Publications by authors named "Francisco Oliveira"

231 Publications

Samanea tubulosa Benth. (Fabaceae): Antinociceptive effect on acute pain in mice: K+ATP channel and opioid activity.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2022 8;94(2):e20210715. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Universidade Federal do Piauí/UFPI/CCA, Departmento de Morfosiologia Veterinária, Rua Dirce de Oliveira, s/n, 64049-550 Teresina, PI, Brazil.

Samanea tubulosa Benth. it has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory processes. The present study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive effect and mechanism of action of the fractions obtained from the Samanea tubulosa pods in mice. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated in formalin, capsaicin and glutamate tests and the. The possible mechanisms of action involved in the antinociceptive effect of the hexane and ethyl acetate fraction in the opioid system, also the the K + ATP channels and the L-arigine pathways of nitric oxide were evaluated. The chemical characterization analysis revealed in the hexane fraction the presence of triterpenes such as lupenone and lupeol. In the glutamate test, the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions showed antinociceptive activity at the dose of 12.5 and 25 mg kg-1. The antinociception produced by the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions was significantly reversed by naloxone, indicating that the fractions act through the opioid pathway. Antinociceptive response of the ethyl acetate fraction was blocked by glibenclamide, indicating that this fraction acts via the K + ATP channels activation. It is concluded that the fractions under study exert antinociceptive activity possibly related to the opioid route and through K+ ATP channels activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765202120210715DOI Listing
July 2022

Medical Residents, the Group and the Formation of Professional Identity During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Residency is still considered the gold standard for quality medical training, and acquiring a professional identity as a specialist is one of its central elements. Residents obtain this identity through both the educational environment and direct interaction with peers and supervisors. However, modifications in health care and educational routines during the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have significantly impaired these channels. This study is part of a qualitative research project to analyze professional identity formation in a medical residency program in obstetrics and gynecology at a public hospital in southern Brazil. The authors conducted 28 semi-structured interviews with medical residents and preceptors, as well as a focus group with the residents, which was recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in an effort to construct major analytical categories. Restricted movement and physical contact have forced the use of alternative means of interpersonal interaction, such as communication through social media or instant messaging applications. This has also affected educational activities, such as morning rounds, lectures, and seminars. These changes represent a significant impact, especially in Brazil, where physical proximity is an important cultural feature, even in the work and school environments. We speculate that this new type of virtual interaction will also affect the formation of professional identity among obstetrician-gynecologists. These findings suggest that medical residency programs should be attentive to changes in resident training to ensure that the specialist profile and the expected skills, which are consolidated over many years, are not lost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-1745792DOI Listing
June 2022

Cohort profile: maternal and child health and parenting practices during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ceará, Brazil: birth cohort study (Iracema-COVID).

BMJ Open 2022 06 1;12(6):e060824. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Community Health, Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil.

Purpose: Maternal and child health and parenting practices during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ceará (Iracema-COVID) is a longitudinal, prospective population-based birth cohort designed to understand the effects of the pandemic and social withdrawal in maternal mental health, child development and parenting practices of mothers and families.

Participants: A sample of mothers who gave birth in July and August 2020 (n=351) was enrolled in the study in January 2021. Interviews were conducted by telephone. Data were collected through standardised questionnaires that, in addition to sociodemographic and economic data, collected information on breast feeding, mental health status and COVID-19.

Findings To Date: Results from the first wave show that the majority of participants have 9-11 years of schooling (54.4%; 95% CI 61.0 to 70.9) and are of mixed race (71.5%; 95% CI 66.5 to 76.0). At the time of the survey, 27.9% of the participants were out of the labor force (95% CI 23.5 to 32.9) and 78.6% reported a decrease in family income after restrictions imposed due to the pandemic (95% CI 74.0 to 82.6). The prevalence of maternal common mental disorder symptoms was 32.5% (95% CI 27.8 to 37.6).

Future Plans: Follow-up visits are planned to occur every 6 months for the next five years (2021-2025). Additional topics will be included in future waves (eg, food insecurity and parenting practices). Communication strategies for bonding, such as picture cards, pictures of mothers with their children and phone calls to the participants, will be used to minimise attrition. Results of this prospective cohort will generate novel knowledge on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal and child health and parenting practices in a population of women and children living in fifth largest city of Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2022-060824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9160586PMC
June 2022

Impact of Acute Blood Loss on Clinical, Hematological, Biochemical, and Oxidative Stress Variables in Sheep.

Vet Sci 2022 May 11;9(5). Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Animal Science, Federal Rural University of the Semiarid Region, Av. Francisco Mota 572, Bairro Costa e Silva, Mossoró 59625-000, RN, Brazil.

Blood loss in sheep can have different causes and may result in anemia. We aimed to evaluate the clinical, hematological, and biochemical alterations and the oxidative stress generated by acute blood loss. Eighteen healthy sheep underwent phlebotomy to remove 40% of the blood volume and were evaluated clinically and by laboratory tests for clinical, biochemical, and blood gas variables and to assess oxidative stress before induction (T0), 30 min (T30 min), and 6 (T6 h), 12 (T12 h), and 24 h (T24 h) after blood loss. The sheep showed tachycardia from T30 min until T24 h, reduction in the hematocrit, number of erythrocytes, and hemoglobin concentration, with lower values at T24 h and increase in the number of leukocytes from T12 h on. There was a reduction in blood pH and oxygen pressure at T30 min, increased lactate concentration and reduced blood bicarbonate at this time. There was an increase in urea concentration from T6 h until the end of the study, with no change in creatinine levels. The animals did not show changes in the concentration of malonaldehyde, and in the activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, but there was a reduction in the concentration of reduced glutathione at T24 h. The acute loss of 40% of blood volume is capable of promoting relevant clinical, hematological, blood gas, and biochemical alterations, and contributed to the appearance of oxidative stress with reduced glutathione concentration, suggesting that this process generated free radicals in sufficient quantity to diminish the action of antioxidants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9050229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9147502PMC
May 2022

A New Species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 from the Saffron Finch, Sicalis flaveola (Aves: Passeriformes) in Brazil.

