment. Although there was a relatively high accuracy rate of initial assessment in our clinical setting, it was further improved by both the diagnostic tool and the physicians' diagnostic suggestions. It is plausible that the tool's utility would be even greater in clinical settings with less expertise in critical illness assessment, such as community hospitals, or emergency departments of non-training institutions. The role of diagnostic aids in the care of critically ill children merits further study.further study.
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August 2008

Duration of mechanical ventilation in life-threatening pediatric asthma: description of an acute asphyxial subgroup.

Pediatrics 2004 Sep;114(3):762-7

Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Strong Children's Research Center of the University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA.

Objective: Acute asphyxial asthma (AAA) is well described in adult patients and is characterized by a sudden onset that may rapidly progress to a near-arrest state. Despite the initial severity of AAA, mechanical ventilation often restores gas exchange promptly, resulting in shorter durations of ventilation. We believe that AAA can occur in children and can lead to respiratory failure that requires mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, children with rapid-onset respiratory failure that requires intubation in the emergency department (ED) are more likely to have AAA and a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation than those intubated in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).

Methods: An 11-year retrospective chart review (1991-2002) was conducted of all children who were aged 2 through 18 years and had the primary diagnosis of status asthmaticus and required mechanical ventilation.

Results: During the study period, 33 (11.4%) of 290 PICU admissions for status asthmaticus required mechanical ventilation. Thirteen children presented with rapid respiratory failure en route, on arrival, or within 30 minutes of arrival to the ED versus 20 children who progressed to respiratory failure later in their ED course or in the PICU. Mean duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the children who presented with rapid respiratory failure versus those with progressive respiratory failure (29 +/- 43 hours vs 88 +/- 72 hours). Children with rapid respiratory failure had greater improvements in ventilation and oxygenation than those with progressive respiratory failure as measured by pre- and postintubation changes in arterial carbon dioxide pressure, arterial oxygen pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio, and alveolar-arterial gradient. According to site of intubation, 23 children required intubation in the ED, whereas 10 were intubated later in the PICU. Mean duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the ED group versus the PICU group (42 +/- 63 hours vs 118 +/- 46 hours). There were significantly greater improvements in ventilation and oxygenation in the ED group versus the PICU group as measured by pre- and postintubation changes in arterial carbon dioxide pressure and arterial oxygen pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio.

Conclusions: AAA occurs in children and shares characteristics seen in adult counterparts. Need for early intubation is a marker for AAA and may not represent a failure to maximize preintubation therapies. AAA represents a distinct form of life-threatening asthma and requires additional study in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-0294DOI Listing
September 2004

Apparent life-threatening events as an indicator of occult abuse.

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004 Apr;158(4):402; author reply 402-3

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.158.4.402-aDOI Listing
April 2004