Publications by authors named "Francesca Blasi"

38 Publications

Metabolomic Profiling and Biological Activities of Quél. Cultivated on Different Agri-Food Byproducts.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Oct 14;10(10). Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Pharmacy, Università degli Studi "Gabriele d'Annunzio", Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti, Italy.

The genus (Fr.) P. Kumm (Pleurotaceae, Basidiomycota) comprises a cosmopolitan group of mushrooms highly appreciated for their nutritional value and health-promoting benefits. Despite there being many studies about the phytochemical composition of spp., there are very few reports dealing with the phytochemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Quél. In this study, a mass spectrometry ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UHPLC)-QTOF method, coupled with principal component analysis (PCA), was applied to the metabolome in order to investigate the influence of different agri-food residues as growth substrates for cultivation, on the bioactive chemical profile of fruiting bodies and evaluated their potential as antioxidants and antimicrobials. Additionally, a quantitative HPLC-DAD-MS analysis was conducted on phenolic and flavonoid compounds, that could explain, albeit partially, the observed biological effects of extracts. The qualitative metabolic profile identified 97 metabolites, whereas the quantitative HPLC-DAD-MS analysis confirmed the presence of phenolic and flavonoids, in the mushroom extracts, which also showed intrinsic scavenging/reducing and antimicrobial effects. The antibacterial effects were particularly evident against , whereas and were the dermatophytes more sensitive to the mushroom extracts. The present study supports more in-depth investigations, aimed at evaluating the influence of growth substrate on antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The extracts from revealed valuable sources of primary and secondary metabolites, thus suggesting potential applications in the formulation of food supplements with biological properties, above all in terms of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10101245DOI Listing
October 2021

Emulgel Loaded with Flaxseed Extracts as New Therapeutic Approach in Wound Treatment.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Jul 21;13(8). Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy.

Dry (D.E.) and liquid (L.E.) extracts were prepared from flaxseeds and their application in health field was evaluated. The chemical analysis showed that D.E. is rich in the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside and L.E. in unsaturated triglycerides containing linolenic acid. Mainly, D.E. showed reducing (15.73 μmol Fe/g) and radical scavenging capacities (5.25 mg TE/g) and ability to down-regulate the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines NO (IC = 0.136 ± 0.009 mg/mL) and IL-6 (IC = 0.308 ± 0.103 mg/mL), suggesting its use in wound treatment. D.E. and L.E. were active against and D.E. also against . The two extracts were combined in a novel O/W emulgel in which the water phase was viscosized using a low molecular weight and highly deacetylated chitosan (1% wt./v). The presence of this polymer in the emulgel decreased the MIC values of the extracts. In fact, MIC shifted from 0.59 mg/mL to 0.052 mg/mL for D.E. and from 0.22 mg/mL to 0.036 mg/mL for L.E., concentrations safe both for keratinocytes and macrophages. Moreover, the emulgel demonstrated to inhibit , , , and growth (inhibition halos 24-36 mm), strains often responsible for diabetic foot ulcer infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13081107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8399585PMC
July 2021

Longitudinal study on antibiotic susceptibility in commensal E. coli from geese raised in free-range production systems.

Poult Sci 2021 Aug 5;100(8):101230. Epub 2021 May 5.

Research and Development Department, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Umbria e delle Marche 'Togo Rosati', Via G. Salvemini, 1, 06126 Perugia, Italy.

The transmission of antimicrobial resistance bacteria from animals to humans has become an important concern. The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -AmpC- producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-AmpC EC) and quinolones resistant E. coli are of particular interest. The present study aimed to evaluate the load and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant commensal E. coli along the goose production cycle on 2 free-range farms in central Italy. On A farm, oxytetracycline was administered, while the B farm did not use antibiotics during the geese productive cycle. One hundred geese of 1-day-old from the same batch were divided into the two farms. At hatching, the animals showed an average of E. coli loads was 6.83 ± 0.48 log CFU/g, and 0.28 ± 0.28, 0, 5.12 ± 0.54 log CFU/g for E. coli resistant to nalidixic acid (E. coli), to cefotaxime (E. coli) and to tetracyclines (E. coli), respectively. The loads of E. coli, E. coli, E. coli and E. coli on 224 environmental faecal pools were determined at 8 time points. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characterization of E. coli isolates were performed. The ANOVA was used to assess the difference in bacterial loads between the two farms. We described more than 50% of resistances for tetracyclines in both farms, and sulphonamides and cephazolin in the A farm. The loads of E. coli and E. coli in faeces were estimated at approximately 6-7 log (CFU/g) and 5-6 log (CFU/g) in the two farms, respectively. The average load of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase Escherichia coli (ESBL EC) in goose faeces varied broadly along the production cycle: in the first weeks, a sharp increase was observed in both farms, while later on A farm, the burden of ESBL EC remained steady until the end of the production cycle and on B farm the load dramatically decreased from 6 wk of age onward. An increase in the proportion of E. coli was observed on A farm shortly after the antibiotic administration. Our study shows that the dynamics of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in farmed geese are similar to the ones observed in broilers. However, the risk of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant commensal E. coli, might be mitigated by the adoption of good management practices, including prudent use of antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243015PMC
August 2021

The Management of Immunosuppression in Kidney Transplant Recipients with COVID-19 Disease: An Update and Systematic Review of the Literature.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Apr 30;57(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Surgery Sciences, Transplant and HPB Unit, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy.

