Publications by authors named "Francesco Santi"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparative gut content analysis of invasive mosquitofish from Italy and Spain.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 15;11(9):4379-4398. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Biological Sciences Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour Royal Holloway University of London Egham UK.

Eastern mosquitofish () are among the most widely introduced freshwater species globally. To gain a better understanding of feeding patterns in non-native populations, and which local factors may influence them at the population level, we carried out gut content analysis on 163 specimens from nine invasive populations in Italy and Spain. Based on previous studies, we predicted that (a) mosquitofish are omnivores with a preference for detritus and cladocerans; (b) they display size- and population-specific differences in gut morphologies and diet, with larger fish feeding more intensively over a wider range of prey items; and (c) some of the variation would be associated with differences in local environmental and climatic factors. Our results confirmed our first prediction, because mosquitofish fed on a variety of diet items, among which detritus and Cladocera dominated. However, not a single diet item was shared among all populations. Congruent with our second prediction, we further identified size- and population-specific differences in the occurrence of some diet items and gut morphologies. However, observed patterns in dietary habits did not seem to be driven by the environmental and climatic variables we had quantified. The fairly variable diet likely aids invasion success and helps explain the ubiquity of invasive mosquitofish across Italy and Spain, as mosquitofish seem to be able to rely on whatever a local habitat provides. We further propose that size-specific differences likely capture the substantial sexual size dimorphism (males are smaller than females), while population-specific differences are likely the result of differences in local prey abundance. The lack of an influence of temperature on dietary habits suggests that mosquitofish feeding ecology may be less impacted by rising temperatures than other freshwater fish species. If true, then this suggests climate change-induced effects may further exacerbate the competitive superiority of mosquitofish over native species in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.7334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093736PMC
May 2021

A case of Stewart-Treves Syndrome in a prostatectomized patient.

Ital J Dermatol Venerol 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Section of Dermatology-Venereology, Department of Medical, Surgical Sciences and Neurosciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2784-8671.21.06908-XDOI Listing
April 2021

Line field confocal optical coherence tomography: An adjunctive tool in the diagnosis of autoimmune bullous diseases.

J Biophotonics 2021 May 22;14(5):e202000449. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Dermatology Unit and Skin Bank, Department of Medical, Surgical and Neurosciences, Siena University Hospital, Siena, Italy.

Autoimmune bullous diseases (AIBDs) still represent a considerable a source of morbidity and mortality: early identification of a specific AIBD is often difficult due to overlapping clinical and/or laboratory features and time-consuming invasive laboratory tests. We aimed to investigate the potential role of a new imaging technology, line-field confocal optical coherence tomography (LC-OCT), in the non-invasive diagnosis of AIBDs. LC-OCT was performed at lesional, perilesional and contralateral healthy sites in 30 patients, before histology and direct immunofluorescence. LC-OCT examination was able to identify the level of split (subcorneal/suprabasal/subepidermal/sublamina densa), to provide detailed images of the bulla roof morphology and content (eg, erythrocytes/acantholytic cells/polymorphonucleates). Areas of intra/subepidermal detachment were also detected also at clinically normal perilesional skin sites. LC-OCT can support physicians, real time and at bed-site, in the differential diagnosis of various AIBDs and their mimickers. Moreover, it can be used for the identification of subclinical lesions and therapy tapering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbio.202000449DOI Listing
May 2021

Squamous cell carcinoma arising on acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau: clinical and noninvasive skin imaging features.

Int J Dermatol 2021 Jun 25;60(6):763-765. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Medical, Surgical and Neurological Science, Dermatology Section, University of Siena, S. Maria alle Scotte Hospital, Siena, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.15297DOI Listing
June 2021

A century later: Adaptive plasticity and rapid evolution contribute to geographic variation in invasive mosquitofish.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jul 18;726:137908. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Electronic address:

One century after their introduction to Europe, eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) represent a natural experiment to determine the relative contributions of adaptive plasticity and rapid evolutionary change in creating large-scale geographic variation in phenotypes. We evaluated the population-genetic structure and invasion history based on allele length polymorphisms of 15 nuclear microsatellites, which we quantified for N = 660 individuals from 23 populations sampled in 2013 across the invasive range of G. holbrooki in Europe. We analysed body-shape and life-history variation in N = 1331 individuals from 36 populations, sampled in 2013 and 2017, and tested heritability of phenotypic differences in a subset of four populations using a common-garden experiment. The genetic structure of wild-caught individuals suggested a single introduction for all European mosquitofish, which were genetically impoverished compared to their native counterparts. We found some convergent patterns of phenotypic divergence across native and invasive climatic gradients (e.g., increased body size in colder/more northern populations); however, several phenotypic responses were not consistent between sampling years, pointing towards plastic phenotypes. Our analysis of common-garden reared individuals uncovered moderate heritability estimates only for two measures of male body size (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.628 and 0.556) and offspring fat content (ICC = 0.734), while suggesting high levels of plasticity in most other phenotypic traits (ICC ≤ 0.407). Our results highlight the importance of phenotypic plasticity in invasive species during range expansions and demonstrate that strong selective pressures-in this case towards increased body size in colder environments-simultaneously promote rapid evolutionary divergence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137908DOI Listing
July 2020

