Publications by authors named "Francesco Baino"

91 Publications

MOF-Mediated Synthesis of CuO/CeO Composite Nanoparticles: Characterization and Estimation of the Cellular Toxicity against Breast Cancer Cell Line (MCF-7).

J Funct Biomater 2021 Sep 28;12(4). Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy.

A copper oxide/cerium oxide nanocomposite (CuO/CeO, NC) was synthesized via a novel method using a metal-organic framework as a precursor. This nanomaterial was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering size analysis (DLS), and zeta potential. The PXRD showed the successful synthesis of the CuO/CeO NC, in which the 2theta values of 35.55° (d = 2.52 Å, 100%) and 38.73° (d = 2.32 Å, 96%) revealed the existence of copper (II) oxide. FTIR analysis showed the CeO, hydroxyl groups, absorbed water, and some residual peaks. The solid phase analysis by FESEM and TEM images showed mean particle sizes of 49.18 ± 24.50 nm and 30.58 ± 26.40 nm, respectively, which were comparable with crystallite size (38.4 nm) obtained from PXRD, but it appears the CuO/CeO NC was not evenly distributed and in some areas, showed it was highly agglomerated. The hydrodynamic size (750.5 nm) also showed the agglomeration of the CuO/CeO NCs in the solution, which had a negatively charged surface. The CuO/CeO NCs showed anti-proliferative activity against human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in a dose- and time-dependence way, while affecting normal cells less significantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jfb12040053DOI Listing
September 2021

Advances in bioactive glass-containing injectable hydrogel biomaterials for tissue regeneration.

Acta Biomater 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy. Electronic address:

Successful tissue regeneration requires a scaffold with tailorable biodegradability, tissue-like mechanical properties, structural similarity to extracellular matrix (ECM), relevant bioactivity, and cytocompatibility. In recent years, injectable hydrogels have spurred increasing attention in translational medicine as a result of their tunable physicochemical properties in response to the surrounding environment. Furthermore, they have the potential to be implanted via minimally invasive procedures while enabling deep penetration, which is considered a feasible alternative to traditional open surgical procedures. However, polymeric hydrogels may lack sufficient stability and bioactivity in physiological environments. Composite hydrogels containing bioactive glass (BG) particulates, synergistically combining the advantages of their constituents, have emerged as multifunctional biomaterials with tailored mechanical properties and biological functionalities. This review paper highlights the recent advances in injectable composite hydrogel systems based on biodegradable polymers and BGs. The influence of BG particle geometry, composition, and concentration on gel formation, rheological and mechanical behavior as well as hydration and biodegradation of injectable hydrogels have been discussed. The applications of these composite hydrogels in tissue engineering are additionally described, with particular attention to bone and skin. Finally, the prospects and current challenges in the development of desirable injectable bioactive hydrogels for tissue regeneration are discussed to outline a roadmap for future research. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Developing a biomaterial that can be readily available for surgery, implantable via minimally invasive procedures, and be able to effectively stimulate tissue regeneration is one of the grand challenges in modern biomedicine. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art of injectable bioactive glass-polymer composite hydrogels to address several challenges in bone and soft tissue repair. The current limitations and the latest evolutions of these composite biomaterials are critically examined, and the roles of design parameters, such as composition, concentration, and size of the bioactive phase, and polymer-glass interactions on the rheological, mechanical, biological, and overall functional performance of hydrogels are detailed. Existing results and new horizons are discussed to provide a state-of-the-art review that may be useful for both experienced and early-stage researchers in the biomaterials community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.09.034DOI Listing
September 2021

Biological Evaluation of a New Sodium-Potassium Silico-Phosphate Glass for Bone Regeneration: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Aug 13;14(16). Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Turin, Italy.

In vitro and in vivo studies are fundamental steps in the characterization of new implantable materials to preliminarily assess their biological response. The present study reports the in vitro and in vivo characterizations of a novel experimental silicate bioactive glass (BG) (47.5B, 47.5SiO-10NaO-10KO-10MgO-20CaO-2.5PO mol.%). Cytocompatibility tests were performed using human mature osteoblasts (U2OS), human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human endothelial cells (EA.hy926). The release of the early osteogenic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) marker suggested strong pro-osteogenic properties, as the amount was comparable between hMSCs cultivated onto BG surface and cells cultivated onto polystyrene control. Similarly, real-time PCR revealed that the osteogenic collagen I gene was overexpressed in cells cultivated onto BG surface without biochemical induction. Acute toxicity tests for the determination of the median lethal dose (LD) allowed classifying the analyzed material as a slightly toxic substance with LD = 4522 ± 248 mg/kg. A statistically significant difference in bone formation was observed in vivo through comparing the control (untreated) group and the experimental one, proving a clear osteogenic effect induced by the implantation at the defect site. Complete resorption of 47.5B powder was observed after only 3 months in favor of newly formed tissue, thus confirming the high osteostimulatory potential of 47.5B glass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14164546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400910PMC
August 2021

Fixation of Transparent Bone Pins with Photocuring Biocomposites.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 09 13;7(9):4463-4473. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

School of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), 639798 Singapore.