In the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the management of immunosuppressive (IS) therapy in kidney transplant (KT) recipients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) requires attention. It is not yet understood whether IS therapy may protect from the cytokine storm induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection or a temporary adjustment/withdrawal of IS therapy to restore the immune system may be necessary. We performed a systematic literature review to investigate the current management of IS therapy in KT recipients with COVID-1. Out of 71 articles published from 1 February 2020 until 30 October 2020, 554 KT recipients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified. Modifications of IS therapy were based on the clinical conditions. For asymptomatic patients or those with mild COVID-19 symptoms, a "wait and see approach" was mostly used; a suspension of antimetabolites drugs (347/461, 75.27%) or mTOR inhibitors (38/48, 79.2%) was adopted in the majority of patients with symptomatic COVID-19 infections. For CNIs, the most frequent attitude was their maintenance (243/502, 48.4%) or dose-reduction (99/502, 19.72%) in patients asymptomatic or with mild COVID-19 symptoms, while drug withdrawal was the preferred choice in severely symptomatic patients (160/450, 31.87%). A discontinuation of all IS drugs was used only in severely symptomatic COVID-19 patients on invasive mechanical ventilation. Renal function remained stable in 422(76.17%) recipients, while 49(8.84%) patients experienced graft loss. Eight (1.44%) patients experienced a worsening of renal function. The overall mortality was 21.84%, and 53(9.56%) patients died with functioning grafts. A tailored approach to the patient has been the preferred strategy for the management of IS therapy in KT recipients, taking into account the clinical conditions of patients and the potential interactions between IS and antiviral drugs, in the attempt to balance the risks of COVID-19-related complications and those due to rejection or graft loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina57050435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147172PMC
April 2021

Characterization of the Triacylglycerol Fraction of Italian and Extra-European Hemp Seed Oil.

Foods 2021 Apr 22;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Perugia, 06126 Perugia, Italy.

Hemp seed oil (HSO) has received considerable attention for its health properties, especially due to unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) content. In this work, the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction of Italian and Extra-European HSO was characterized by applying an enzymatic approach, based on the use of pancreatic lipase and 1,2-diacylglycerol kinase. This procedure allows determination of the intrapositional FA% composition of TAG. The results of the stereospecific analysis are useful for deepening knowledge on HSO nutritional aspects. The high percentage of UFA (88.3-89.9%), in particular essential FA (74.4-85.9%), of HSO samples in -2 position is important for long-term health effects, but also to enhance the use of this oil as a functional ingredient in food, cosmetic and nutraceutical fields. Furthermore, the results of total and intrapositional FA % compositions, subjected to principal component analysis, were able to differentiate HSO Italian samples from Extra-European ones. Based on the obtained results, it can be stated that the stereospecific analysis represents a potent analytical tool providing the fingerprint of TAG fraction, useful to highlight possible chemical descriptors for HSO authenticity and traceability purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10050916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143575PMC
April 2021

in Calves in Central Italy: Prevalence, Molecular Typing, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Association with Antibiotic Administration.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Feb 16;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Umbria e delle Marche "Togo Rosati", 06121 Perugia, Italy.

The emergence of as the main agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea has raised concerns about its potential zoonotic role in different animal species. The use of antimicrobials is a major risk factor for infection. Here, we provide data on infection in dairy and beef calves in Umbria, a region in central Italy. This cross-sectional study focuses on prevalence, risk factors, ribotypes, toxinotypes and antimicrobial resistance profiles of circulating ribotypes. A prevalence of 19.8% (CI95%, 12-27.6%) positive farms was estimated, and the prescription of penicillins on the farms was associated with detection (OR = 5.58). Eleven different ribotypes were found, including the ST11 sublineages RT-126 and -078, which are also commonly reported in humans. Thirteen isolates out of 17 showed resistance to at least one of clindamycin, moxifloxacin, linezolid and vancomycin. Among them, multiple-drug resistance was observed in two isolates, belonging to RT-126. Furthermore, RT-126 isolates were positive for tetracycline resistance determinants, confirming that tetracycline resistance is widespread among ST11 isolates from cattle. The administration of penicillins increased the risk of in calves: this, together with the recovery of multi-resistant strains, strongly suggests the need for minimising antibiotic misuse on cattle farms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11020515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920295PMC
February 2021

Preparation and characterization of polymeric microparticles loaded with Moringa oleifera leaf extract for exuding wound treatment.

Int J Pharm 2020 Sep 29;587:119700. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Perugia, via del Liceo 1, 06123 Perugia, Italy.

The aim of this study was to develop an innovative formulation, particularly useful for the treatment of exuding wounds. An extract from Moringa oleifera leaves (MOE), prepared by an eco-friendly method, was used as active ingredient. Its preliminary characterization showed that MOE is rich in quercetin-O-glucoside and quercetin-O-malonyl glucoside, responsible for the antioxidant, radical scavenging and antibacterial activities (toward Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, S. faecalis and S. pyogenes). Moreover, MOE showed the ability to stimulate keratinocytes growth. Thus, bioadhesive biocompatible polymeric microparticles loaded with such extract were developed and prepared in order to treat exuding wounds. The microparticles, obtained by spray drying, using chitosan as polymer, showed good swelling ability. This is useful to obtain the transition from microparticles to a continuous gel covering the wound, after deposition on it. This has the double function to protect the damage area and to promote the healing. The in vitro release study showed that the formed gel is able to release immediately MOE, in the first minutes after application, and to promote a sustained release within 24 h reaching an efficacious concentration against the most sensitive bacterial strains. These findings suggest that the developed microparticles represent an interesting tool for exuding wounds treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119700DOI Listing
September 2020

Changes of milk fatty acid composition in four lipid classes as biomarkers for the diagnosis of bovine ketosis using bioanalytical Thin Layer Chromatography and Gas Chromatographic techniques (TLC-GC).