Acta Parasitol 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Instituto do Noroeste Fluminense de Educação Superior, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Avenida João Jasbick, Santo Antônio de Pádua, Rio de Janeiro, 28470-000, Brazil.

Purpose: The present study describes a new species of Eimeria found in free-living S. flaveola that inhabit the city of Eugenópolis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Methods: Fecal samples from all captured birds were filtered through double gauze, mixed with 2.5% potassium dichromate (KCrO), placed in a Petri dish and incubated at 23-28 °C until 70% of the oocysts were sporulated.

Results: Eimeria flaveola n. sp. from the saffron finch, Sicalis flaveola (Aves: Passeriformes), was described in Brazil. Sporulated oocysts are subspherical; 22.67 ± 1.57 (18.47-26.48) × 21.19 ± 1.42 (16.69-24.91) µm; with a shape-index of 1.07 ± 0.05 (1.00-1.25) µm and a smooth, bilayered wall, ~ 1.09 μm. A micropyle and an oocyst residuum are absent, but one polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 14.24 ± 1.71 (9.02-19.33) × 9.98 ± 1.02 (6.80-12.87) μm; with a shape-index of 1.43 ± 0.16 (0.74-2.11). The Stieda body is button-shaped; sub-Stieda body and para-Stieda absent. The sporocyst residuum is formed by a compact rounded mass of granules. The sporozoite is claviform, 11.53 µm in length and 2.84 µm in width, with a refractile body and a nucleus.

Conclusions: Based on its morphological and morphometric characteristics, we consider E. flaveola a newly identified species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11686-022-00566-wDOI Listing
May 2022

Involvement of cranial nerves in ATTR Ile127Val amyloidosis.

Eur J Med Genet 2022 Jul 14;65(7):104524. Epub 2022 May 14.

Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

The involvement of cranial nerves is rare in ATTR amyloidosis. However, involvement has occasionally been reported in the p.Val50Met variant, the most commonly studied worldwide. On the other hand, in ATTR p.Ile127Val, an uncommon variant, the cranial nerves IX, X, and XII, are frequently involved. Here, we present a series of cases of ATTR Ile107Val amyloidosis, in which the involvement of multiple cranial nerves V, VII, IX, X, XI, and XII seems to be routinely included in phenotypic manifestations in different phases of clinical evolution, contributing significantly to the resulting disabilities caused by this variant. The recognition of these manifestations enables earlier diagnoses and reduces complications from the involvement of cranial nerves, such as dysphagia and respiratory impairment, which greatly increase the burden caused by the disease and significantly limit the quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2022.104524DOI Listing
July 2022

Health Interventions for Preventing Climate-Sensitive Diseases: Scoping Review.

J Urban Health 2022 06 25;99(3):519-532. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Health Sciences Institute, University for International Integration of the Afro-Brazilian Lusophony, s/n José Franco de Oliveira St., Redenção, CE 62790-970, Brazil.

Climate variations cause public health problems, but the literature is still scarce on studies involving health interventions against climate-sensitive diseases. The objective of this review was to identify health interventions for the prevention of such diseases. We conducted a scoping review using the JBI Methodology. Six large research databases were searched (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Lilacs, Embase, and Cochrane). The following inclusion criterion was used: studies addressing health interventions to prevent climate-sensitive diseases or consequences of climate on people's health. The exclusion criteria consisted of thesis, dissertations, conference proceedings, studies with unclear information/methodology, and studies not addressing climate-related health interventions. No language or date restrictions were applied. Of 733 studies identified and screened by title and abstract, 55 studies underwent full-text screening, yielding 13 studies for review. The health interventions identified were classified into three levels of management. The macro level included the use of epidemiological models, renewable energy, and policies sensitive to climate change. The meso level comprised interventions such as the creation of environmental suitability maps, urban greening, chemoprophylaxis, water security plans, and sanitation projects, among other measures. Some interventions are at the intersection, such as educational campaigns and the modification of artificial larvae sites. Finally, the micro level contained interventions such as the inspection of window screens and the use of light-colored clothing and repellents. The health interventions at the macro, meso, and micro levels and the intersection may serve as a basis for public managers to implement appropriate interventions against climate-sensitive diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11524-022-00631-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9187784PMC
June 2022

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELENIUM NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND MARKERS OF LOW-GRADE CHRONIC INFLAMMATION IN OBESE WOMEN.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2022 Apr 6. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil.