Bone fractures are in need of rapid fixation methods, but the current strategies are limited to metal pins and screws, which necessitate secondary surgeries upon removal. New techniques are sought to avoid surgical revisions, while maintaining or improving the fixation speed. Herein, a method of bone fixation is proposed with transparent biopolymers anchored in place via light-activated biocomposites based on expanding CaproGlu bioadhesives. The transparent biopolymers serve as a UV light guide for the activation of CaproGlu biocomposites, which results in evolution of molecular nitrogen (from diazirine photolysis), simultaneously expanding the covalently cross-linked matrix. Osseointegration additives of hydroxyapatite or Bioglass 45S5 yield a biocomposite matrix with increased stiffness and pullout strength. The structure-property relationships of UV joules dose, pin diameter, and biocomposite additives are assessed with respect to the apparent viscosity, shear modulus, spatiotemporal pin curing, and lap-shear adhesion. Finally, a model system is proposed based on investigation with bone tissue for the exploration and optimization of UV-active transparent biopolymer fixation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.1c00473DOI Listing
September 2021

Nanomaterials for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Head and Neck Cancers: A Review.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 2;14(13). Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-Ro, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea.

Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a category of cancers that typically arise from the nose-, mouth-, and throat-lining squamous cells. The later stage of HNC diagnosis significantly affects the patient's survival rate. This makes it mandatory to diagnose this cancer with a suitable biomarker and imaging techniques at the earlier stages of growth. There are limitations to traditional technologies for early detection of HNC. Furthermore, the use of nanocarriers for delivering chemo-, radio-, and phototherapeutic drugs represents a promising approach for improving the outcome of HNC treatments. Several studies with nanostructures focus on the development of a targeted and sustained release of anticancer molecules with reduced side effects. Besides, nanovehicles could allow co-delivering of anticancer drugs for synergistic activity to counteract chemo- or radioresistance. Additionally, a new generation of smart nanomaterials with stimuli-responsive properties have been developed to distinguish between unique tumor conditions and healthy tissue. In this light, the present article reviews the mechanisms used by different nanostructures (metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, quantum dots, liposomes, nanomicelles, etc.) to improve cancer diagnosis and treatment, provides an up-to-date picture of the state of the art in this field, and highlights the major challenges for future improvements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14133706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269895PMC
July 2021

Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles and Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses for Wound Management: From Skin Regeneration to Cancer Therapy.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jun 17;14(12). Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Tissue Engineering Research Group (TERG), Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 917794-8564, Iran.

Exploring new therapies for managing skin wounds is under progress and, in this regard, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) offer great opportunities in treating acute, chronic, and malignant wounds. In general, therapeutic effectiveness of both MSNs and MBGs in different formulations (fine powder, fibers, composites etc.) has been proved over all the four stages of normal wound healing including hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. The main merits of these porous substances can be summarized as their excellent biocompatibility and the ability of loading and delivering a wide range of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic bioactive molecules and chemicals. In addition, doping with inorganic elements (e.g., Cu, Ga, and Ta) into MSNs and MBGs structure is a feasible and practical approach to prepare customized materials for improved skin regeneration. Nowadays, MSNs and MBGs could be utilized in the concept of targeted therapy of skin malignancies (e.g., melanoma) by grafting of specific ligands. Since potential effects of various parameters including the chemical composition, particle size/morphology, textural properties, and surface chemistry should be comprehensively determined via cellular in vitro and in vivo assays, it seems still too early to draw a conclusion on ultimate efficacy of MSNs and MBGs in skin regeneration. In this regard, there are some concerns over the final fate of MSNs and MBGs in the wound site plus optimal dosages for achieving the best outcomes that deserve careful investigation in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14123337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235211PMC
June 2021

Foam Replica Method in the Manufacturing of Bioactive Glass Scaffolds: Out-of-Date Technology or Still Underexploited Potential?

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 24;14(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy.

Since 2006, the foam replica method has been commonly recognized as a valuable technology for the production of highly porous bioactive glass scaffolds showing three-dimensional, open-cell structures closely mimicking that of natural trabecular bone. Despite this, there are important drawbacks making the usage of foam-replicated glass scaffolds a difficult achievement in clinical practice; among these, certainly the high operator-dependency of the overall manufacturing process is one of the most crucial, limiting the scalability to industrial production and, thus, the spread of foam-replicated synthetic bone substitutes for effective use in routine management of bone defect. The present review opens a window on the versatile world of the foam replica technique, focusing the dissertation on scaffold properties analyzed in relation to various processing parameters, in order to better understand which are the real issues behind the bottleneck that still puts this technology on the Olympus of the most used techniques in laboratory practice, without moving, unfortunately, to a more concrete application. Specifically, scaffold morphology, mechanical and mass transport properties will be reviewed in detail, considering the various templates proposed till now by several research groups all over the world. In the end, a comprehensive overview of in vivo studies on bioactive glass foams will be provided, in order to put an emphasis on scaffold performances in a complex three-dimensional environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14112795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197364PMC
May 2021

Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimizing the Therapeutic Activity of ZnO Nanoparticles Biosynthesized from .