Geographical and temporal variation of multiple paternity in invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki, Gambusia affinis).

Mol Ecol 2019 12 22;28(24):5315-5329. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Multiple paternity (MP) increases offspring's genetic variability, which could be linked to invasive species' evolvability in novel distribution ranges. Shifts in MP can be adaptive, with greater MP in harsher/colder environments or towards the end of the reproductive season, but climate could also affect MP indirectly via its effect on reproductive life histories. We tested these hypotheses by genotyping N = 2,903 offspring from N = 306 broods of two closely related livebearing fishes, Gambusia holbrooki and Gambusia affinis. We sampled pregnant females across latitudinal gradients in their invasive ranges in Europe and China, and found more sires per brood and a greater reproductive skew towards northern sampling sites. Moreover, examining monthly sampling from two G. affinis populations, we found MP rates to vary across the reproductive season in a northern Chinese, but not in a southern Chinese population. While our results confirm an increase of MP in harsher/more unpredictable environments, path analysis indicated that, in both cases, the effects of climate are likely to be indirect, mediated by altered life histories. In both species, which rank amongst the 100 most invasive species worldwide, higher MP at the northern edge of their distribution probably increases their invasive potential and favours range expansions, especially in light of the predicted temperature increases due to global climate changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.15294DOI Listing
December 2019

One-step laparoscopic and endoscopic treatment of gallbladder and common bile duct stones: our experience of the last 9 years in a retrospective study.

Am Surg 2013 Dec;79(12):1243-7

Department of General Surgery, Regina Apostolorum Hospital, Rome, Italy.

The optimal timing and best method for removal of common bile duct stones (CBDS) associated with gallbladder stones (GBS) is still controversial. The aim of this study is to investigate the outcomes of a single-step procedure combining laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), intraoperative cholangiography (IOC), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Between January 2003 and January 2012, 1972 patients underwent cholecystectomy at our hospital. Of those, 162 patients (8.2%; male/female 72/90) presented with GBS and suspected CBDS. We treated 54 cases (Group 1) with ERCP and LC within 48 to 72 hours. In 108 patients (Group 2) we performed LC with IOC and, if positive, was associated with IO-ERCP and sphincterotomy. In Group 1, a preoperative ERCP and LC were completed in 50 patients (30%). In four cases (2%), an ERCP and endobiliary stents were performed without cholecystectomy and then patients were discharged because of the severity of clinical conditions and advanced American Society of Anesthesiologists score (III to IV). Two months later a preoperative ERCP and removal of biliary stents were performed followed by LC 48 to 72 hours later. In Group 2, the IOC was performed in all cases and CBDS were extracted in 94 patients (87%). In two cases, the laparoscopic choledochotomy was necessary to remove large stones. In another two cases, an open choledochotomy was performed to remove safely the stones with T-tube drainage. In three cases, conversion was necessary to safely complete the procedure. The mean operative time was 95 minutes (range, 45 to 150 minutes) in Group 1 and 130 minutes (range, 50 to 300 minutes) in Group 2. The mean hospital stay was 6.5 days (range, 4 to 21 days) in Group 1 and 4.7 days (range, 3 to 14 days) in Group 2. Five cases (two in Group 2 and three in Group 1) presented with CBDS at 12 to 18 months after surgery. They were treated successfully with a second ERCP. There was no perioperative mortality. Our experience suggests that when clinically and technically feasible, a single-stage approach combining LC, IOC, and ERCP to the patients diagnosed with chole-choledocholithiasis is indicated. The IO-ERCP with CBDS extraction is a safe and effective method with low risk of postoperative pancreatitis. One-step treatment is more comfortable for the patient and also reduces the mean hospital stay.
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December 2013

Endoscopic treatment of Bouveret's syndrome.

Gastrointest Endosc 2007 Apr;65(4):704-6

Dipartimento di Chirurgia PietroValdoni, Università La Sapienza, Roma.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2006.12.022DOI Listing
April 2007