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2020 Sep 22;188:113372. Epub 2020 May 22.

University of Padova, Viale dell'Università 16, Legnaro, PD, Italy.

The aim of this study was to extend the limited research available on the association between the concentration of milk fatty acids and the elevated plasmatic value of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in early lactation of dairy cows. Fifty-four Holstein Friesian dairy cows were enrolled in the study. All animals were classified on the basis of their blood BHB concentration: BHB ≥ 1.0 mmol/L (BHB-1, sick group) and BHB ≤ 0.99 mmol/L (BHB-0, healthy group). Using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), four lipid classes (cholesterol esters -CE-, phospholipids -PL-, free fatty acids -FFA- and triacylglycerols -TAG-) were separated, and then the fatty acid (FA) composition was determined by High Resolution Gas Chromatography coupled with Flame Ionization Detector/Mass Spectrometer (HRGC-FID/MS). The FA profiles were used to investigate the diagnostic potential value of milk fatty acids for the correct classification of cows with BHB concentration above the established threshold (BHB < 1.0 mmol/L). Boruta Test and Receiver Operating Characteristic curves (ROC) were used to identify which FA and their thresholds of concentration could be used when animals presented hyperketonemia. The research has identified fourteen FA, belonging to CE, FFA, and TAG classes, useful for an association with BHB-1. These compounds, with predictive value for the development of hyperketonemia, could be considered valuable biomarkers. Further studies on a wider sampling, based on clinical and therapeutic approach, will be necessary to confirm, by bioanalytical chromatographic approaches, if these predictive FA will change between healthy and sick animals. New approaches in relation on the administration of different diets or supplements, and administration of drugs might improve the prevention of hyperketonemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113372DOI Listing
September 2020

Impact of Ultrasound Extraction Parameters on the Antioxidant Properties of Leaves.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Mar 26;9(4). Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Perugia, Via San Costanzo, 06126 Perugia, Italy.

Recently, much interest has been focused on L., a highly versatile and sustainable plant. In addition to its nutritional properties, numerous bioactive compounds have been identified in leaves, for which healthy properties have been reported. In the present research, the impact of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) on the recovery of the bioactive compounds from leaves was investigated. Firstly, an experimental design approach has been used to highlight the influence of some extraction parameters (solvent, solvent/dry leaves ratio, temperature, time) on phenol compound recovery and antioxidant activity. Solvent composition was the most influential factor; in fact, the presence of water in the solvent (50:50, v/v) corresponded to an increase in the extraction performance. The liquid/solid ratio (L/S) also influenced the extraction process; in fact, the total phenol content reached 13.4 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry matter (DM) in the following UAE conditions: 50% water, 60:1 L/S ratio, 60 °C, 60 min. In order to quantify flavonols, hydroalcoholic extracts were analysed by HPLC-DAD (high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector). In the flavonol class, the glycosidic forms of quercetin and kaempferol were mainly detected. Their content ranged from 216.4 µg/g DM of quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside to 293.9 µg/g DM of quercetin 3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-β-D-glucoside. In summary, the leaves of are a potential natural source of bioactive compounds, proving to be very promising for the development of health-promoting food supplements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222185PMC
March 2020

Phenolic profiling and in vitro bioactivity of Moringa oleifera leaves as affected by different extraction solvents.

Food Res Int 2020 01 31;127:108712. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department for Sustainable Food Process, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy. Electronic address:

In this work the (poly)-phenolic profile of Moringa oleifera leaves was comprehensively investigated through untargeted metabolomics, following a homogenizer-assisted extraction (HAE) using three solvent systems, i.e. methanol (HAE-1), methanol-water 50:50 v/v (HAE-2) and ethyl acetate (HAE-3). This approach allowed to putatively annotate 291 compounds, recording mainly flavonoids and phenolic acids. Thereafter, antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity and enzyme inhibition were assayed in the different extracts. HAE-1 extract showed the highest total phenolic content (31.84 mg/g), followed by HAE-2 (26.95 mg/g) and HAE-3 (14.71 mg/g). In addition, HAE-1 and HAE-2 extracts exhibited an expressive activity against Bacillus cereus and Listeria innocua. The HAE-2 leaf extract was characterized by the highest DPPH and ABTS values (being 49.55 and 45.26 mgTE/g), while ferric reducing antioxidant power was found to be higher in HAE-1 (58.26 mgTE/g). Finally, the enzyme inhibitory effects of M. oleifera leaf extracts were investigated against five enzymes, namely acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), tyrosinase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. All of the tested extracts exhibited inhibitory effects on AChE and BChE with a higher activity for HAE-3 and HAE-1, whilst HAE-1 showed the higher impact on tyrosinase, glucosidase and amylase activities. Taken together, these findings suggest that M. oleifera leaf extracts are a good source of bioactive polyphenols with a potential use in food and pharma industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.108712DOI Listing
January 2020

Changes in Absolute Contents of Compounds Affecting the Taste and Nutritional Properties of the Flesh of Three Plum Species Throughout Development.