Biomimetics (Basel) 2021 May 27;6(2). Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino, Italy.

In this study, the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using (A/ZnO-NPs) is described. These particles have been characterized by UV-Vis spectrum analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. To use this biosynthesized nanoparticle as an antiproliferative and antimicrobial agent, the IC value against the breast cancer cell line and inhibition zone against were used to optimize the effect of two processing factors including dose of filtrate fungi cell and temperature. The biosynthesized A/ZnO-NPs had an absorbance band at 320 nm and spherical shapes. The mean particles size was 35 nm. RSM (response surface methodology) was utilized to investigate the outcome responses. The Model F-value of 12.21 and 7.29 implies that the model was significant for both responses. The contour plot against inhibition zone for temperature and dose showed that if the dose increases from 3.8 to 17.2 µg/mL, the inhibition zone increases up to 35 mm. As an alternative to chemical and/or physical methods, biosynthesizing zinc oxide NPs through fungi extracts can serve as a more facile and eco-friendly strategy. Additionally, for optimization of the processes, the outcome responses in the biomedical available test can be used in the synthesis of ZnO-NPs that are utilized for large-scale production in various medical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167739PMC
May 2021

Strategies for Cancer Treatment Based on Photonic Nanomedicine.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 16;14(6). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Avenida dos Estados, 5001 Santa Terezinha, Santo André 09210580, Brazil.

Traditional cancer treatments, such as surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, are still the most effective clinical practice options. However, these treatments may display moderate to severe side effects caused by their low temporal or spatial resolution. In this sense, photonic nanomedicine therapies have been arising as an alternative to traditional cancer treatments since they display more control of temporal and spatial resolution, thereby yielding fewer side effects. In this work, we reviewed the challenge of current cancer treatments, using the PubMed and Web of Science database, focusing on the advances of three prominent therapies approached by photonic nanomedicine: (i) photothermal therapy; (ii) photodynamic therapy; (iii) photoresponsive drug delivery systems. These photonic nanomedicines act on the cancer cells through different mechanisms, such as hyperthermic effect and delivery of chemotherapeutics and species that cause oxidative stress. Furthermore, we covered the recent advances in materials science applied in photonic nanomedicine, highlighting the main classes of materials used in each therapy, their applications in the context of cancer treatment, as well as their advantages, limitations, and future perspectives. Finally, although some photonic nanomedicines are undergoing clinical trials, their effectiveness in cancer treatment have already been highlighted by pre-clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14061435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001287PMC
March 2021

Biochemical, Ameliorative and Cytotoxic Effects of Newly Synthesized Curcumin Microemulsions: Evidence from In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 23;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Chemistry, University of Zabol, P.O. Box. 98613-35856, Zabol, PIran.

Curcumin is known to exhibit antioxidant and tissue-healing properties and has recently attracted the attention of the biomedical community for potential use in advanced therapies. This work reports the formulation and characterization of oil-in-water F127 microemulsions to enhance the bioavailability of curcumin Microemulsions showed a high encapsulation efficiency and prolonged release. To investigate the interactions of curcumin with one unit of the polymeric chain of surfactant F127, ethyl butyrate, and sodium octanoate, as well as the interaction between ethyl butyrate and one unit of the F127 polymer chain, the Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the M06-2X level of theory, were performed in water solution. The MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of free and encapsulated curcumin on non-malignant and malignant cell lines. Combination effects were calculated according to Chou-Talalay's principles. Results of in vitro studies indicated that MCF7 and HepG2 cells were more sensitive to curcumin microemulsions. Moreover, a synergistic relationship was observed between curcumin microemulsions and cisplatin in all affected fractions of MCF7 and HepG2 cells (CI < 0.9). For in vivo investigation, thioacetamide-intoxicated rats received thioacetamide (100 mg/kg Sc) followed by curcumin microemulsions (30 mg/kg Ip). Thioacetamide-intoxicated rats showed elevated serum liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels, and a significant reduction in liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities ( < 0.05). Curcumin microemulsions reduced liver enzymes and serum creatinine and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in thioacetamide-treated rats in comparison to the untreated thioacetamide-intoxicated group. Histopathological investigations confirmed the biochemical findings. Overall, the current results showed the desirable hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and anti-cancer effects of curcumin microemulsions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11030817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004644PMC
March 2021

Gum Tragacanth (GT): A Versatile Biocompatible Material beyond Borders.

Molecules 2021 Mar 10;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Tissue Engineering Research Group (TERG), Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 917794-8564, Iran.

