Publications by authors named "Francesc Villarroya"

185 Publications

Nicotinamide Protects Against Diet-Induced Body Weight Gain, Increases Energy Expenditure and Induces White Adipose Tissue Beiging.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Apr 18:e2100111. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Institut de Recerca de l'Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau i Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de l'Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, IIB-Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.

Scope: Interventions that boost NAD+ availability are of potential therapeutic interest for obesity treatment. The potential of nicotinamide (NAM), the amide form of vitamin B3 and a physiological precursor of NAD+, in preventing weight gain has not previously been studied in vivo. Other NAD+ precursors have been shown to decrease weight gain; however, their impact on adipose tissue was not addressed.

Methods And Results: Two doses of NAM (high dose: 1%; and low dose: 0.25%) were given by drinking water to C57BL/6J male mice, starting at the same time as the high-fat diet feeding. NAM supplementation protected against diet-induced obesity by augmenting global body energy expenditure in C57BL/6J male mice. The manipulation markedly altered adipose morphology and metabolism, particularly in inguinal (i) white adipose tissue (iWAT). An increased number of brown and beige adipocyte clusters, protein abundance of UCP1, mitochondrial activity, adipose NAD+, and AMPK levels were observed in the iWAT of treated mice. Notably, a significant improvement in hepatic steatosis, inflammation and glucose tolerance was also observed in NAM high-dose treated mice.

Conclusion: NAM influences whole-body energy expenditure by driving changes in the adipose phenotype. Thus, NAM is an attractive potential treatment for preventing obesity and associated complications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.202100111DOI Listing
April 2021

ARMCX3 Mediates Susceptibility to Hepatic Tumorigenesis Promoted by Dietary Lipotoxicity.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;13(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biomedicine and Institute of Biomedicine, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

ARMCX3 is encoded by a member of the Armcx gene family and is known to be involved in nervous system development and function. We found that ARMCX3 is markedly upregulated in mouse liver in response to high lipid availability, and that hepatic ARMCX3 is upregulated in patients with NAFLD and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Mice were subjected to ARMCX3 invalidation (inducible ARMCX3 knockout) and then exposed to a high-fat diet and diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. The effects of experimental ARMCX3 knockdown or overexpression in HCC cell lines were also analyzed. ARMCX3 invalidation protected mice against high-fat-diet-induced NAFLD and chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis. ARMCX3 invalidation promoted apoptotic cell death and macrophage infiltration in livers of diethylnitrosamine-treated mice maintained on a high-fat diet. ARMCX3 downregulation reduced the viability, clonality and migration of HCC cell lines, whereas ARMCX3 overexpression caused the reciprocal effects. SOX9 was found to mediate the effects of ARMCX3 in hepatic cells, with the SOX9 interaction required for the effects of ARMCX3 on hepatic cell proliferation. In conclusion, ARMCX3 is identified as a novel molecular actor in liver physiopathology and carcinogenesis. ARMCX3 downregulation appears to protect against hepatocarcinogenesis, especially under conditions of high dietary lipid-mediated hepatic insult.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13051110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961652PMC
March 2021

Increasing breast milk betaine modulates abundance in mammalian neonates and improves long-term metabolic health.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Mar;13(587)

Endocrinology Department, Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, 08950 Barcelona, Spain.

Accelerated postnatal growth is a potentially modifiable risk factor for future obesity. To study how specific breast milk components contribute to early growth and obesity risk, we quantified one-carbon metabolism-related metabolites in human breast milk and found an inverse association between milk betaine content and infant growth. This association was replicated in an independent and geographically distinct cohort. To determine the potential role of milk betaine in modulating offspring obesity risk, we performed maternal betaine supplementation experiments in mice. Higher betaine intake during lactation increased milk betaine content in dams and led to lower adiposity and improved glucose homeostasis throughout adulthood in mouse offspring. These effects were accompanied by a transient increase in spp. abundance in the gut during early life and a long-lasting increase in intestinal goblet cell number. The link between breast milk betaine and abundance in the gut was also observed in humans, as infants exposed to higher milk betaine content during breastfeeding showed higher fecal abundance. Furthermore, administration of to mouse pups during the lactation period partially replicated the effects of maternal breast milk betaine, including increased intestinal goblet cell number, lower adiposity, and improved glucose homeostasis during adulthood. These data demonstrate a link between breast milk betaine content and long-term metabolic health of offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abb0322DOI Listing
March 2021

The relative deficit of GDF15 in adolescent girls with PCOS can be changed into an abundance that reduces liver fat.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 29;11(1):7018. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Endocrinology Department, Institut de Recerca Pediàtric, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, University of Barcelona, Passeig de Sant Joan de Déu, 2, Esplugues, 08950, Barcelona, Spain.