Foods 2019 Oct 12;8(10). Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, via Borgo XX Giugno 74, 06121 Perugia, Italy.

The characteristics of plum fruits of three different species were investigated throughout their development (including over-ripening). The content of primary and secondary metabolites was expressed as amount per gram DW (dry weight) and per fruit in order to obtain information about the balance between their synthesis and dissimilation at different stages of fruit development. In all the plums, during the first stages of development, glucose was the most abundant sugar, whereas sucrose increased during ripening. There was no decrease in malate content per fruit before the commercial harvesting time of any of the plums, whereas a decrease was observed during over-ripening. In general, both the total phenol content and the contents of individual phenols in the flesh expressed on gram DW decreased throughout development, whereas their content per fruit increased, indicating that these decreases were due to a dilution effect arising from the expansion of the flesh. During the development of the flesh, the increase in the contents of the investigated metabolites per fruit shows that there was no net dissimilation of malate up to commercial harvest and of phenols throughout fruit development. Good correlations between the content of phenols to antioxidant activity were found. Shiro flesh, during the last part of fruit development, had lower total carbohydrate and polyphenol contents, lower antioxidant activities, and a higher malate content than the flesh of the other two genotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8100486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6835993PMC
October 2019

Liquid chromatography separation of α- and γ-linolenic acid positional isomers with a stationary phase based on covalently immobilized cellulose tris(3,5-dichlorophenylcarbamate).

J Chromatogr A 2020 Jan 15;1609:460461. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

University of Perugia, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Via Fabretti 48, 06123 Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:

α-Linolenic acid (ALA) and its most important positional isomer γ-linolenic acid (GLA), are essential fatty acids (vitamin F). Therefore, ALA- and GLA-rich edible oils hold great potential in human and animal nutrition, as well as in nutraceutics and cosmetics. Quality control and nutritional validation of oil products is thus of increasing importance. In the present study, the cellulose tris(3,5-dichlorophenylcarbamate)-based chiral stationary phase was successfully used for separation of ALA and GLA, a major challenge in the liquid chromatography of these isomers. The chromatographic conditions were firstly optimized on a HPLC system with UV detection, and the use of a reversed-phase eluent system made up of aqueous 10 mM ammonium acetate/acetonitrile (40/60, v/v; pH6.0) with a 25 °C column temperature resulted optimal for the simultaneous discrimination of the two isomers at a 0.5 mL/min flow rate (α = 1.10; R = 1.21). The method was then optimized for LC-MS/MS implementation. The proposed innovative separation method holds a great potential for the quantification of ALA and GLA in food and biological matrices, thus opening the way to further investigations involving the two positional isomers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2019.460461DOI Listing
January 2020

Phenol Profiling and Nutraceutical Potential of spp. Leaf Extracts Obtained with Ultrasound and Microwave Assisted Techniques.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2019 Jul 31;8(8). Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Section of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Perugia, via San Costanzo, 06126 Perugia, Italy.

In recent years, agricultural and industrial residues have attracted a lot of interest in the recovery of phytochemicals used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. In this paper, a study on the recovery of phenol compounds from spp. leaves is presented. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) have been used with alcoholic and hydroalcoholic solvents. Methanolic UAE was the most successful technique for extracting phenols from leaves, and we used on leaves from and cultivated in Italy. The extracts were then characterized as regards to the antioxidant properties by in vitro assays and the phenol profiling by a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Chlorogenic acid and rutin were the main phenol compounds, but considerable differences have been observed between the samples of the two species. For example, cryptochlorogenic acid was found only in samples, while quercetin-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-sophoroside-7-O-rhamnoside only in leaves. Finally, multivariate statistical analysis techniques applied to the phenol content allowed us to differentiate samples from different spp. The results of this study confirm that the extraction is a crucial step in the analytical procedure and show that leaves represent an interesting source of antioxidant compounds, with potential use in the nutraceutical field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6721263PMC
July 2019

Protects Mice Against Collagen-Induced Arthritis and Decreases Th17 Cell Function.

Front Pharmacol 2019 31;10:503. Epub 2019 May 31.

Department of Medicine, Foligno Nursing School, University of Perugia, Foligno, Italy.

(Moraceae) is a tree that grows in north Vietnam whose leaf decoction is used as a traditional remedy by the Hmong ethnic group to treat arthritis and backache. Our study evaluated the decoction's efficacy and mechanism of action in DBA/1J mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Mice treated with the decoction (At) either from the first collagen immunization or after CIA development experienced significantly less joint edema and inflammatory infiltration, whereas CIA-induced cartilage damage could only be prevented by early At treatment. Autoimmune gene expression profiles showed that Th17 cell-associated chemokine CCL20 and cytokines IL-6, IL-17, and IL-22 were strongly downregulated by At. Reduced expression of , , , and in lymph node cells from At-treated mice was further confirmed by real-time PCR. The decoction also inhibited polarization of Th17 cells from CD4 splenic T cells according to levels of IL-17 and RORC, a Th17 cell-specific transcription factor. Chromatographic analysis identified At's major component as maesopsin-β-D-glucoside, which could inhibit differentiation of Th17 cells. The decoction significantly alleviated the signs and symptoms of CIA and inhibited the development and function of Th17 cells, highlighting its potent anti-inflammatory activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6554681PMC
May 2019

Untargeted Metabolomics to Evaluate the Stability of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Added Lycium barbarum Carotenoids during Storage.