The use of naturally occurring materials in biomedicine has been increasingly attracting the researchers' interest and, in this regard, gum tragacanth (GT) is recently showing great promise as a therapeutic substance in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. As a polysaccharide, GT can be easily extracted from the stems and branches of various species of This anionic polymer is known to be a biodegradable, non-allergenic, non-toxic, and non-carcinogenic material. The stability against microbial, heat and acid degradation has made GT an attractive material not only in industrial settings (e.g., food packaging) but also in biomedical approaches (e.g., drug delivery). Over time, GT has been shown to be a useful reagent in the formation and stabilization of metal nanoparticles in the context of green chemistry. With the advent of tissue engineering, GT has also been utilized for the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds applied for both hard and soft tissue healing strategies. However, more research is needed for defining GT applicability in the future of biomedical engineering. On this object, the present review aims to provide a state-of-the-art overview of GT in biomedicine and tries to open new horizons in the field based on its inherent characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000171PMC
March 2021

Biomedical Radioactive Glasses for Brachytherapy.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Feb 27;14(5). Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino, Italy.

The fight against cancer is an old challenge for mankind. Apart from surgery and chemotherapy, which are the most common treatments, use of radiation represents a promising, less invasive strategy that can be performed both from the outside or inside the body. The latter approach, also known as brachytherapy, relies on the use of implantable beta-emitting seeds or microspheres for killing cancer cells. A set of radioactive glasses have been developed for this purpose but their clinical use is still mainly limited to liver cancer. This review paper provides a picture of the biomedical glasses developed and experimented for brachytherapy so far, focusing the discussion on the production methods and current limitations of the available options to their diffusion in clinical practice. Highly-durable neutron-activatable glasses in the yttria-alumina-silica oxide system are typically preferred in order to avoid the potentially-dangerous release of radioisotopes, while the compositional design of degradable glass systems suitable for use in radiotherapy still remains a challenge and would deserve further investigation in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14051131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957637PMC
February 2021

Copper-containing bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics: From tissue regeneration to cancer therapeutic strategies.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Feb 21;121:111741. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy. Electronic address:

Copper is one of the most used therapeutic metallic elements in biomedicine, ranging from antibacterial approaches to cancer theranostics. This element could be easily incorporated into different types of biomaterials; specifically, copper-doped bioactive glasses (BGs) provide great opportunities for biomedical engineers and clinicians as regards their excellent biocompatibility and regenerative potential. Although copper-incorporated BGs are mostly used in bone tissue engineering, accelerated soft tissue healing is achievable, too, with interesting potentials in wound treatment and skin repair. Copper can modulate the physico-chemical properties of BGs (e.g., reactivity with bio-fluids) and improve their therapeutic potential. Improving cell proliferation, promoting angiogenesis, reducing or even prohibiting bacterial growth are counted as prominent biological features of copper-doped BGs. Recent studies have also suggested the suitability of copper-doped BGs in cancer photothermal therapy (PTT). However, more research is needed to determine the extent to which copper-doped BGs are actually applicable for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies in the clinic. Moreover, copper-doped BGs in combination with polymers may be considered in the future to produce relatively soft, pliable composites and printable inks for use in biofabrication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111741DOI Listing
February 2021

Assessment of SnFeO Nanoparticles for Potential Application in Theranostics: Synthesis, Characterization, In Vitro, and In Vivo Toxicity.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Feb 9;14(4). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino, Italy.

In this research, tin ferrite (SnFeO) NPs were synthesized via hydrothermal route using ferric chloride and tin chloride as precursors and were then characterized in terms of morphology and structure using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray power diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The obtained UV-Vis spectra was used to measure band gap energy of as-prepared SnFeO NPs. XRD confirmed the spinel structure of NPs, while SEM and TEM analyses disclosed the size of NPs in the range of 15-50 nm and revealed the spherical shape of NPs. Moreover, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and BET analysis was carried out to estimate elemental composition and specific surface area, respectively. In vitro cytotoxicity of the synthesized NPs were studied on normal (HUVEC, HEK293) and cancerous (A549) human cell lines. HUVEC cells were resistant to SnFeO NPs; while a significant decrease in the viability of HEK293 cells was observed when treated with higher concentrations of SnFeO NPs. Furthermore, SnFeO NPs induced dramatic cytotoxicity against A549 cells. For in vivo study, rats received SnFeO NPs at dosages of 0, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg. The 10 mg/kg dose increased serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine compared to the controls (P < 0.05). The pathology showed necrosis in the liver, heart, and lungs, and the greatest damages were related to the kidneys. Overall, the in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that SnFeO NPs at high doses had toxic effects on lung, liver and kidney cells without inducing toxicity to HUVECs. Further studies are warranted to fully elucidate the side effects of SnFeO NPs for their application in theranostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14040825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915467PMC
February 2021

New sol-gel-derived magnetic bioactive glass-ceramics containing superparamagnetic hematite nanocrystals for hyperthermia application.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jan 4;120:111692. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Avenida dos Estados 5001 - Bangu, Santo André, SP 08210-180, Brazil. Electronic address:

