Publications by authors named "Francielle Graus-Nunes"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Beneficial effects of losartan or telmisartan on the local hepatic renin-angiotensin system to counter obesity in an experimental model.

World J Hepatol 2019 Apr;11(4):359-369

Laboratório de Morfometria, Metabolismo e Doenças Cardiovasculares, Departamento de Anatomia, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcântara Gomes, Rio de Janeiro 20551-030, Brazil.

Background: Obesity has been associated with hepatic overexpression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS).

Aim: To evaluate the action of two angiotensin II (ANGII) receptor blockers (losartan or telmisartan) on the modulation of local hepatic RAS and the resulting metabolic effects in a diet-induced obesity murine model.

Methods: Twenty C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two nutritional groups for 10 wk: control group (C, = 5, 10% of energy as fat) or high-fat group (HF, = 15, 50% of energy as fat). After treatment started, the HF group was randomly divided into three groups: untreated HF group ( = 5), HF treated with losartan (HFL, = 5) and HF treated with telmisartan (HFT, = 5). The treatments lasted for 5 wk, and the dose was 10 mg/kg body mass.

Results: HF diet induced body mass gain (+28%, < 0.0001), insulin resistance (+69%, = 0.0079), high hepatic triacylglycerol (+127%, = 0.0004), and overexpression of intrahepatic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 1/ ANGII type 1 receptor (AT1r) (+569.02% and +141.40%, respectively, < 0.0001). The HFL and HFT groups showed higher ACE2/rMAS gene expression compared to the HF group (ACE2: +465.57%, = 0.0002 for HFL and +345.17%, = 0.0049 for HFT; rMAS: +711.39%, < 0.0001 for HFL and +539.75%, < 0.0001 for HFT), followed by reduced insulin/glucose ratio (-30% for HFL and -33% for HFT, = 0.0181), hepatic triacylglycerol levels (-28%, = 0.0381 for HFL; and -45%, = 0.0010 for HFT, and Plin2 expression.

Conclusion: Modulation of the intrahepatic RAS, with favored involvement of the ACE2/rMAS axis over the ACE1/AT1r axis after losartan or telmisartan treatments, caused hepatic and metabolic beneficial effects as demonstrated by reduced hepatic triacylglycerol levels coupled with reduced PLIN 2 expression and improved glycemic control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4254/wjh.v11.i4.359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6504859PMC
April 2019

The renin-angiotensin system as a target to solve the riddle of endocrine pancreas homeostasis.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 4;109:639-645. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pancreas is linked to the modulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in beta cells and insulin sensitivity in target tissues, emerging as a promising tool in the prevention and/or treatment of obesity, diabetes, and systemic arterial hypertension. Insulin resistance alters pancreatic islet cell distribution and morphology and hypertrophied islets exhibit upregulated angiotensin II type 1 receptor, which drives oxidative stress, apoptosis, and fibrosis, configuring beta cell dysfunction and diminishing islet lifespan. Pharmacological modulation of RAS has shown beneficial effects in diet-induced obesity model, mainly related to the translational potential that angiotensin receptor blockers and ECA2/ANG (1-7)/MAS receptor axis modulation have when it comes to islet preservation and type 2 diabetes prevention and/or treatment. This review describes the existing evidence for different approaches to blocking RAS elements in the management of insulin resistance and diabetes and focuses on islet remodeling and GSIS in rodents and humans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.10.191DOI Listing
January 2019

GW0742 (PPAR-beta agonist) attenuates hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress by improving hepatic energy metabolism in high-fat diet fed mice.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2018 10 23;474:227-237. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatic steatosis are intertwined with insulin resistance. PPARs are at the crossroads of these pathways. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GW0742 (PPAR-beta agonist) on hepatic energy metabolism and ER stress in a murine diet-induced obesity model. HF diet caused overweight, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic inflammation (increased NF-kB, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 protein expression) and favored hepatic lipogenesis, leading to ER stress, with ultrastructural and molecular alterations, ending up in proapoptotic stimulus. GW0742 rescued the overweight and the glucose tolerance, tackled hepatic inflammation and favored hepatic beta-oxidation over lipogenesis. These results comply with ER ultrastructure improvement, reducing ER stress and apoptosis in treated animals. Our results indicate that the PPAR-beta/delta activation alleviated the ER stress by improving the insulin sensitivity and maximizing the hepatic energy metabolism with a shift towards beta-oxidation. PPAR-beta/delta activation could be an essential tool to avoid the NAFLD progression and other obesity constraints.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2018.03.013DOI Listing
October 2018

Differential actions of PPAR-α and PPAR-β/δ on beige adipocyte formation: A study in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of obese male mice.

PLoS One 2018 19;13(1):e0191365. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background And Aims: Obesity compromises adipocyte physiology. PPARs are essential to adipocyte plasticity, but its isolated role in the browning phenomenon is not clear. This study aimed to examine whether activation of PPAR-α or PPAR-β/δ could induce beige cell depots in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice.