Foods 2019 May 28;8(6). Epub 2019 May 28.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Section of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Perugia, via San Costanzo, 06126 Perugia, Italy.

A carotenoid-rich extract from L. was added to extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), obtaining a carotenoid-enriched oil (EVOOCar). The oxidative stability of EVOO and EVOOCar was evaluated during long-term storage of 28 weeks at room temperature, by measuring some classical parameters (acidity and peroxide values, spectrophotometric coefficients, fatty acid composition) and the content of minor compounds (i.e., α-tocopherol and lutein). At the end of the storage, higher content ( < 0.01) of α-tocopherol in EVOOCar in respect to EVOO were observed. Zeaxanthin dipalmitate, the most abundant carotenoid compound of Goji berries, decreased slightly ( < 0.05) in EVOOCar until the end of the storage. In regard to polyphenols, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QTOF-MS) using untargeted metabolomics was carried out. This latter approach discriminated the two oil samples during long-term storage, allowing to identify also the phenolic classes most exposed to significant variations during storage (i.e., mainly lignans and flavones). Besides, the addition of Goji carotenoids preserved the stability of tyrosol equivalents in EVOOCar during long-term storage. These results highlighted that the enrichment of EVOO with a carotenoid-rich extract can improve the shelf-life and nutritional value of added-oil, protecting EVOO natural antioxidants during long-term storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8060179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6616970PMC
May 2019

Liver transplantation with a normothermic machine preserved fatty nonagenarian liver: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2019 30;57:163-166. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Surgery, HPB and Transplant Unit, Tor Vergata University of Rome, Italy.

Introduction: The use of organs from expanded criteria donors for Liver Transplantation (LT) represents a major challenge. In the current era of Normothermic Machine Perfusion (NMP), donor age boundaries are often overcome and may contribute to reduce the gap between supply and demand of organs suitable for transplantation. We report on a unique case of nonagenarian liver successfully transplanted after NMP.

Presentation Of Case: A fatty previously declined liver graft from nonagenarian male brain death donor underwent NMP (OrganOx Metra, UK, Oxford) perfusion at University of Rome Tor Vergata on April 2018. The histology assessment showed 15% macro and 35% micro vescicular steatosis. Liver fulfilled viability criteria after NMP and was thus transplanted. The recipient was a 53 years old male with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent two previous trans-arterial chemo-embolization. The post-LT AST peak was 1556 U/L; post operative course was characterized by hepatic artery thrombosis that required re-laparotomy and successful thrombectomy. Recipient experienced biliary stricture three months after discharge successfully treated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. At 7 months of follow-up patient has good clinical status and graft function.

Discussion: NMP represents a safe approach in order to increase the usage of very old fatty livers, that otherwise would be declined because of the high risk of primary non function and death.

Conclusion: Nonagenarian liver recruitment after NMP seems to be feasible but a major attention is advisable on the manipulation and cannulation of hepatic artery in order to avoid intimal damage that can lead hepatic artery thrombosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2019.03.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453798PMC
March 2019

Rare malignant glomus tumor of the stomach with liver metastases.

Radiol Case Rep 2019 Apr 2;14(4):463-467. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tor Vergata, Rome 00133, Italy.

We report a case of a 72-year-old male admitted in our Unit with anemia and a 10 cm liver neoplasm. Computed tomography scan showed 2 lesions respectively in the II, III and, VIII segment of the liver. Surgical resection of the larger liver mass was performed and the tumor appeared as a solid-cystic mass and a diagnosis of malignant mesenchymal tumor not otherwise specified, was made. One month later a Computed tomography scan detected a dishomogeneous gastric mass, 6 cm in diameter, in the greater curvature, confirmed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The pathological diagnosis from endoscopic biopsy revealed a mesenchymal tumor requiring surgical removal for accurate diagnosis. The patient underwent relaparotomy and gastric resection and the pathological findings gave a diagnosis of a rare malignant glomic tumor of the stomach confirmed by the revision of previously performed hepatic resection classified as secondary lesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2019.01.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360248PMC
April 2019

Varietal Authentication of Extra Virgin Olive Oils by Triacylglycerols and Volatiles Analysis.

Foods 2019 Feb 5;8(2). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

University of Perugia, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Section of Food Science and Nutrition, Via San Costanzo, 06126 Perugia, Italy.

In recent years, there is an increasing interest in high-quality extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) produced from local cultivars. They have particular chemical/organoleptic characteristics and are frequently subjected to fraud, whereby the control of quality requires a powerful varietal check. In the present research, triacylglycerols (TAGs) and volatiles have been studied as chemical markers for the authentication of EVOO samples from four Italian varieties of (Dolce Agogia, Frantoio, Leccino, and Moraiolo). The monocultivar EVOO samples have been subjected to a chemical⁻enzymatic chromatographic method in order to perform a stereospecific analysis, an important procedure for the characterization of TAG of food products. The results, combined with chemometric analysis (linear discriminant analysis, LDA), were elaborated in order to classify Italian EVOO monocultivar samples. In accordance with the total and intrapositional fatty acid (FA) composition of TAG fraction, the results were allowed to carry out a varietal discrimination. In addition, volatile compounds were also determined by solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography⁻mass spectrometry analysis. All EVOO samples were correctly classified when TAG stereospecific data and volatile results were elaborated by the LDA procedure, even if volatile compounds showed a higher discriminant power.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8020058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406773PMC
February 2019

Characterisation and geographical traceability of Italian goji berries.