Low-grade chronic inflammation is one of the main disorders that characterize adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity and is an important element in the pathogenesis of several comorbidities. In this context, selenium is an essential micronutrient that exerts important anti-inflammatory functions, and the role of selenium in controlling inflammation associated with obesity is not well defined. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between markers of the nutritional status of selenium and low-grade chronic inflammation in obese women. This cross-sectional study included 81 women aged between 18 and 50 years, who were divided into two groups according to body mass index (BMI): the obesity group (n = 38) and normal weight group (n = 43). Selenium intake was assessed by 3-day diet records. The plasma, erythrocyte, and urinary selenium concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The analysis of serum cytokines interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was performed using flow cytometry. The results of this study revealed that the obese women had higher dietary intake of selenium than eutrophic women. However, obese participants showed decreased selenium concentrations in plasma and erythrocytes, in parallel with increased concentrations of selenium in the urine. Regarding the inflammatory parameters, obese women exhibited higher concentrations of IL-6 and lower concentrations of the cytokines IL-8, IL-1β, and TNFα than eutrophic women. In the binary logistic regression analysis, erythrocyte selenium was considered an independent predictor of the serum concentrations of cytokine IL-8 in obese women, reflecting the anti-inflammatory action of this micronutrient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-022-03209-3DOI Listing
April 2022

Effects of Sodium Monensin on Copper Metabolism of Brazilian Santa Inês Sheep Submitted to Different Dietary Copper.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2022 Jan 27. Epub 2022 Jan 27.

Department of Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo (FMVZ/USP), Av. Prof. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05508-270, Brazil.

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of sodium monensin on the hepatic accumulation of copper in sheep. Twenty-four Santa Inês crossbred sheep were used and allocated in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with six repetitions and considering the factors dietary copper (basal and high) and supplementation (with and without sodium monensin). Thus, four homogeneous groups were formed: control (basal diet); monensin (Mon), 30 ppm of monensin; copper (Cu), 10 10 mg/kg BW per day of copper; monensin + copper (MonCu). The experimental period lasted 14 weeks. Liver and bile samples were collected at the beginning and end of the experiment to determine mineral element concentrations, and weekly blood samples for biochemical, hematological, and mineral evaluation. Liver copper concentrations at the beginning of the experiment did not vary between groups, while mean liver copper concentrations at the end of the experiment were higher in the MonCu, Cu, and Mon groups when compared to the control. At the end of the study, hepatic copper concentration was influenced by copper (p = 0.0001) and monensin (p = 0.0003) supplementation. Copper-supplemented groups had reduced liver iron contents (p = 0.0287) and increased copper concentrations in bile. The biochemical evaluation showed increased serum GGT and AST activity (p < 0.05) in the Cu and MonCu groups from the eleventh week on compared to the control and Mon groups. The increase in activity of these enzymes was influenced by copper supplementation (p = 0.0340). Monensin interferes positively with the hepatic accumulation of copper and the supplementation of this additive may predispose sheep to copper poisoning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-022-03132-7DOI Listing
January 2022

Electrochemical and theoretical investigation on the behavior of the Co ion in three eutectic solvents.

J Mol Graph Model 2022 05 20;112:108137. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Departamento de Química Analítica e Físico-Química, Centro de Ciências, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus do Pici, Bloco 940, 60440-900, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. Electronic address:

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have many advantages, making them a promising alternative in replacing ionic liquids and organic solvents. Besides, DESs have received much prominence due to their diverse applications: Electrodeposition of metals, organic synthesis, gas adsorption, and biodiesel production. Therefore, this work analyzed the effect of the temperature increase (298 K-353 K) on the behavior of the Co ions in three eutectic solvents through electrochemical techniques and computational simulations. From the electrochemical analysis realized, the increase in temperature caused a reduction in specific mass and an increase in the diffusion coefficient. Besides, the activation energy values were of 15.3, 29.9, and 55.2 kJ mol for 1ChCl:2 EG, 1ChCl:2U, and 1ChCl:2G, respectively. The computational simulations indicate that the increased temperature effect caused the replacement of HBD molecules by anions chloride around Co ions for the SDW1 and SDW3 systems between the temperatures of 298 K-353 K, except for the SDW2 system that the replaced occurred in the interval of 313 K-353 K. Besides, the increase of temperature occasioned the increase of strength for Co-Cl interaction and weakened the interactions between the Co ions with the oxygen of HBD molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmgm.2022.108137DOI Listing
May 2022

Clinical-like cryotherapy in acute knee arthritis of the knee improves inflammation signs, pain, joint swelling, and motor performance in mice.

PLoS One 2022;17(1):e0261667. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Department of Physical Therapy, Center of Biological Sciences and Health (CBSH), Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCAR), São Carlos, Brazil.

To assess the effects of clinical-like cryotherapy on inflammatory signs (in vivo neutrophil migration, cytokines, and joint inflammation), pain, joint swelling, balance, and motor coordination in mice with knee arthritis. Young C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups (8 to 10 mice per group): Control group: mice with no intervention; antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) group: mice sensitized and immunized with intra-articular (i.a.) injection of methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA); and AIA + cryotherapy group: mice sensitized, immunized with i.a. injection of mBSA, and submitted to a clinical-like cryotherapy protocol. After 21 days of sensitization, AIA and AIA + cryotherapy groups received i.a. injection of mBSA (100 μg/joint) to induce joint inflammation, and a clinical-like cryotherapy protocol was applied to AIA + cryotherapy group (crushed ice bag, two cryotherapy sessions of 20 min every two hours). Experimental analysis was conducted in the initial (immediately after i.a. injection of mBSA) and final periods (two hours after the second cryotherapy session). The number of synovial fluid neutrophils, cytokine levels, joint histology, pain, joint swelling, and motor performance were also analyzed. Our results showed that clinical-like cryotherapy in mice with acute knee arthritis reduced inflammatory signs, pain, and joint swelling, and improved balance and motor coordination.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0261667PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8782531PMC
February 2022

Positron Emission Tomography-Derived Metrics Predict the Probability of Local Relapse After Oligometastasis-Directed Ablative Radiation Therapy.