Although the three main phases of iron oxide - hematite, maghemite, and magnetite - exhibit superparamagnetic properties at the nanoscale, only maghemite and magnetite phases have been explored in magnetic bioactive glass-ceramics aimed at applications in cancer treatment by hyperthermia. In this work, it is reported for the first time the superparamagnetic properties of hematite nanocrystals grown in a 58S bioactive glass matrix derived from sol-gel synthesis. The glass-ceramics are based on the (100-x)(58SiO-33CaO-9PO)-xFeO system (x = 10, 20 and 30 wt%). A thermal treatment leads to the growth of hematite (α-FeO) nanocrystals, conferring superparamagnetic properties to the glass-ceramics, which is enough to produce heat under an external alternating magnetic field. Besides, the crystallization does not inhibit materials bioactivity, evidenced by the formation of calcium phosphate onto the glass-ceramic surface upon soaking in simulated body fluid. Moreover, their cytotoxicity is similar to other magnetic bioactive glass-ceramics reported in the literature. Finally, these results suggest that hematite nanocrystals' superparamagnetic properties may be explored in multifunctional glass-ceramics applied in bone cancer treatment by hyperthermia allied to bone regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111692DOI Listing
January 2021

A Guided Walk through the World of Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses (MBGs): Fundamentals, Processing, and Applications.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Dec 21;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino, Italy.

Bioactive glasses (BGs) are traditionally known to be able to bond to living bone and stimulate bone regeneration. The production of such materials in a mesoporous form allowed scientists to dramatically expand the versatility of oxide-based glass systems as well as their applications in biomedicine. These nanostructured materials, called mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs), not only exhibit an ultrafast mineralization rate but can be used as vehicles for the sustained delivery of drugs, which are hosted inside the mesopores, and therapeutic ions, which are released during material dissolution in contact with biological fluids. This review paper summarizes the main strategies for the preparation of MBGs, as well as their properties and applications in the biomedical field, with an emphasis on the methodological aspects and the promise of hierarchical systems with multiscale porosity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10122571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767440PMC
December 2020

The Use of Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for Assessing Materials Bioactivity in the Context of Tissue Engineering: Review and Challenges.

Biomimetics (Basel) 2020 Oct 29;5(4). Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life and Health Sciences, Chubu University, Aichi 487-8501, Japan.

Some special implantable materials are defined as "bioactive" if they can bond to living bone, forming a tight and chemically-stable interface. This property, which is inherent to some glass compositions, or can be induced by applying appropriate surface treatments on otherwise bio-inert metals, can be evaluated in vitro by immersion studies in simulated body fluid (SBF), mimicking the composition of human plasma. As a result, apatite coating may form on the material surface, and the presence of this bone-like "biomimetic skin" is considered predictive of bone-bonding ability in vivo. This review article summarizes the story and evolution of in vitro bioactivity testing methods using SBF, highlighting the influence of testing parameters (e.g., formulation and circulation of the solution) and material-related parameters (e.g., composition, geometry, texture). Suggestions for future methodological refinements are also provided at the end of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5040057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709622PMC
October 2020

Comprehensive assessment of bioactive glass and glass-ceramic scaffold permeability: experimental measurements by pressure wave drop, modelling and computed tomography-based analysis.

Acta Biomater 2021 01 20;119:405-418. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Turin, Italy. Electronic address:

Proper microstructural and transport properties are fundamental requirements for a suitable scaffold design and realization in tissue engineering applications. Scaffold microstructure (i.e. pore size, shape and distribution) and transport properties (i.e. intrinsic permeability), are commonly recognized as the key parameters related to the biological performance, such as cell attachment, penetration depth and tissue vascularization. While pore characteristics are relatively easy to asses, accurate and reliable evaluation of permeability still remains a challenge. In the present study, the microstructural properties of foam-replicated bioactive glass-derived scaffolds (basic composition 47.5SiO-2.5PO-20CaO-10MgO-10NaO-10KO mol.%) were determined as function of the sintering temperature within the range 600-850°C, identified on the basis of thermal analyses that were previously performed on the material. Scaffolds with total porosity between 55 and 84 vol.% and trabecular-like architecture were obtained, with pore morphological features varying according to the sintering temperature. Mathematical modelling, supported by micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) imaging, was implemented to selectively investigate the effect of different pore features on intrinsic permeability, which was determined by laminar airflow alternating pressure wave drop measurements and found to be within 0.051-2.811·10 m. The calculated effective porosity of the scaffolds was in the range of 46 to 66 vol.%, while the average pore diameter assessed by μ-CT varied between 220 and 780 μm, where the values in the lower range were observed for higher sintering temperatures (750-850°C). Experimental results were critically discussed by means of a robust statistical analysis. Finally, the complete microstructural characterization of the scaffolds was achieved by applying the general constitutive equation based on Forchheimer's theory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.10.027DOI Listing
January 2021

Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles (Nanoceria): Hopes in Soft Tissue Engineering.

Molecules 2020 Oct 6;25(19). Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Tissue Engineering Research Group (TERG), Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 917794-8564, Iran.