Food Chem 2019 Mar 17;275:585-593. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Food Science and Nutrition Section, University of Perugia, Via S. Costanzo 1, 06126 Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:

This work characterises and distinguishes Italian and Asian goji berries, combining three analytical approaches to determine 5 light stable isotope ratios, 57 mineral elements and 14 carotenoids. The study analyses stable isotope ratios and provides full HPLC-DAD-MS characterisation of the carotenoid fraction in goji berries for the first time. The isotopic composition of Italian berries was characterised by δC values ranging between -28.2‰ and -25.7‰, δN between 2.3 and 7.3‰, δS between 2.6 and 7.9‰, and D/H between -112 and -49‰. Italian goji berries were shown to have a particular composition and interesting nutritional characteristics, specifically a higher total carotenoid content (355 mg/100 g dw mean content vs 198 mg/100 g dw) and higher content of some micronutrients: K, B, Cu, Mo, Se, and Zn. On the basis of δS, Y, U, Cu, Rb, zeaxanthin palmitate and total carotenoid content, discriminant analysis correctly classified all samples according to their geographical origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.09.098DOI Listing
March 2019

Impact of conventional/non-conventional extraction methods on the untargeted phenolic profile of Moringa oleifera leaves.

Food Res Int 2019 01 23;115:319-327. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department for Sustainable Food Process, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy.

The impact of different extraction methods, namely maceration, homogenizer-assisted extraction, rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction, on polyphenols of Moringa oleifera leaves was studied. The phenolic composition of alcoholic (methanol 100%) and hydroalcoholic (methanol/water 50:50, v/v) extracts was compared by using an untargeted metabolomics-based profiling approach followed by multivariate statistics. With this aim, ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to profile phenolic compounds under the different extraction conditions. Besides, the in vitro antioxidant activities of Moringa leaves were also investigated as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The metabolomic approach allowed to putatively annotate 262 phenolic compounds. In particular, glycosidic forms of quercetin (i.e., quercetin 3-O-galactoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and quercetin 4'-O-glucoside) were the most represented compounds among flavonoids. Furthermore, protocatechuic acid was found to be the most abundant hydroxybenzaldheyde derivative, while the isomeric forms of hydroxybenzoic acid characterized the phenolic acids class. Overall, the extractions in methanol 100% were found to be the most effective for phenolic compounds recovering, when compared with those in methanol/water (50:50, v/v). Homogenizer-assisted extraction of M. oleifera leaves using 100% methanol allowed extracting the highest amounts of polyphenols (35.19 mg/g) and produced the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (536.27 μmol Trolox Equivalents/g). The supervised orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis identified phenolic acids as the phenolic class mostly affected by the different extraction technologies. These findings demonstrate that each extraction method promoted the recovery of specific phenolic subclasses with different efficiencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.11.046DOI Listing
January 2019

Longterm Survival and Cost-Effectiveness of Immunosuppression Withdrawal After Liver Transplantation.

Liver Transpl 2018 09;24(9):1199-1208

Transplant and Hepatobiliary Unit, Department of Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Lifelong immunosuppression (IS) after liver transplantation is associated with severe adverse effects and increased recipients' morbidity and mortality. Clinical operational tolerance has been reported in up to 40% in very well-selected recipients. Longterm survival and cost savings within the Italian national health system in operational tolerant recipients is reported. Seventy-five liver recipients were enrolled for IS withdrawal at our institution during the period from April 1998 to December 2015. The study population comprised 32 (42.7%) tolerant patients; 41 (54.7%) nontolerant patients needing uptake of IS after clinical or biopsy-proven rejection; and 2 (2.7%) immediate nontolerant patients who developed early rejection after the first drug reduction. The primary endpoint of the study was to assess the longterm patients and graft outcome; the secondary endpoint was the assessment of cost savings in the context of IS withdrawal. The follow-up was 95.0 months (interquartile range, 22.5-108.5 months). IS withdrawal did not result in patient nor graft loss and resulted in a major cost savings reaching about €630,000. In conclusion, longterm IS withdrawal represents a remarkable cost savings in the health care of liver recipients without exposing them to graft loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lt.25293DOI Listing
September 2018

Chemical and Nutritional Characterization of Seed Oil from Cucurbita maxima L. (var. Berrettina) Pumpkin.

Foods 2018 Mar 1;7(3). Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences Section of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Perugia, Via San Costanzo, 06126 Perugia, Italy.

Pumpkin ( spp.) has received considerable attention in recent years because of the nutritional and health-protective value of seed oil. The nutritional composition of pumpkin native to central Italy, locally known as "Berrettina" ( L.), was evaluated. In particular, the lipid fraction of seed oil was characterized, and the triacylglycerol (TAG) was thoroughly studied by using a stereospecific procedure to obtain the intrapositional fatty acid composition of the three -positions of the glycerol backbone of TAG. Moreover, alkaline hydrolysis was carried out to study the main components of the unsaponifiable fraction, i.e., sterols and alcohols. It was observed that monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant (41.7% and 37.2%, respectively) in Berrettina pumpkin seed oil, with high content of oleic and linoleic acid (41.4% and 37.0%, respectively). The main sterols of Berrettina pumpkin seed oil were Δ-stigmastatrienol, Δ-stigmastadienol, and spinasterol; with regard to the alcoholic fraction, triterpenic compounds were more abundant than aliphatic compounds (63.2% vs. 36.8%). The obtained data are useful to evaluate pumpkin seed oil from a nutritional point of view. The oil obtained from the seed could be used as a preservative and as a functional ingredient in different areas, e.g., cosmetics, foods, and nutraceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods7030030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5867545PMC
March 2018

In Vitro Safety/Protection Assessment of Resveratrol and Pterostilbene in a Human Hepatoma Cell Line (HepG2).