Adv Radiat Oncol 2022 Mar-Apr;7(2):100864. Epub 2021 Dec 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, Lisbon, Portugal.

Purpose: Early positron emission tomography-derived metrics post-oligometastasis radioablation may predict impending local relapses (LRs), providing a basis for a timely ablation.

Methods And Materials: Positron emission tomography data of 623 lesions treated with either 24 Gy single-dose radiation therapy (SDRT) (n = 475) or 3 ×  9 Gy stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) (n = 148) were analyzed in a training data set (n = 246) to obtain optimal cutoffs for pretreatment maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) and its 3-month posttreatment decline (ΔSUV) in predicting LR risk, validated in a data set unseen to testing (n = 377).

Results: At a median of 21.7 months, 91 lesions developed LRs: 39 of 475 (8.2%) after SDRT and 52 of 148 (35.1%) after SBRT. The optimal cutoff values were 12 for SUV and -75% for ΔSUV. Bivariate SUV/ΔSUV permutations rendered a 3-tiered LR risk stratification of dual-favorable (low risk), 1 adverse (intermediate risk) and dual-adverse (high risk). Actuarial 5-year local relapse-free survival rates were 93.9% versus 89.6% versus 57.1% ( < .0001) and 76.1% versus 48.3% versus 8.2% ( < .0001) for SDRT and SBRT, respectively. The SBRT area under the ROC curve was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.61-0.79) and the high-risk subgroup yielded a 76.5% true positive LR prediction rate.

Conclusions: The SBRT dual-adverse SUV/ΔSUV category LR prediction power provides a basis for prospective studies testing whether a timely ablation of impending LRs affects oligometastasis outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adro.2021.100864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8752878PMC
December 2021

Geographical and temporal spread of equine rabies in Brazil.

Acta Trop 2022 Mar 4;227:106302. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Campus Professora Cinobelina Elvas (CPCE), Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI), BR 135 Km 03, Planalto Norte, Bom Jesus, Piauí 64900-000, Brazil. Electronic address:

In Brazil, the horse is frequently used in cultural activities, sports, and in rural and urban work, implementing the economy in different social classes. Among the diseases in horses with zoonotic potential, rabies has been neglected in the country, increasing the risk of spreading the disease across borders. The present study evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution and temporal trend of rabies in horses in Brazil between 2010 and 2019. During this period, 1290 cases of rabies were detected in horses in Brazil, mainly in the states of São Paulo (21.7%) and Mato Grosso (13.3%). However, Espírito Santo stood out, with an incidence risk (IR) of 139.7 cases of rabies per 100,000 horses. The years 2013 and 2017 had higher peaks of IR for the disease, and the states that contributed to this increase were Mato Grosso, São Paulo, and Espírito Santo. There was no monthly seasonality of the disease among the states. The temporal trend revealed an increase for the northeastern region (Annual Percentage Change [APC]: 8.9%) and for Alagoas State (APC: 26.6%). In the spatiotemporal analysis, three high-risk clusters were formed: (i) cluster A (Relative Risk [RRs]: 6.21), involving only Minas Gerais, between 2017 and 2019; (ii) cluster B (RRs: 6.18), involving only Mato Grosso, between 2011 and 2013; and (iii) cluster C (RRs:4.71), involving the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, between 2010 and 2014. Only the states of Roraima and Amapá had no cases of equine rabies during the study period. Therefore, rabies in horses occurs in all Brazilian regions, with areas at high risk of infection concentrated in the Southeast. However, attention should be directed to the north-eastern and northern states, where notifications were infrequent, with an unknown risk in relation to the spread of rabies to transboundary regions. This is the first study evaluating the interstate distribution of rabies in equine species in regions of Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2022.106302DOI Listing
March 2022

Spatial distribution of human visceral leishmaniasis cases in Cametá, Pará, Eastern Amazon, Brazil.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2021 15;54:e0220. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Universidade do Estado do Pará, Laboratório de Epidemiologia e Geoprocessamento da Amazônia, Belém, PA, Brasil.

Introduction: Human visceral leishmaniasis is considered a major public health problem in the municipality of Cametá, Pará, Brazil.

Methods: This ecological study was conducted using data obtained from official Brazilian agencies. Spatial analysis of the variables was performed using the kernel interpolation technique and the bivariate Global Moran's Index.

Results: The spatial distribution of the disease was not homogeneous, and it was associated with socio-environmental risk factors and public policies.

Conclusions: Different relationships were observed between the variables studied and disease occurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0220-2021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8601242PMC
November 2021

Gastroprotective Activity of (Arruda) Mez. (Bromeliaceae) in Rats and Mice.

J Med Food 2021 Oct 23;24(10):1113-1123. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Medicinal Plants Research Center, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina, Brazil.