Several biocompatible materials have been applied for managing soft tissue lesions; cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs, or nanoceria) are among the most promising candidates due to their outstanding properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and angiogenic activities. Much attention should be paid to the physical properties of nanoceria, since most of its biological characteristics are directly determined by some of these relevant parameters, including the particle size and shape. Nanoceria, either in bare or functionalized forms, showed the excellent capability of accelerating the healing process of both acute and chronic wounds. The skin, heart, nervous system, and ophthalmic tissues are the main targets of nanoceria-based therapies, and the other soft tissues may also be evaluated in upcoming experimental studies. For the repair and regeneration of soft tissue damage and defects, nanoceria-incorporated film, hydrogel, and nanofibrous scaffolds have been proven to be highly suitable replacements with satisfactory outcomes. Still, some concerns have remained regarding the long-term effects of nanoceria administration for human tissues and organs, such as its clearance from the vital organs. Moreover, looking at the future, it seems necessary to design and develop three-dimensional (3D) printed scaffolds containing nanoceria for possible use in the concepts of personalized medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7583868PMC
October 2020

Electrospun Nanofibers for Improved Angiogenesis: Promises for Tissue Engineering Applications.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Aug 17;10(8). Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Tissue Engineering Research Group (TERG), Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 917794-8564, Iran.

Angiogenesis (or the development of new blood vessels) is a key event in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine; thus, a number of biomaterials have been developed and combined with stem cells and/or bioactive molecules to produce three-dimensional (3D) pro-angiogenic constructs. Among the various biomaterials, electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds offer great opportunities for pro-angiogenic approaches in tissue repair and regeneration. Nanofibers made of natural and synthetic polymers are often used to incorporate bioactive components (e.g., bioactive glasses (BGs)) and load biomolecules (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) that exert pro-angiogenic activity. Furthermore, seeding of specific types of stem cells (e.g., endothelial progenitor cells) onto nanofibrous scaffolds is considered as a valuable alternative for inducing angiogenesis. The effectiveness of these strategies has been extensively examined both in vitro and in vivo and the outcomes have shown promise in the reconstruction of hard and soft tissues (mainly bone and skin, respectively). However, the translational of electrospun scaffolds with pro-angiogenic molecules or cells is only at its beginning, requiring more research to prove their usefulness in the repair and regeneration of other highly-vascularized vital tissues and organs. This review will cover the latest progress in designing and developing pro-angiogenic electrospun nanofibers and evaluate their usefulness in a tissue engineering and regenerative medicine setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10081609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7466668PMC
August 2020

"Hard" ceramics for "Soft" tissue engineering: Paradox or opportunity?

Acta Biomater 2020 10 17;115:1-28. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129, Italy. Electronic address:

Tissue engineering provides great possibilities to manage tissue damages and injuries in modern medicine. The involvement of hard biocompatible materials in tissue engineering-based therapies for the healing of soft tissue defects has impressively increased over the last few years: in this regard, different types of bioceramics were developed, examined and applied either alone or in combination with polymers to produce composites. Bioactive glasses, carbon nanostructures, and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are among the most widely-proposed hard materials for treating a broad range of soft tissue damages, from acute and chronic skin wounds to complex injuries of nervous and cardiopulmonary systems. Although being originally developed for use in contact with bone, these substances were also shown to offer excellent key features for repair and regeneration of wounds and "delicate" structures of the body, including improved cell proliferation and differentiation, enhanced angiogenesis, and antibacterial/anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, when embedded in a soft matrix, these hard materials can improve the mechanical properties of the implant. They could be applied in various forms and formulations such as fine powders, granules, and micro- or nanofibers. There are some pre-clinical trials in which bioceramics are being utilized for skin wounds; however, some crucial questions should still be addressed before the extensive and safe use of bioceramics in soft tissue healing. For example, defining optimal formulations, dosages, and administration routes remain to be fixed and summarized as standard guidelines in the clinic. This review paper aims at providing a comprehensive picture of the use and potential of bioceramics in treatment, reconstruction, and preservation of soft tissues (skin, cardiovascular and pulmonary systems, peripheral nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscles, and ophthalmic tissues) and critically discusses their pros and cons (e.g., the risk of calcification and ectopic bone formation as well as the local and systemic toxicity) in this regard. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Soft tissues form a big part of the human body and play vital roles in maintaining both structure and function of various organs; however, optimal repair and regeneration of injured soft tissues (e.g., skin, peripheral nerve) still remain a grand challenge in biomedicine. Although polymers were extensively applied to restore the lost or injured soft tissues, the use of bioceramics has the potential to provides new opportunities which are still partially unexplored or at the very beginning. This reviews summarizes the state of the art of bioceramics in this field, highlighting the latest evolutions and the new horizons that can be opened by their use in the context of soft tissue engineering. Existing results and future challenges are discussed in order to provide an up-to-date contribution that is useful to both experienced scientists and early-stage researchers of the biomaterials community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.08.014DOI Listing
October 2020

Biomedical Waste Management by Using Nanophotocatalysts: The Need for New Options.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Aug 9;13(16). Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Korea.