Nat Prod Commun 2015 Aug;10(8):1403-8

The aim of this work was to evaluate in vitro the genotoxic and/or antigenotoxic effects of resveratrol (RESV) and pterostilbene (PTER) on HepG2 cells. Moreover, additional tests were performed to evaluate early and late apoptosis events induced by the tested stilbenes. RESV and PTER did not show any genotoxic activity. As regards antigenotoxicity testing, RESV and PTER showed a typical, U-shaped hormetic dose-response relationship characterized by a biphasic trend with small quantities having opposite effects to large ones. HepG2 cells treated with PTER exhibited a marked increase in early apoptosis (40.1%) at 250 microM; whereas, the highest concentration tested for both RESV and PTER significantly increased the proportion of HepG2 cells undergoing late apoptosis (32.5 and 51.2%, respectively). The observed pro-apoptotic activity could, at least in part, explain the hormetic response observed when the compounds were tested for antigenotoxicity (i.e., in the presence of induced DNA damage).
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August 2015

Characterisation of secondary metabolites in saffron from central Italy (Cascia, Umbria).

Food Chem 2014 Jan 12;143:446-51. Epub 2013 Aug 12.

Università degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Scienze Economico-Estimative e degli Alimenti, Sezione di Chimica Bromatologica, Biochimica, Fisiologia e Nutrizione, Via San Costanzo, 06126 Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:

Saffron's quality depends on the concentration of secondary metabolites, such as crocins, picrocrocin and safranal. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of drying conditions on the secondary metabolite contents of saffron produced in the area of Cascia, in central Italy. Different aliquots of the same saffron sample were subjected to various dehydration conditions and analysed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry to determine crocins, picrocrocin and safranal.. Safranal was also analysed by high resolution gas chromatography, while the crocins and picrocrocin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detectors. The results of chromatographic analyses showed that the samples dried in the milder conditions had the lowest content of secondary metabolites. Moreover the sample dried at 60°C for 55min presented the highest contents of trans-crocin-4 and picrocrocin, while safranal was most represented in saffron dried at 55°C for 95min.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.08.020DOI Listing
January 2014

Triacylglycerol stereospecific analysis and linear discriminant analysis for milk speciation.

J Dairy Res 2013 May 28;80(2):144-51. Epub 2012 Nov 28.

Dipartimento di Scienze Economico-Estimative e degli Alimenti, Sezione di Chimica Bromatologica, Biochimica, Fisiologia e Nutrizione, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Via San Costanzo, 06126, Perugia, Italy.

Product authenticity is an important topic in dairy sector. Dairy products sold for public consumption must be accurately labelled in accordance with the contained milk species. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), a common chemometric procedure, has been applied to fatty acid% composition to classify pure milk samples (cow, ewe, buffalo, donkey, goat). All original grouped cases were correctly classified, while 90% of cross-validated grouped cases were correctly classified. Another objective of this research was the characterisation of cow-ewe milk mixtures in order to reveal a common fraud in dairy field, that is the addition of cow to ewe milk. Stereospecific analysis of triacylglycerols (TAG), a method based on chemical-enzymatic procedures coupled with chromatographic techniques, has been carried out to detect fraudulent milk additions, in particular 1, 3, 5% cow milk added to ewe milk. When only TAG composition data were used for the elaboration, 75% of original grouped cases were correctly classified, while totally correct classified samples were obtained when both total and intrapositional TAG data were used. Also the results of cross validation were better when TAG stereospecific analysis data were considered as LDA variables. In particular, 100% of cross-validated grouped cases were obtained when 5% cow milk mixtures were considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029912000635DOI Listing
May 2013

Composition of meat and offal from weaned and fattened rabbits and results of stereospecific analysis of triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines.

J Sci Food Agric 2012 Mar 14;92(4):952-9. Epub 2011 Oct 14.

Dipartimento di Scienze Economico-Estimative e degli Alimenti, Sezione di Chimica Bromatologica, Biochimica, Fisiologia e Nutrizione, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Background: Rabbit meat has excellent nutritive properties. The purpose of this study was to characterize rabbit meat and offal; in particular, the lipid fraction was studied in order to evaluate total and positional fatty acid (FA) compositions of triacylglycerol (TAG) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) fractions. Eight samples of weaned and eight of fattened rabbits were considered.

Results: Fattened rabbit meat contained slightly higher protein percentage content (P < 0.05) in comparison to weaned (20.1% versus 18.0%). Calcium content was higher in meat than in offal, unlike sodium, iron, zinc, manganese and copper. The cholesterol content in offal was much higher than in meat. FA profiles of total lipid showed a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids and an n-6/n-3 ratio of 10.3 for fattened rabbit meat. Stereospecific analysis of TAG and PC was carried out on an eight-sample pool of each meat and offal from weaned and fattened rabbits. In all samples the sn-2-position was prevalently esterified with oleic and linoleic acids in TAG, with polyunsaturated fatty acids in PC.