(Arruda) Mez (Bromeliaceae) is a medicinal plant popularly known as "caroá." The leaves are made up of highly resistant fibers, which is of great commercial value to the handicraft and textile industry. Some studies have demonstrated that ethanolic extract of have gastroprotective properties. This study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective activity and cytoprotective mechanisms of ethyl acetate (Nv-AcOEt), hexane (Nv-Hex), and chloroform (Nv-CHCl) fractions of leaves. The gastroprotective activity of Nv-AcOEt, Nv-Hex, and Nv-CHCl was evaluated using the ethanol and ethanol/HCl-induced gastric injury model. To elucidate the gastroprotective mechanisms, the functions of prostaglandins (PGs), nitric oxide (NO), and K channels were evaluated. In addition, the nonprotein sulfhydryl groups and the mucus content in the gastric tissues were analyzed. All fractions of leaves at oral doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg significantly decreased ethanol and ethanol/HCl-induced gastric lesions, leading to gastroprotection, accompanied by an increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) and gastric mucus. Gastroprotective activity of Nv-AcOEt was inhibited after pretreatment with ibuprofen and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG). Gastroprotective effect of Nv-Hex and Nv-CHCl was also inhibited after pretreatment with L-NOARG and with glibenclamide. The results indicate that (Arruda) Mez exhibits promising gastroprotective activity with the possible participation of NO, PGs, mucus, sulfhydryl groups, and K.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2020.0182DOI Listing
October 2021

Machine Learning for the Dynamic Positioning of UAVs for Extended Connectivity.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 5;21(13). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics (DETI), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) networks are an emerging technology, useful not only for the military, but also for public and civil purposes. Their versatility provides advantages in situations where an existing network cannot support all requirements of its users, either because of an exceptionally big number of users, or because of the failure of one or more ground base stations. Networks of UAVs can reinforce these cellular networks where needed, redirecting the traffic to available ground stations. Using machine learning algorithms to predict overloaded traffic areas, we propose a UAV positioning algorithm responsible for determining suitable positions for the UAVs, with the objective of a more balanced redistribution of traffic, to avoid saturated base stations and decrease the number of users without a connection. The tests performed with real data of user connections through base stations show that, in less restrictive network conditions, the algorithm to dynamically place the UAVs performs significantly better than in more restrictive conditions, reducing significantly the number of users without a connection. We also conclude that the accuracy of the prediction is a very important factor, not only in the reduction of users without a connection, but also on the number of UAVs deployed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21134618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271840PMC
July 2021

COVID-19 and mental health of pregnant women in Ceará, Brazil.

Rev Saude Publica 2021 2;55:37. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Universidade Federal do Ceará. Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Saúde Coletiva. Fortaleza, CE, Brasil.

Objective: To assess the perceptions of pregnant women about COVID-19 and the prevalence of common mental disorders during the implemented social distancing period.

Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional study using digital media, of pregnant women exposed to social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic, in Fortaleza, Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. Common mental disorders were estimated using the modified Self-Report Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) scale, and the feelings towards COVID-19 were assessed using the Fear of COVID-19 scale through telephone calls made in May 2020. COX multivariate regression models were used to verify the associations.

Results: Of the 1,041 pregnant women, 45.7% (95%CI: 42.7-48.8) had common mental disorders (CMD). All items of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale showed a significant association with the prevalence of CMD (p < 0.001). A CMD risk gradient was observed, going from a prevalence ratio of 1.52 (95%CI: 1.13-2.04) in pregnant women with two positive items to 2.70 (95%CI: 2.08-3.51) for those with four positive items. Early gestational age and the lack of prenatal care were also associated with CMD.

Conclusions: The prevalence of common mental disorders in pregnant women was high during the period of social distancing and was aggravated by negative feelings towards COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11606/s1518-8787.2021055003225DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139842PMC
June 2021

Interstitial lung disease due to anti-TNF use in the treatment of psoriasis.

An Bras Dermatol 2021 Jul-Aug;96(4):447-450. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Medicine, Hospital Universitário Onofre Lopes, Natal, RN, Brazil.

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the skin variably, according to genetic and environmental factors. Some patients may benefit from systemic treatment with immunobiological agents, drugs that can be accompanied by several adverse effects. A case of a 58-year-old patient undergoing treatment for psoriasis with adalimumab for five years is reported. Alterations compatible with interstitial pneumonia were detected with important regression after adalimumab discontinuation. This case is relevant due to the scarcity of reports on late pulmonary adverse effect of anti-TNF treatment of psoriasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abd.2020.08.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245706PMC
July 2021

Fish tissues for biomonitoring toxic and essential trace elements in the Lower Amazon.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 26;283:117024. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Animal Pathology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Santiago de Compostela, 27002, Lugo, Spain.

Brazilian soils can have high concentrations of toxic elements, mainly mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As), metals also associated with anthropogenic activities (e.g. intensive agriculture, mining, deforestation and hydroelectric plants). This can lead to large amounts of these elements reaching and/or being mobilized in the aquatic ecosystem, which constitutes a serious threat to the environment and to the health of local populations. Thus, we evaluate the feasibility of analyzing the tissues of freshwater fish species for monitoring toxic and trace element accumulation within the aquatic ecosystem in the Lower Amazon, Brazil. Two fish species were considered: Cichla temensis (Tucunaré), a carnivorous species, and Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Acari), a detritivorous species. Samples of liver and muscle from both species were evaluated in relation to their potential use for biomonitoring purposes. The study findings clearly demonstrate the value these fish species and tissues, particularly liver, for biomonitoring toxic and trace element concentrations in the aquatic environment across the study region. While Tucunaré liver proved the best option for biomonitoring elements that accumulate through the food chain (e.g. Hg), Acari liver better reflected elements that typically accumulate in the sediments (e.g. As). Moreover, the trace element profiles, determined using chemometric (multivariate) techniques, differed greatly in specimens from waters in the Andean mountain range (sampling sites located in the main course of the Amazon River) with high sediment concentrations, and in specimens from the Guyana and Brazilian shields (Porto Trombetas on the Trombetas River and Itaituba on the Tapajós River). The findings also indicate that deposition of elements in freshwater fish in this area is mainly associated with the geological origin of the soils and that large amounts of toxic elements can reach the aquatic ecosystem due to anthropogenic activities, thereby posing a serious danger to the environment and the health of the riverside communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117024DOI Listing
August 2021

Automatic classification of idiopathic Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonian syndromes combining [C]raclopride PET uptake and MRI grey matter morphometry.