Biomedical waste management is getting significant consideration among treatment technologies, since insufficient management can cause danger to medicinal service specialists, patients, and their environmental conditions. The improvement of waste administration protocols, plans, and policies are surveyed, despite setting up training programs on legitimate waste administration for all healthcare service staff. Most biomedical waste substances do not degrade in the environment, and may also not be thoroughly removed through treatment processes. Therefore, the long-lasting persistence of biomedical waste can effectively have adverse impact on wildlife and human beings, as well. Hence, photocatalysis is gaining increasing attention for eradication of pollutants and for improving the safety and clearness of the environment due to its great potential as a green and eco-friendly process. In this regard, nanostructured photocatalysts, in contrast to their regular counterparts, exhibit significant attributes such as non-toxicity, low cost and higher absorption efficiency in a wider range of the solar spectrum, making them the best candidate to employ for photodegradation. Due to these unique properties of nanophotocatalysts for biomedical waste management, we aim to critically evaluate various aspects of these materials in the present review and highlight their importance in healthcare service settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13163511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7476041PMC
August 2020

Regulation of the Ocular Cell/Tissue Response by Implantable Biomaterials and Drug Delivery Systems.

Bioengineering (Basel) 2020 Jun 30;7(3). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Tissue Engineering Research Group (TERG), Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 917794-8564, Iran.

Therapeutic advancements in the treatment of various ocular diseases is often linked to the development of efficient drug delivery systems (DDSs), which would allow a sustained release while maintaining therapeutic drug levels in the target tissues. In this way, ocular tissue/cell response can be properly modulated and designed in order to produce a therapeutic effect. An ideal ocular DDS should encapsulate and release the appropriate drug concentration to the target tissue (therapeutic but non-toxic level) while preserving drug functionality. Furthermore, a constant release is usually preferred, keeping the initial burst to a minimum. Different materials are used, modified, and combined in order to achieve a sustained drug release in both the anterior and posterior segments of the eye. After giving a picture of the different strategies adopted for ocular drug release, this review article provides an overview of the biomaterials that are used as drug carriers in the eye, including micro- and nanospheres, liposomes, hydrogels, and multi-material implants; the advantages and limitations of these DDSs are discussed in reference to the major ocular applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering7030065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7552708PMC
June 2020

Nanotechnology for angiogenesis: opportunities and challenges.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jul 15;49(14):5008-5057. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Tissue Engineering Research Group (TERG), Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, 917794-8564 Mashhad, Iran.

Angiogenesis plays a critical role within the human body, from the early stages of life (i.e., embryonic development) to life-threatening diseases (e.g., cancer, heart attack, stroke, wound healing). Many pharmaceutical companies have expended huge efforts on both stimulation and inhibition of angiogenesis. During the last decade, the nanotechnology revolution has made a great impact in medicine, and regulatory approvals are starting to be achieved for nanomedicines to treat a wide range of diseases. Angiogenesis therapies involve the inhibition of angiogenesis in oncology and ophthalmology, and stimulation of angiogenesis in wound healing and tissue engineering. This review aims to summarize nanotechnology-based strategies that have been explored in the broad area of angiogenesis. Lipid-based, carbon-based and polymeric nanoparticles, and a wide range of inorganic and metallic nanoparticles are covered in detail. Theranostic and imaging approaches can be facilitated by nanoparticles. Many preparations have been reported to have a bimodal effect where they stimulate angiogenesis at low dose and inhibit it at higher doses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8cs01021hDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7418030PMC
July 2020

Copper-doped Ordered Mesoporous Bioactive Glass: A Promising Multifunctional Platform for Bone Tissue Engineering .

Authors:
Francesco Baino

Bioengineering (Basel) 2020 May 21;7(2). Epub 2020 May 21.

Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Turin, Italy.

The design and development of biomaterials with multifunctional properties is highly attractive in the context of bone tissue engineering due to the potential of providing multiple therapies and, thus, better treatment of diseases. In order to tackle this challenge, copper-doped silicate mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) were synthesized via a sol-gel route coupled with an evaporation-induced self-assembly process by using a non-ionic block co-polymer as a structure directing agent. The structure and textural properties of calcined materials were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning-transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements. In vitro bioactivity was assessed by immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF). Preliminary antibacterial tests using were also carried out. Copper-doped glasses revealed an ordered arrangement of mesopores (diameter around 5 nm) and exhibited apatite-forming ability in SBF along with promising antibacterial properties. These results suggest the potential suitability of copper-doped MBG powder for use as a multifunctional biomaterial to promote bone regeneration (bioactivity) and prevent/combat microbial infection at the implantation site, thereby promoting tissue healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering7020045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355576PMC
May 2020

3D Printing of Hierarchical Scaffolds Based on Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses (MBGs)-Fundamentals and Applications.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Apr 4;13(7). Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Applied Science and Technology Department, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy.

The advent of mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) in applied bio-sciences led to the birth of a new class of nanostructured materials combining triple functionality, that is, bone-bonding capability, drug delivery and therapeutic ion release. However, the development of hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds based on MBGs may be difficult due to some inherent drawbacks of MBGs (e.g., high brittleness) and technological challenges related to their fabrication in a multiscale porous form. For example, MBG-based scaffolds produced by conventional porogen-assisted methods exhibit a very low mechanical strength, making them unsuitable for clinical applications. The application of additive manufacturing techniques significantly improved the processing of these materials, making it easier preserving the textural and functional properties of MBGs and allowing stronger scaffolds to be produced. This review provides an overview of the major aspects relevant to 3D printing of MBGs, including technological issues and potential applications of final products in medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13071688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178684PMC
April 2020

Strontium- and Cobalt-Doped Multicomponent Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses (MBGs) for Potential Use in Bone Tissue Engineering Applications.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Mar 16;13(6). Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Tissue Engineering Research Group (TERG), Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 917794-8564, Iran.

Mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) offer suitable platforms for drug/ion delivery in tissue engineering strategies. The main goal of this study was to prepare strontium (Sr)- and cobalt (Co)-doped MBGs; strontium is currently used in the treatment of osteoporosis, and cobalt is known to exhibit pro-angiogenic effects. Sr- and Co-doped mesoporous glasses were synthesized for the first time in a multicomponent silicate system via the sol-gel method by using P123 as a structure-directing agent. The glassy state of the Sr- and Co-doped materials was confirmed by XRD before immersion in SBF, while an apatite-like layer was detected onto the surface of samples post-immersion. The textural characteristics of MBGs were confirmed by nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. In vitro experiments including MTT assay, Alizarin red staining, and cell attachment and migration showed the cytocompatibility of all the samples as well as their positive effects on osteoblast-like cell line MG-63. Early experiments with human umbilical vein endothelial cells also suggested the potential of these MBGs in the context of angiogenesis. In conclusion, the prepared materials were bioactive, showed the ability to improve osteoblast cell function in vitro and could be considered as valuable delivery vehicles for therapeutics, like Co and Sr ions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13061348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7143072PMC
March 2020

Dolomite-Foamed Bioactive Silicate Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Repair.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Jan 31;13(3). Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Turin 10129, Italy.

The use of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds is recognized worldwide as a valuable biomedical approach for promoting tissue regeneration in critical-size bone defects. Over the last 50 years, bioactive glasses have been intensively investigated in a wide range of different clinical applications, from orthopedics to soft tissue healing. Bioactive glasses exhibit the unique capability to chemically bond to the host tissue and, furthermore, their processing versatility makes them very appealing due to the availability of different manufacturing techniques for the production of porous and interconnected synthetic bone grafts able to support new tissue growth over the whole duration of the treatment. As a novel contribution to the broad field of scaffold manufacturing, we report here an effective and relatively easy method to produce silicate glass-derived scaffolds by using, for the first time in the biomedical field, dolomite powder as a foaming agent for the formation of 3D bone-like porous structures. Morphological/structural features, crystallization behavior, and in vitro bioactivity in a simulated body fluid (SBF) were investigated. All the tested scaffolds were found to fulfil the minimum requirements that a scaffold for osseous repair should exhibit, including porosity (65-83 vol.%) and compressive strength (1.3-3.9 MPa) comparable to those of cancellous bone, as well as hydroxyapatite-forming ability (bioactivity). This study proves the suitability of a dolomite-foaming method for the production of potentially suitable bone grafts based on bioactive glass systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13030628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040841PMC
January 2020

Comparison Between Bioactive Sol-Gel and Melt-Derived Glasses/Glass-Ceramics Based on the Multicomponent SiO-PO-CaO-MgO-NaO-KO System.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Jan 23;13(3). Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy.

Bioactive sol-gel glasses are attractive biomaterials from both technological and functional viewpoints as they require lower processing temperatures compared to their melt-derived counterparts and exhibit a high specific surface area due to inherent nanoporosity. However, most of these materials are based on relatively simple binary or ternary oxide systems since the synthesis of multicomponent glasses via sol-gel still is a challenge. This work reports for the first time the production and characterization of sol-gel materials based on a six-oxide basic system (SiO-PO-CaO-MgO-NaO-KO). It was shown that calcination played a role in inducing the formation of crystalline phases, thus generating glass-ceramic materials. The thermal, microstructural and textural properties, as well as the in vitro bioactivity, of these sol-gel materials were assessed and compared to those of the melt-derived counterpart glass with the same nominal composition. In spite of their glass-ceramic nature, these materials retained an excellent apatite-forming ability, which is key in bone repair applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13030540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040641PMC
January 2020

Functionalization and Surface Modifications of Bioactive Glasses (BGs): Tailoring of the Biological Response Working on the Outermost Surface Layer.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Nov 9;12(22). Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy.

Bioactive glasses (BGs) are routinely being used as potent materials for hard and soft tissue engineering applications; however, improving their biological activities through surface functionalization and modification has been underestimated so far. The surface characteristics of BGs are key factors in determining the success of any implanted BG-based material in vivo since they regulate the affinity and binding of different biological macromolecules and thereby the interactions between cells and the implant. Therefore, a number of strategies using chemical agents (e.g., glutaraldehyde, silanes) and physical methods (e.g., laser treatment) have been evaluated and applied to design properly, tailor, and improve the surface properties of BGs. All these approaches aim at enhancing the biological activities of BGs, including the induction of cell proliferation and subsequent osteogenesis, as well as the inhibition of bacterial growth and adhesion, thereby reducing infection. In this study, we present an overview of the currently used approaches of surface functionalization and modifications of BGs, along with discussing the biological outputs induced by these changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12223696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6888252PMC
November 2019
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