Publications by authors named "Francesco Campanella"

7 Publications

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Provision of Italian diagnostic reference levels for diagnostic and interventional radiology.

Radiol Med 2021 Jan 1;126(1):99-105. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

National Centre for Innovative Technologies in Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), Rome, Italy.

Objectives: The diagnostic reference level (DRL) is a useful tool for the optimisation of medical exposures. Thus, a Working Party coordinated by the Italian National Institute of Health and the National Workers Compensation Authority has been formed to provide Italian DRLs, for both diagnostic and interventional procedures, to be used as appropriate for the implementation of the 2013/59 European Directive into the national regulation.

Materials And Methods: The multidisciplinary Working Party was formed by professionals involved in diagnostic and interventional radiology medical exposures and started from a critical revision of both the literature and the results of previous Italian surveys. The procedures were divided into five sections for adult (projection radiography, mammography, diagnostic fluoroscopy, CT and interventional radiology) and two sections for paediatric patients (projection radiography and CT). The provided DRL values have been identified for "normal" adult patients and for age-classes of paediatric patients.

Results: Some of the DRL values provided by the Working Party are reported in this study as an example, divided by adult/paediatric patients, radiological technique and examination: specifically, DRLs for new radiological practices and new dose quantities as DRLs metric were introduced. The median value (rather than the mean) for each procedure, derived from a sample of patients, has to be compared with the corresponding DRL value, and dosimetric data related to a minimum number of patients should be collected for each examination.

Conclusions: The approach to the definition and use of DRLs through guidelines of national Authorities in collaboration with scientific Associations should simplify the periodical updating and could be useful for keeping the optimisation of medical exposures faithful to the development of radiological practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-020-01165-3DOI Listing
January 2021

Summary of the Italian inter-society recommendations for radiation protection optimization in interventional radiology.

Radiol Med 2018 May 6;123(5):378-384. Epub 2018 Jan 6.

National Centre for Innovative Technologies in Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), Rome, Italy.

Objectives: A Working Group coordinated by the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità) and the National Workers Compensation Authority (Istituto Nazionale per l'Assicurazione contro gli Infortuni sul Lavoro, INAIL) and consisting of 11 Italian scientific/professional societies involved in the fluoroscopically guided interventional practices has been established to define recommendations for the optimization of patients and staff radiation protection in interventional radiology. A summary of these recommendations is here reported.

Materials And Methods: A multidisciplinary approach was used to establish the Working Group by involving radiologists, interventional radiologists, neuroradiologists, interventional cardiologists, occupational health specialists, medical physicists, radiation protection experts, radiographers and nurses. The Group operated as a "Consensus Conference". Three main topics have been addressed: patient radiation protection (summarized in ten "golden rules"); staff radiation protection (summarized in ten "golden rules"); and education/training of interventional radiology professionals.

Results: In the "golden rules", practical and operational recommendations were provided to help the professionals in optimizing dose delivered to patients and reducing their own exposure. Operative indications dealt also with continuing education and training, and recommendations on professional accreditation and certification.

Conclusions: The "Consensus Conference" was the methodology adopted for the development of these recommendations. Involvement of all professionals is a winning approach to improve practical implementation of the recommendations, thus getting a real impact on the optimization of the interventional radiology practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-017-0849-0DOI Listing
May 2018

How should I wean my next intra-aortic balloon pump? Differences between progressive volume weaning and rate weaning.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2013 May 20;145(5):1214-21. Epub 2012 Apr 20.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Verona Medical School, Verona, Italy.

Objective: Although the intra-aortic balloon pump is the most used ventricular assist device, no study has ever evaluated the best weaning method. We compared 2 different intra-aortic balloon pump weaning methods.

Methods: Thirty consecutive patients needing an intra-aortic balloon pump because of perioperative low-output cardiac syndrome were randomized to be weaned by ratio (4 consecutive hours of a 1:2 assisting ratio followed by 1 hour of a 1:3 ratio; group R) or by progressive volume deflation (10% of total volume every hour for 5 consecutive hours; 15 patients, group V). A duration of 5 hours was set a priori as the weaning duration. The weaning protocol was started when the cardiac index was greater than 2.5 L/min/m(2), the central venous pressure was 12 mm Hg or less, the blood lactate was less than 2.5 mmol/L, the mean arterial pressure was greater than 65 mm Hg, and the preserved urine output (≥1 mL/kg/hr) lasted for at least 5 consecutive hours before weaning. The cardiac index, indexed systemic vascular resistance, cardiac cycle efficiency, and central venous pressure were registered at 9 points (T0, start; T1 to T5, the first 5 weaning hours; T6, 2 hours after withdrawal; T7, 12 hours after withdrawal; and T8, at intensive care unit discharge) using the pressure recording analytical method. The interval from intra-aortic balloon pump withdrawal to intensive care unit discharge, weaning failure, perioperative troponin I, and lactate (same points) were compared.