J Neural Eng 2021 04 29;18(4). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Coimbra Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Translational Research (CIBIT), University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

To explore the viability of developing a computer-aided diagnostic system for Parkinsonian syndromes using dynamic [C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data.The biological heterogeneity of Parkinsonian syndromes renders their statistical classification a challenge. The unique combination of structural and molecular imaging data allowed different classifier designs to be tested. Datasets from dynamic [C]raclopride PET and T1-weighted MRI scans were acquired from six groups of participants. There were healthy controls (CTRL= 15), patients with Parkinson's disease (PD= 27), multiple system atrophy (MSA= 8), corticobasal degeneration (CBD= 6), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB= 5). MSA, CBD, and DLB patients were classified into one category designated as atypical Parkinsonism (AP). The distribution volume ratio (DVR) kinetic parameters obtained from the PET data were used to quantify the reversible tracer binding to D2/D3 receptors in the subcortical regions of interest (ROI). The grey matter (GM) volumes obtained from the MRI data were used to quantify GM atrophy across cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar ROI.The classifiers CTRL vs PD and CTRL vs AP achieved the highest balanced accuracy combining DVR and GM (DVR-GM) features (96.7%, 92.1%, respectively), followed by the classifiers designed with DVR features (93.3%, 88.8%, respectively), and GM features (69.6%, 86.1%, respectively). In contrast, the classifier PD vs AP showed the highest balanced accuracy (78.9%) using DVR features only. The integration of DVR-GM (77.9%) and GM features (72.7%) produced inferior performances. The classifier CTRL vs PD vs AP showed high weighted balanced accuracy when DVR (80.5%) or DVR-GM features (79.9%) were integrated. GM features revealed poorer performance (59.5%).This work was unique in its combination of structural and molecular imaging features in binary and triple category classifications. We were able to demonstrate improved binary classification of healthy/diseased status (concerning both PD and AP) and equate performance to DVR features in multiclass classifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/abf772DOI Listing
April 2021

Streptococcus mutans in atherosclerotic plaque: Molecular and immunohistochemical evaluations.

Oral Dis 2022 Sep 30;28(6):1705-1714. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Stomatology and Oral Pathology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil.

Objectives: To verify the presence of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in atherosclerotic plaque (AP) using techniques with different sensitivities, correlating with histological changes in plaque and immunoexpression of inflammatory markers.

Materials And Methods: Thirteen AP samples were subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), histopathological analyses, histochemical analysis by Giemsa staining (GS), and immunohistochemical analysis for S. mutans, IL-1β, and TNF-α (streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method). Ten necropsy samples of healthy vessels were used as controls.

Results: All AP samples showed histopathological characteristics of severe atherosclerosis and were positive for S. mutans (100.0%) in qRT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses. GS showed that Streptococcus sp. colonized the lipid-rich core regions and fibrous tissue, while the control group was negative for Streptococcus sp. IL-1β and TNF-α were expressed in 100% and 92.3% of the AP tested, respectively. The control samples were positive for S. mutans in qRT-PCR analysis, but negative for S. mutans, IL-1β, and TNF-α in immunohistochemical analyses.

Conclusion: The detection of S. mutans in AP and the visualization of Streptococcus sp. suggested a possible association between S. mutans and atherosclerosis. The results obtained from the control samples suggested the presence of DNA fragments or innocuous bacteria that were not associated with tissue alteration. However, future studies are necessary to provide more information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.13869DOI Listing
September 2022

Kidney transplantation in the time of COVID-19: Dilemmas, experiences, and perspectives.

Transpl Infect Dis 2021 Aug 31;23(4):e13600. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Transplant Division, Hospital do Rim, UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: Hospital do Rim is a high-volume kidney transplant (KT) center located in São Paulo, a city with 12.2 million inhabitants. Over the last 18 years, we performed 11 436 KT, 70% of which from deceased donors. To mitigate the effects of reduction in the number of transplants on the waiting list, sequential measures were implemented when COVID-19 was declared pandemic.

Methods: The first step was to provide SARS-COV-2 RT-PCR testing for all symptomatic employees and patients and the compulsory use of personal protective equipment in the hospital facilities. Living donor KT were postponed, and all deceased donors and recipients were tested before the transplantation. The immunosuppressive protocols were maintained, and telehealth strategies were developed.

Results: Among the 1013 employees, there were 214 cases of COVID-19, nine required ward hospitalization, and no deaths occurred. In 26%, the probable source of contamination was occupational. From the first patient diagnosed with COVID-19 in 03/20/2020 till 10/21/2020, 523 deceased KT were performed, a 21% increase compared with 2019, with no confirmed donor-derived SARS-CoV-2 infection. Four patients were transplanted with a positive pretransplant SARS-CoV-2 test, but none of them developed the disease. Overall, of 11 875 KT followed in our center, 674 developed COVID-19. Among the hospitalized, 53% required mechanical ventilation, and 45% required hemodialysis. Their overall mortality rate was 27.5%.