Material And Methods: Sixty animals were randomly assigned to receive a control diet (C, 10% lipids) or a high-fat diet (HF, 50% lipids) for ten weeks. Then each group was re-divided to begin the treatments that lasted 4 weeks, totalizing six groups: C, C-α (C plus PPAR-α agonist, 2.5 mg/kg BM), C-β (C plus PPAR-β/δ agonist, 1 mg/kg BM), HF, HF-α (HF plus PPAR-α agonist), HF-β (HF plus PPAR-β/δ agonist).

Results: HF animals presented with overweight, glucose intolerance and subcutaneous white adipocyte hypertrophy. Both treatments significantly attenuated these parameters. Browning, verified by UCP1 positive beige cells and enhanced body temperature, was just observed in PPAR-α treated groups. PPAR-α agonism also elicited an enhanced gene expression of the thermogenesis effector UCP1, the beige-selective gene TMEM26 and the PRDM16, an essential gene for brown-like phenotype maintenance in the beige adipocytes when compared to their counterparts. The enhanced CIDEA and the reduced UCP1 gene levels might justify the white phenotype predominance after the treatment with the PPAR-β/δ agonist.

Conclusions: This work provides evidence that the PPAR-β/δ agonist ameliorated metabolic disorders through enhanced beta-oxidation and better tolerance to glucose, whereas the PPAR-α agonism was confirmed as a promising therapeutic target for treating metabolic diseases via beige cell induction and enhanced thermogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0191365PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5774787PMC
March 2018

Anti-obesogenic effects of WY14643 (PPAR-alpha agonist): Hepatic mitochondrial enhancement and suppressed lipogenic pathway in diet-induced obese mice.

Biochimie 2017 Sep 12;140:106-116. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) presents with growing prevalence worldwide, though its pharmacological treatment remains to be established. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a PPAR-alpha agonist on liver tissue structure, ultrastructure, and metabolism, focusing on gene and protein expression of de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis pathways, in diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (three months old) received a control diet (C, 10% of lipids, n = 10) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 50% of lipids, n = 10) for ten weeks. These groups were subdivided to receive the treatment (n = 5 per group): C, C-alpha (PPAR-alpha agonist, 2.5 mg/kg/day mixed in the control diet), HFD and HFD-alpha group (PPAR-alpha agonist, 2.5 mg/kg/day mixed in the HFD). The effects were compared with biometrical, biochemical, molecular biology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. HFD showed greater body mass (BM) and insulinemia than C, both of which were tackled by the treatment in the HFD-alpha group. Increased hepatic protein expression of glucose-6-phosphatase, CHREBP and gene expression of PEPCK in HFD points to increased gluconeogenesis. Treatment rescued these parameters in the HFD-alpha group, eliciting a reduced hepatic glucose output, confirmed by the smaller GLUT2 expression in HFD-alpha than in HFD. Conversely, favored de novo lipogenesis was found in the HFD group by the increased expression of PPAR-gamma, and its target gene SREBP-1, FAS and GK when compared to C. The treatment yielded a marked reduction in the expression of all lipogenic factors. TEM analyses showed a greater numerical density of mitochondria per area of tissue in treated than in untreated groups, suggesting an increase in beta-oxidation and the consequent NAFLD control. PPAR-alpha activation reduced BM and treated insulin resistance (IR) and NAFLD by increasing the number of mitochondria and reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis and de novo lipogenesis protein and gene expressions in a murine obesity model.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2017.07.003DOI Listing
September 2017

AT1 receptor antagonist induces thermogenic beige adipocytes in the inguinal white adipose tissue of obese mice.

Endocrine 2017 Mar 23;55(3):786-798. Epub 2016 Dec 23.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism and Cardiovascular disease, Biomedical Centre, Institute of Biology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Purpose: To evaluate whether losartan is able to induce beige adipocytes formation, focusing on the thermogenic gene expression and adipocyte remodeling in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice.

Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice received a control diet (10% energy as lipids) or a high-fat diet (50% energy as lipids) for 10 weeks, followed by a 5-week treatment with losartan: control group, control-losartan group (10 mg/Kg/day), high-fat group and high-fat-losartan group (10 mg/Kg/day). Biochemical, morphometrical, stereological and molecular approaches were used to evaluate the outcomes.

Results: The high-fat diet elicited overweight, insulin resistance and adipocyte hypertrophy in the high-fat group, all of which losartan rescued in the high-fat-losartan group. These effects comply with the induction of beige adipocytes within the inguinal fat pads in high-fat-losartan group as they exhibited the greatest energy expenditure among the groups along with the presence uncoupling protein 1 positive multilocular adipocytes with enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha and PR domain containing 16 mRNA levels, indicating a significant potential for mitochondrial biogenesis and adaptive thermogenesis.