Results: All patients, except for 1 belonging to group R (P = 1.0), were successfully weaned. Group V had better preserved cardiac index, indexed systemic vascular resistance, cardiac cycle efficiency, and central venous pressure (group*time P = .0001). Group R had worse cardiac index from T5 to T8 (P ≤ .0001), indexed systemic vascular resistance from T2 to T8 (P ≤ .004), cardiac cycle efficiency from T3 to T8 (P ≤ .001), central venous pressure from T4 to T8 (P ≤ .0001), and a longer interval from intra-aortic balloon pump withdrawal to intensive care unit discharge (P = .0001). The lactate level was lower in group V from T5 to T8 (P ≤ .027; group*time P = .001).

Conclusions: Intra-aortic balloon pump weaning by volume deflation allowed better hemodynamic and metabolic parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.03.063DOI Listing
May 2013

Leukocyte filtration of blood cardioplegia attenuates myocardial damage and inflammation.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2013 Jan 30;43(1):81-9. Epub 2012 Mar 30.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Verona Medical School, Verona, Italy.

Objectives: Leukocyte filtration of blood cardioplegia (cLkF) is postulated to reduce ischaemia-reperfusion myocardial injury. Contradictory results have been published and few studies have addressed perioperative cytokine leakage and haemodynamic status after LkF.

Methods: Thirty patients undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement were randomized to cLkF (cLkF-Group) or to standard cold blood cardioplegia (S-Group). Troponin I (TnI) and lactate were sampled from the coronary sinus at reperfusion. Peripheral TnI and lactate were collected preoperatively at admission, and in the intensive care unit (ICU) at 8, 12, 36 and 60 h postoperatively. Cardiac index (CI), indexed systemic vascular resistances, cardiac cycle efficiency (CCE) and central venous pressure (CVP) were registered preoperatively, at admission to the ICU and at the 6th, 12th, 18th, 24th and 36th postoperative hour. IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha and IL-10 were sampled preoperatively, at reperfusion, on admission to the ICU and the 6th, 18th and 24th postoperative hours.

Results: The cLkF group showed lower TnI (2.4 ± 0.4 vs. 5.1 ± 0.8 μg/l, P = 0.0001) and lactate (0.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 mmol/l, P = 0.0001) from the coronary sinus at reperfusion. TnI levels (group-P = 0.0001, group time-P < 0.0001) and lactate (group time-P = 0.001) remained lower postoperatively after cLkF. Ventricular defibrillation at aortic declamping was less common in the cLkF-Group (33.3% vs. S-Group: 93.3%; P = 0.002). Cytokines demonstrated significant postoperative leakage (time-P = 0.0001 in both groups for IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, IL-10), with lower pro-inflammatory (IL-6 group-P = 0.0001, group time-P = 0.0001; IL-8 group-P = 0.0001, group time-P = 0.007; TNF-alpha group-P = 0.0001; group time-P = 0.012) and higher anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion after cLkF (IL-10 group-P = 0.005). Perioperative haemodynamic indices proved to be similar between the two groups (group-P = NS for CI, SVRI, CCE and CVP).

Conclusions: cLkF during blood cardioplegia attenuates myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury and reduces perioperative leakage of TnI, lactate and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These data did not result in a better haemodynamic status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezs145DOI Listing
January 2013

Survey of the interventional cardiology procedures in Italy.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2012 Jul 5;150(3):316-24. Epub 2012 Jan 5.

Medical Physics Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico S. Orsola Malpighi, Bologna, Italy.