Conclusion: This experience shows the challenges that transplant centers faced as the pandemic unfolded and illustrates the effectiveness of the sequential measures implemented to provide a safe environment for transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8250226PMC
August 2021

Biochemical and blood gas alterations in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) whole blood stored in CPDA-1 and CPD/SAG-M bags.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2021 Mar 12;31(2):269-273. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Laboratory of Animal Health (LARSANA), Federal University of Western Pará (UFOPA), Santarém, Brazil.

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the biochemical and blood gas alterations of whole blood of buffaloes that was stored in citrate-phosphate-dextrose with adenine (CPDA-1) and CPD/SAG-M blood bags for 42 days.

Design: Prospective study.

Interventions: Ten male buffaloes were used in this study. A total volume of 900 mL of blood was collected from each buffalo so that 450 mL was stored in CPDA-1 and 450 mL was stored in CPD/SAG-M bags at 2-6°C for 42 days. The stored blood was evaluated at 7 time points (D): D0 (immediately after blood collection) and 7 (D7), 14 (D14), 21 (D21), 28 (D28), 35 (D35), and 42 (D42) days after collection. Blood gas, biochemical, and microbiological parameters were monitored.

Measurements And Main Results: The overall blood pH decreased from 6.997 ± 0.05 at D0 to 6.784 ± 0.09 at D42, differing from baseline from D14 onward (P < 0.05). There were increases in partial pressure of oxygen (pO ), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO ), lactate, and potassium (K) and decreases in the concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate, glucose, and pH (P < 0.05) during storage in both bags but no alterations in total protein concentration. Most of the variables were consistently similar between the 2 types of blood bags (P > 0.05) evaluated, with the exception of pCO , HCO cholesterol, and total protein, which had higher values in the CPDA-1 bag (P < 0.05). The K, pO , and lactate had the highest alterations during storage, with increases from baseline to D42 of 563%, 317%, and 169%, respectively.

Conclusion: In general, no significant changes of clinical importance were observed after storage of whole blood samples from buffaloes for 42 days in the 2 types of blood bags that are indicated for use with this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vec.13053DOI Listing
March 2021

Quaternary climatic fluctuations influence the demographic history of two species of sky-island endemic amphibians in the Neotropics.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 07 19;160:107113. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Herpetology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA.

We evaluated the role of Quaternary climatic fluctuations on the demographic history and population structure of amphibian species endemic to the 'campo rupestre' in the Neotropics, evaluating their distributional shifts, demographic changes, and lineage formation from the end of Pleistocene to present. We chose two anurans endemic to the high-elevation 'campo rupestre' in the Espinhaço Range (ER) in northeastern and southeastern Brazil (Bokermannohyla alvarengai and Bokermannohyla oxente), as models to test the role of Quaternary climatic fluctuations over their distribution range in this region. We collected tissue samples throughout their distribution range and used statistical phylogeography to examine processes of divergence and population demography. We generated spatial-temporal reconstructions using Bayesian inference in a coalescent framework in combination with hind-cast projections of species distribution models (SDMs). We also used the results and literature information to test alternative diversification scenarios via approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). Our results show that Quaternary climatic fluctuations influenced the geographic ranges of both species showing population expansion during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and range contraction during interglacial periods, as inferred from selected ABC models and from past projections of SDMs. We recovered Pleistocene diversification for both species occuring in distinctly unique periods for each taxon. An older and range-restricted lineage was recovered in a geographically isolated geological massif, deserving conservation and further taxonomic study. The diversification and distribution of these amphibian species endemic to the Neotropical 'campo rupestre' were influenced by Quaternary climatic fluctuations. The expansion of cold adapted species restricted to higher elevations during glacial periods and their concomitant retraction during interglacial periods may have been crucial for producing patterns of species richness and endemism along elevation gradients in tropical and subtropical domains. Such processes may influence the evolution of the biota distributed in heterogeneous landscapes with varied topography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107113DOI Listing
July 2021

I-FP-CIT SPECT in dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease: a new quantitative analysis of autopsy confirmed cases.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, Champalimaud Foundation, Lisboa, Portugal.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the differentiation of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) using a quantitative analysis of I-FP-CIT SPECT scans.

Methods: Thirty-six patients with in vivo I-FP-CIT SPECT and neuropathological diagnoses were included. Based on neuropathological criteria, patients were further subclassified into nine AD, eight DLB, ten PD and nine with other diagnoses. An additional 16 healthy controls (HC) scanned with I-FP-CIT SPECT were also included. All images were visually assessed as normal versus abnormal uptake by consensus of five nuclear medicine physicians. Bihemispheric mean was calculated for caudate binding potential (CBP), putamen binding potential (PBP) and putamen-to-caudate ratio (PCR).