Conclusions: Our results show compelling evidence that losartan countered diet-induced obesity in mice by enhancing energy expenditure through beige adipocytes induction. Reduced body mass, increased insulin sensitivity, decreased adipocyte size and marked expression of uncoupling protein 1 by ectopic multilocular adipocytes support these findings. The use of losartan as a coadjutant medicine to tackle obesity and its related disorders merits further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-016-1213-1DOI Listing
March 2017

Differential effects of angiotensin receptor blockers on pancreatic islet remodelling and glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese mice.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 01 22;439:54-64. Epub 2016 Oct 22.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease, Biomedical Centre, Institute of Biology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Obesity leads to adverse endocrine pancreas remodelling, reduced islet lifespan and early type 2 diabetes onset. AT1R blockade shows beneficial pleiotropic effects. This study sought to compare the effects of losartan and telmisartan on pancreatic islets remodelling and glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese mice. High-fat diet yielded overweight, insulin resistance, islet apoptosis and hypertrophy. Suitable insulin levels and preserved endocrine pancreas structure were correlated to adequate AKT-FOXO1 pathway functioning in losartan-treated animals. Conversely, telmisartan yielded enhanced PDX1 and GLP-1 islet expression along with greater GLP-1 levels, with the consequent better islet glucose sensing and uptake. Greater islet vascularisation coupled with reduced apoptosis and macrophage infiltration seems to underlie the beneficial findings in both treatments. In conclusion, these results provide compelling evidence that two antihypertensive drugs (telmisartan and losartan) ameliorate pancreatic islet structure, glucose handling, and vascularisation in obese mice. Although only telmisartan countered overweight, both drugs yielded reduced apoptosis and islet preservation, with translational potential.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2016.10.021DOI Listing
January 2017

Pregestational maternal obesity impairs endocrine pancreas in male F1 and F2 progeny.

Nutrition 2015 Feb 30;31(2):380-7. Epub 2014 Aug 30.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal obesity on pancreas structure and carbohydrate metabolism in early adult life, focusing on the F1 and F2 generations after F0 maternal pregestational, gestation, and lactation high-fat diet (HF).

Methods: C57 BL/6 female mice (F0) were fed standard chow (SC) or an HF diet for 8 wk before mating and during the gestation and lactation periods to provide the F1 generation (F1-SC and F1-HF). At 3 mo old, F1 females were mated to produce the F2 generation (F2-SC and F2-HF). The male offspring from all groups were evaluated at 3 mo old.

Results: F0-HF and F1-HF dams were overweight before gestation and had a higher body mass gain and energy intake during gestation, although only F0-HF dams presented pregestational hyperglycemia. The F1-HF offspring had higher body mass, energy intake, fasting glucose levels, and were glucose intolerant compared with F1-SC offspring. These parameters were not significantly altered in F2-HF offspring. Both F1-HF and F2-HF offspring showed hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, decreased adiponectin levels, increased pancreatic mass, and islet volume density with elevated α- and β-cell mass, hypertrophied islet characterized by an altered distribution of α- and β-cells and weak pancreatic-duodenal homeobox (Pdx)1 immunoreactivity.

Conclusions: Maternal HF diet consumed during the preconception period and throughout the gestation and lactation periods in mice promotes metabolism and pancreatic programming in F1 and F2 male offspring, implying intergenerational effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2014.08.002DOI Listing
February 2015

Enhanced pan-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene and protein expression in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice treated with telmisartan.

Exp Physiol 2014 Dec 16;99(12):1663-78. Epub 2014 Oct 16.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Telmisartan has previously been used to target obesity, showing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ-related effects in white adipose tissue (WAT). We sought to evaluate whether telmisartan enhances gene and protein expression of all PPAR isoforms in WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as their downstream effects upon insulin resistance, adipokine profile and adaptive thermogenesis. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed standard chow (SC; 10% lipids) or high-fat diet (HF; 50% lipids) for 10 weeks. Animals were then randomly allocated into the following four groups: SC, SC-T, HF and HF-T. Telmisartan [10 mg (kg diet)(-1)] was administered for 4 weeks in the diet. Animals in the HF group were overweight and exhibited hypertension, insulin resistance, decreased energy expenditure, a pro-inflammatory adipokine profile and abnormal fat pad mass distribution. Animals in the HF group showed decreased expression of PPARα, β/δ and γ in WAT and BAT, resulting in impaired glucose uptake and insufficient thermogenesis. Due to the improvement in the adipokine profile and enhanced insulin sensitivity with adequate insulin-stimulated glucose uptake after treatment with telmisartan, the activation of all PPAR isoforms in WAT was beneficial. In BAT, telmisartan induced sustained sympathetic activation, because the β3-adrenergic receptor was induced by PPARβ/δ, while uncoupling protein 1 was induced by PPARα to promote thermogenesis. Telmisartan exerted anti-obesity effects through higher pan-PPAR gene and protein expression. Upon PPARα, β/δ and γ (pan-PPAR) agonism in adipose tissue of obese mice, telmisartan ameliorates inflammation and insulin resistance, as well as inducing non-shivering thermogenesis. Our results point to new therapeutic targets for the control of obesity and comorbidities through pan-PPAR-related effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2014.081596DOI Listing
December 2014
-->