Interventional cardiology procedures are increasing because they offer many advantages to patients compared with other techniques: therefore the Italian National Institution for Insurance against Accidents at Work decided to start a survey for monitoring the state-of-the-art regarding the professionals involved in those procedures. The survey covered six cardiology and medical physics Italian departments. Each centre was asked to record 10 examinations for five types of procedures: coronary angiography (CA), electrophysiology studies (ES), pacemaker implantation (PI), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and radiofrequency catheter ablation (RA). For each examination all the centres were requested to fill in a questionnaire containing information regarding the operator performing the examination, the patient and the procedure. A total of 290 examinations were recorded: 103 CA, 14 ES, 68 PI, 79 PTCA and 26 RA. As occupational doses are strongly related to patient doses, both patients and operators radiation dose data are reported. Ratios of maximum to minimum mean patient doses across the hospitals surveyed were 2.0, 3.9, 7.0, 1.8 and 1.4 for CA, ES, PI, PTCA and RA, respectively. The calculated rounded mean dose-area product values across all participating hospitals were comparable with other values reported in the literature. In general, specific radiation protection tools were used by all operators performing different procedures in all hospitals. A major issue in this survey was the absence of information about correlation between staff and patient doses in a single procedure: future studies could be more aimed to prospective goals where occupational exposures per procedure are monitored specifically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncr417DOI Listing
July 2012

Visual information gleaned by observing grasping movement in allocentric and egocentric perspectives.

Proc Biol Sci 2011 Jul 8;278(1715):2142-9. Epub 2010 Dec 8.

Italian Institute of Technology, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genoa, Italy.

One of the major functions of vision is to allow for an efficient and active interaction with the environment. In this study, we investigate the capacity of human observers to extract visual information from observation of their own actions, and those of others, from different viewpoints. Subjects discriminated the size of objects by observing a point-light movie of a hand reaching for an invisible object. We recorded real reach-and-grasp actions in three-dimensional space towards objects of different shape and size, to produce two-dimensional 'point-light display' movies, which were used to measure size discrimination for reach-and-grasp motion sequences, release-and-withdraw sequences and still frames, all in egocentric and allocentric perspectives. Visual size discrimination from action was significantly better in egocentric than in allocentric view, but only for reach-and-grasp motion sequences: release-and-withdraw sequences or still frames derived no advantage from egocentric viewing. The results suggest that the system may have access to an internal model of action that contributes to calibrate visual sense of size for an accurate grasp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.2270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3107628PMC
July 2011

Radiation emission dose from patients administered 90Y-labelled radiopharmaceuticals: comparison of experimental measurements versus Monte Carlo simulation.

Nucl Med Commun 2008 Dec;29(12):1100-5

Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation-ISPESL, Monte Porzio Catone, Roma, Italy.

Aim: To estimate the radiation dose delivered from patients injected with yttrium-90 (Y)-labelled tiuxetan (Zevalin) to parents and the general population, comparing different techniques.

Methods: The radiation dose delivered from a group of eight patients injected with Y-Zevalin to treat recurrent lymphoma was measured. The data obtained with the Monte Carlo simulation test were compared with the experimental measurements obtained with an ionization chamber detector and with a crystal NaI(Tl) detector.

Results: A good correlation was found between the Monte Carlo simulation test and the ionization chamber detector results: the air kerma dose rate was 4.2+/-0.1 and 4.4+/-0.8 microGy/h, respectively (r=0.9, P<0.01). Moreover, more than 99.7% of the air kerma dose rate measured with the ionization chamber detector was because of the contribution of electrons, whereas the contribution of photons was less than 0.3%. In contrast, the air kerma dose rate measured with the crystal NaI(Tl) detector was significantly lower (0.76+0.12 microGy/h) in comparison with the Monte Carlo simulation test. This underestimation was related to the limited crystal NaI(Tl) detector response to low energy rates at variance with the ionization chamber detector. The effective radiation dose released by patients treated with Y-labelled tiuxetan to parents and the general population was approximately 0.1 mSv per treatment cycle.

Conclusion: Using the Monte Carlo model as a benchmark to compare the experimental measurements obtained by the two different detectors, we found that the ionizing chamber detector was more accurate than the crystal Na(Tl) detector for measuring the exposure radiation dose delivered from patients administered with Y-labelled radiopharmaceuticals. Moreover, the effective radiation dose released by these patients to their parents and the general population is significantly lower than the value recommended by international reports and regulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MNM.0b013e328314b895DOI Listing
December 2008
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