Results: Patients with DLB had significantly lower CBP and PBP than patients with AD and significantly higher PCR than patients with PD. Qualitative visual analysis of the images gave an accuracy of 88% in the evaluation of the status of the nigrostriatal pathway considering all individuals, and 96% considering only the patients with PD, AD and DLB. Quantitative analyses provided a balanced accuracy of 94%, 94% and 100% in binary classifications DLB versus AD, DLB versus PD and PD versus AD, respectively, and an accuracy of 93% in the differentiation among patients with DLB, AD and PD simultaneously. No statistically significant differences were observed between the AD and HC.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates a very high diagnostic accuracy of the quantitative analysis of(I-FP-CIT SPECT data to differentiate among patients with DLB, PD and AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2020-324606DOI Listing
February 2021

Selenium status and its relationship with thyroid hormones in obese women.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 02 11;41:398-404. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Piauí, Campus Ministro Petrônio Portella, Teresina, Piauí, 64049-550, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Studies have been conducted with the purpose of elucidating thyroid gland dysfunction in obesity, however the contributing factors for such dysfunction are not yet fully understood. Selenium is notable for its role in thyrocyte protection against oxidative damage and control of thyroid hormone synthesis. In addition, subjects with obesity may exhibit alterations in the selenium homeostasis. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the selenium status and its relationship with serum thyroid hormone levels in obese women.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 69 euthyroid women, aged between 18 and 50 years, who were divided in two groups: an obese group (n = 35) and a control group with women of normal weight (n = 34). Selenium intake was assessed by three-day diet records and analyzed using NutWin software version 1.5. Plasma, erythrocyte, and urinary selenium levels were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Testing for thyroid hormones and thyroid autoantibodies was performed based on chemiluminescence.

Results: The median dietary selenium content was adequate according to the recommendations, with no statistical difference between groups. Obese women had reduced plasma and erythrocyte selenium levels compared to the control group, although selenium concentration in erythrocytes was adequate within the normal range for both groups. There was no significant difference between the urinary selenium concentrations in the subjects; however, the mineral clearance was higher in the obese group. Free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels were higher in obese women with class II obesity when compared to the control group. There was a negative correlation between plasma selenium and serum fT4 levels.

Conclusions: Obese women showed impairment in selenium homeostasis, however, this fact did not seem to adversely affect thyroid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2020.10.012DOI Listing
February 2021

Neurological Manifestations of COVID-19 and the Importance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2021 ;20(5):390-391

Department of Medicine, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo School of Medical Sciences, Discipline Neurology, Sao Paulo/SP, Brazil.

A letter to the editor to discuss several uses of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the investigation of neurological manifestations of covid-19. Described several situations in which the MRI is needed. Brain MRI is an important diagnostic method in the covid-19 scenario, to investigate possible neurological complications of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871527320666210122093458DOI Listing
November 2021

Telemonitoring of Children with COVID-19: Experience Report of the First 100 Cases.

Telemed Rep 2021 22;2(1):39-45. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Emergency, Sabará Hospital Infantil, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: The first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Brazil was diagnosed in February 2020. On March 20, the Ministry of Health issued Ordinance no. 467, regulating the use of telemedicine during the pandemic period. One of the various modalities of telemedicine is telemonitoring.

Objective: To report our experience with telemonitoring and evaluate its applicability in the follow-up of the first 100 children who received the diagnosis of COVID-19 after visiting the emergency department of Sabará Hospital Infantil ("Hospital Sabará") and who had no indications for hospitalization.

Methods: The care records of the children were retrospectively analyzed, and telephone contact with the families of patients who did not complete the proposed telemonitoring protocol was initiated.

Results: The average age of the children was 5.5 years, and a slight male predominance (54/100) was observed. Comorbidities were present in 24/100. The source of infection was family members living in the same household in 88/100 and other sources in 12/100. In the first telemonitoring, 44% of the evaluated patients were asymptomatic. In the second telemonitoring, 81% of the patients were asymptomatic. Telemonitoring was completed by 70% of the children. A total of 14 children returned to the emergency department, 11 of whom spontaneously (2/11 were admitted) and 3 under the indication of telemedicine (3/3 were admitted).

Conclusions: Telemonitoring proved to be a clinically valuable resource in the follow-up of children with COVID-19, as it allowed continuity of care and identified patients with indications to return to the emergency department of Hospital Sabará and for hospitalization, thus avoiding unnecessary emergency department visits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/tmr.2020.0006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9049810PMC
January 2021

A link between synaptic plasticity and reorganization of brain activity in Parkinson's disease.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 01;118(3)

Institute of Nuclear Sciences Applied to Health, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal;

The link between synaptic plasticity and reorganization of brain activity in health and disease remains a scientific challenge. We examined this question in Parkinson's disease (PD) where functional up-regulation of postsynaptic D receptors has been documented while its significance at the neural activity level has never been identified. We investigated cortico-subcortical plasticity in PD using the oculomotor system as a model to study reorganization of dopaminergic networks. This model is ideal because this system reorganizes due to frontal-to-parietal shifts in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity. We tested the prediction that functional activation plasticity is associated with postsynaptic dopaminergic modifications by combining positron emission tomography/functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate striatal postsynaptic reorganization of dopamine D receptors (using C-raclopride) and neural activation in PD. We used covariance (connectivity) statistics at molecular and functional levels to probe striato-cortical reorganization in PD in on/off medication states to show that functional and molecular forms of reorganization are related. D binding across regions defined by prosaccades showed increased molecular connectivity between both caudate/putamen and hyperactive parietal eye fields in PD in contrast with frontal eye fields in controls, in line with the shift model. Concerning antisaccades, parietal-striatal connectivity dominated in again in PD, unlike frontal regions. Concerning molecular-BOLD covariance, a striking sign reversal was observed: PD patients showed negative frontal-putamen functional-molecular associations, consistent with the reorganization shift, in contrast with the positive correlations observed in controls. Follow-up analysis in off-medication PD patients confirmed the negative BOLD-molecular correlation. These results provide a link among BOLD responses, striato-cortical synaptic reorganization, and neural plasticity in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2013962118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826364PMC
January 2021
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