Conclusion: Lipids from rabbit meat presented higher content of monounsaturated FA and lower n-6/n-3 ratio in comparison to offal, which was characterized by higher cholesterol and mineral levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4676DOI Listing
March 2012

Detection of cow milk in donkey milk by chemometric procedures on triacylglycerol stereospecific analysis results.

J Dairy Res 2011 Aug;78(3):335-42

Dipartimento di Scienze Economico-Estimative e degli Alimenti, Sezione di Chimica Bromatologica, Biochimica, Fisiologia e Nutrizione, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Via San Costanzo, 06126, Perugia, Italy.

Stereospecific analysis is an important tool for the characterization of lipid fraction of food matrices, and also of milk samples. The results of a chemical-enzymatic-chromatographic analytical method were elaborated by chemometric procedures such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and artificial neural network (ANN). According to the total composition and intrapositional fatty acid distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG) backbone, the obtained results were able to characterize pure milk samples and milk mixtures with 1, 3, 5% cow milk added to donkey milk. The resulting score was very satisfactory. Totally correct classified samples were obtained when the TAG stereospecific results of all the considered milk mixtures (donkey-cow) were elaborated by LDA and ANN chemometric procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029911000495DOI Listing
August 2011

Stereospecific analysis of triacylglycerol and phospholipid fractions of four freshwater fish species: Salmo trutta, Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus melas and Micropterus salmoides.

Food Chem 2008 Sep 1;110(1):199-206. Epub 2008 Feb 1.

Dipartimento di Scienze Economico-Estimative e degli Alimenti, Sezione di Chimica Bromatologica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:

The fatty acid compositions and the positional distributions of fatty acid in triacylglycerol (TAGs) and phospholipid (PLs) fractions of four cultured freshwater fish species (Salmo trutta, Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus melas and Micropterus salmoides) were investigated. As regards the TAGs fraction, the S. trutta (trout) and I. punctatus (channel catfish) species had the highest % content in n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and the lowest n6/n3 ratio; this ratio resulted always lower than 1 in all the considered fish species. The PLs fraction of the considered fish was very interesting because of the high percentage of PUFAs, both in phosphatidylcholines and in phosphatidylethanolamines. The fatty acid distribution among the three sn-positions of the glycerol backbone was non-random; generally, both n6 and n3 PUFAs were mainly distributed between sn-2- and sn-3-positions of TAGs while the contents in sn-1-position were generally lower; in PLs fraction these fatty acids preferred the sn-2-position.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.01.033DOI Listing
September 2008

Analysis of X chromosome inactivation in autism spectrum disorders.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2008 Sep;147B(6):830-5

Human Genetics and Cognitive Functions, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex genetic disorders more frequently observed in males. Skewed X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is observed in heterozygous females carrying gene mutations involved in several X-linked syndromes. In this study, we aimed to estimate the role of X-linked genes in ASD susceptibility by ascertaining the XCI pattern in a sample of 543 informative mothers of children with ASD and in a sample of 163 affected girls. The XCI pattern was also determined in two control groups (144 adult females and 40 young females) with a similar age distribution to the mothers sample and affected girls sample, respectively. We observed no significant excess of skewed XCI in families with ASD. Interestingly, two mothers and one girl carrying known mutations in X-linked genes (NLGN3, ATRX, MECP2) showed highly skewed XCI, suggesting that ascertainment of XCI could reveal families with X-linked mutations. Linkage analysis was carried out in the subgroup of multiplex families with skewed XCI (> or = 80:20) and a modest increased allele sharing was obtained in the Xq27-Xq28 region, with a peak Z-score of 1.75 close to rs719489. In summary, our results suggest that there is no major X-linked gene subject to XCI and expressed in blood cells conferring susceptibility to ASD. However, the possibility that rare mutations in X-linked genes could contribute to ASD cannot be excluded. We propose that the XCI profile could be a useful criteria to prioritize families for mutation screening of X-linked candidate genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.30688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4867005PMC
September 2008

Original normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of monoacylglycerol classes from extra virgin olive oil triacylglycerols for their stereospecific analysis.

J AOAC Int 2007 Nov-Dec;90(6):1647-54

University of Perugia, Department of Economic Science and Food Sciences, Section of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Via San Costanzo, I-06126 Perugia, Italy.

An innovative procedure to separate the 3 isomeric sn-monoacylglycerols (MAG) classes (sn-1-, sn-2-, sn-3-MAG) is described. MAGs, obtained by chemical deacylation of triacylglycerols (TAGs), have been derivatized with (S)-(+)-1-(1-naphtyl)ethyl-isocyanate, and the resulting urethane derivatives have been separated by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. This procedure allows resolution as diasteroisomers of the 2 enantiomeric classes (sn-1-MAG and sn-3-MAG), without the need of a chiral column, and to separate also the isomeric sn-2-MAG class; moreover, by introducing a chromophoric moiety, this reagent makes possible the ultraviolet detection of the analyte molecules. This procedure has been used to obtain the stereospecific analysis of the TAG fraction of extra virgin olive oil samples. The use of a nondestructive detector permitted the collection of the individual urethane classes; the fatty acid composition of each was determined by high-resolution gas chromatography, obtaining directly from the data the fatty acid distribution within each sn- position of TAGs. To validate this new method, the results have been compared with those obtained by 2 other procedures for TAG stereospecific analysis, and the obtained results were satisfactory since the proposed method gave data very similar to the other procedures.
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February 2008
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