A prime concern of young patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is the control of body adiposity, given their tendency to gain weight and/or their difficulty to lose weight. Circulating growth-and-differentiation factor-15 (GDF15) facilitates the control of body weight via receptors in the brainstem. C-reactive protein (CRP) and insulin are endogenous GDF15 secretagogues. We hypothesised that PCOS in non-obese adolescents is characterised by low concentrations of circulating GDF15, when judged by the degree of CRP and insulin drive. GDF15 was added as a post-hoc endpoint of two previously reported, randomised studies in non-obese adolescent girls with PCOS (N = 58; 60% normal weight; 40% overweight) who received either an oral oestroprogestogen contraceptive (OC), or a low-dose combination of spironolactone-pioglitazone-metformin (SPIOMET) for 1 year; subsequently, all girls remained untreated for 1 year. Adolescent girls with regular menses (N = 20) served as healthy controls. Circulating GDF15, CRP and fasting insulin were assessed prior to treatment, and halfway the on- and post-treatment years. Pre-treatment, the absolute GDF15 concentrations were normal in PCOS girls, but their relative levels were markedly low, in view of the augmented CRP and insulin drives. OC treatment was accompanied by a near-doubling of circulating GDF15 (on average, from 296 to 507 pg/mL) and CRP, so that the relative GDF15 levels remained low. SPIOMET treatment was accompanied by a 3.4-fold rise of circulating GDF15 (on average, from 308 to 1045 pg/mL) and by a concomitant lowering of CRP and insulin concentrations towards normal, so that the relative GDF15 levels became markedly abundant. Post-OC, the relatively low GDF15 levels persisted; post-SPIOMET, the circulating concentrations of GDF15, CRP and insulin were all normal. BMI remained stable in both treatment groups. Only SPIOMET was accompanied by a reduction of hepato-visceral fat (by MRI) towards normal. In conclusion, early PCOS was found to be characterised by a relative GDF15 deficit that may partly explain the difficulties that young patients experience to control their body adiposity. This relative GDF15 deficit persisted during and after OC treatment. In contrast, SPIOMET treatment was accompanied by an absolute and a relative abundance of GDF15, and followed by normal GDF15, CRP and insulin concentrations. The present findings strengthen the rationale to raise the concentrations of circulating GDF15 in early PCOS, for example with a SPIOMET-like intervention that attenuates low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and ectopic adiposity, without necessarily lowering body weight.Clinical trial registries: ISRCTN29234515 and ISRCTN11062950.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86317-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007831PMC
March 2021

The endocrine role of brown adipose tissue: An update on actors and actions.

Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Departament de Bioquimica I Biomedicina Molecular, and Institut de Biomedicina de La Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

In recent years, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been recognized not only as a main site of non-shivering thermogenesis in mammals, but also as an endocrine organ. BAT secretes a myriad of regulatory factors. These so-called batokines exert local autocrine and paracrine effects, as well as endocrine actions targeting tissues and organs at a distance. The endocrine batokines include peptide factors, such as fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), neuregulin-4 (NRG4), phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), interleukin-6, adiponectin and myostatin, and also lipids (lipokines; e.g., 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid [12,13-diHOME]) and miRNAs (e.g., miR-99b). The liver, heart, and skeletal muscle are the most commonly reported targets of batokines. In response to BAT thermogenic activation, batokines such as NRG4 and PLTP are released and act to reduce hepatic steatosis and improve insulin sensitivity. Stress-induced interleukin-6-mediated signaling from BAT to liver favors hepatic glucose production through enhanced gluconeogenesis. Batokines may act on liver to induce the secretion of regulatory hepatokines (e.g. FGF21 and bile acids in response to miR-99b and PLTP, respectively), thereby resulting in a systemic expansion of BAT-originating signals. Batokines also target extrahepatic tissues: FGF21 and 12,13-diHOME are cardioprotective, whereas BAT-secreted myostatin and 12,13-diHOME influence skeletal muscle development and performance. Further research is needed to ascertain in humans the role of batokines, which have been identified mostly in experimental models. The endocrine role of BAT may explain the association between active BAT and a healthy metabolism in the human system, which is characterized by small amounts of BAT and a likely moderate BAT-mediated energy expenditure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11154-021-09640-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Meteorin-like/Meteorin-β protects heart against cardiac dysfunction.

J Exp Med 2021 May;218(5)

Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Institut de Biomedicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Meteorin-like/Meteorin-β (Metrnl/Metrnβ) is a secreted protein produced by skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that exerts metabolic actions that improve glucose metabolism. The role of Metrnβ in cardiac disease is completely unknown. Here, we show that Metrnβ-null mice exhibit asymmetrical cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and enhanced signs of cardiac dysfunction in response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and aging. Conversely, adeno-associated virus-mediated specific overexpression of Metrnβ in the heart prevents the development of cardiac remodeling. Furthermore, Metrnβ inhibits cardiac hypertrophy development in cardiomyocytes in vitro, indicating a direct effect on cardiac cells. Antibody-mediated blockage of Metrnβ in cardiomyocyte cell cultures indicated an autocrine action of Metrnβ on the heart, in addition to an endocrine action. Moreover, Metrnβ is highly produced in the heart, and analysis of circulating Metrnβ concentrations in a large cohort of patients reveals that it is a new biomarker of heart failure with an independent prognostic value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20201206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923691PMC
May 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Authors:
Daniel J Klionsky Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz Sara Abdelfatah Mahmoud Abdellatif Asghar Abdoli Steffen Abel Hagai Abeliovich Marie H Abildgaard Yakubu Princely Abudu Abraham Acevedo-Arozena Iannis E Adamopoulos Khosrow Adeli Timon E Adolph Annagrazia Adornetto Elma Aflaki Galila Agam Anupam Agarwal Bharat B Aggarwal Maria Agnello Patrizia Agostinis Javed N Agrewala Alexander Agrotis Patricia V Aguilar S Tariq Ahmad Zubair M Ahmed Ulises Ahumada-Castro Sonja Aits Shu Aizawa Yunus Akkoc Tonia Akoumianaki Hafize Aysin Akpinar Ahmed M Al-Abd Lina Al-Akra Abeer Al-Gharaibeh Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali Simon Alberti Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez Cristiano Alessandri Muhammad Ali M Abdul Alim Al-Bari Saeb Aliwaini Javad Alizadeh Eugènia Almacellas Alexandru Almasan Alicia Alonso Guillermo D Alonso Nihal Altan-Bonnet Dario C Altieri Élida M C Álvarez Sara Alves Cristine Alves da Costa Mazen M Alzaharna Marialaura Amadio Consuelo Amantini Cristina Amaral Susanna Ambrosio Amal O Amer Veena Ammanathan Zhenyi An Stig U Andersen Shaida A Andrabi Magaiver Andrade-Silva Allen M Andres Sabrina Angelini David Ann Uche C Anozie Mohammad Y Ansari Pedro Antas Adam Antebi Zuriñe Antón Tahira Anwar Lionel Apetoh Nadezda Apostolova Toshiyuki Araki Yasuhiro Araki Kohei Arasaki Wagner L Araújo Jun Araya Catherine Arden Maria-Angeles Arévalo Sandro Arguelles Esperanza Arias Jyothi Arikkath Hirokazu Arimoto Aileen R Ariosa Darius Armstrong-James Laetitia Arnauné-Pelloquin Angeles Aroca Daniela S Arroyo Ivica Arsov Rubén Artero Dalia Maria Lucia Asaro Michael Aschner Milad Ashrafizadeh Osnat Ashur-Fabian Atanas G Atanasov Alicia K Au Patrick Auberger Holger W Auner Laure Aurelian Riccardo Autelli Laura Avagliano Yenniffer Ávalos Sanja Aveic Célia Alexandra Aveleira Tamar Avin-Wittenberg Yucel Aydin Scott Ayton Srinivas Ayyadevara Maria Azzopardi Misuzu Baba Jonathan M Backer Steven K Backues Dong-Hun Bae Ok-Nam Bae Soo Han Bae Eric H Baehrecke Ahruem Baek Seung-Hoon Baek Sung Hee Baek Giacinto Bagetta Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna Hua Bai Jie Bai Xiyuan Bai Yidong Bai Nandadulal Bairagi Shounak Baksi Teresa Balbi Cosima T Baldari Walter Balduini Andrea Ballabio Maria Ballester Salma Balazadeh Rena Balzan Rina Bandopadhyay Sreeparna Banerjee Sulagna Banerjee Ágnes Bánréti Yan Bao Mauricio S Baptista Alessandra Baracca Cristiana Barbati Ariadna Bargiela Daniela Barilà Peter G Barlow Sami J Barmada Esther Barreiro George E Barreto Jiri Bartek Bonnie Bartel Alberto Bartolome Gaurav R Barve Suresh H Basagoudanavar Diane C Bassham Robert C Bast Alakananda Basu Henri Batoko Isabella Batten Etienne E Baulieu Bradley L Baumgarner Jagadeesh Bayry Rupert Beale Isabelle Beau Florian Beaumatin Luiz R G Bechara George R Beck Michael F Beers Jakob Begun Christian Behrends Georg M N Behrens Roberto Bei Eloy Bejarano Shai Bel Christian Behl Amine Belaid Naïma Belgareh-Touzé Cristina Bellarosa Francesca Belleudi Melissa Belló Pérez Raquel Bello-Morales Jackeline Soares de Oliveira Beltran Sebastián Beltran Doris Mangiaracina Benbrook Mykolas Bendorius Bruno A Benitez Irene Benito-Cuesta Julien Bensalem Martin W Berchtold Sabina Berezowska Daniele Bergamaschi Matteo Bergami Andreas Bergmann Laura Berliocchi Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent Amélie Bernard Lionel Berthoux Cagri G Besirli Sebastien Besteiro Virginie M Betin Rudi Beyaert Jelena S Bezbradica Kiran Bhaskar Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova Resham Bhattacharya Sujoy Bhattacharya Shalmoli Bhattacharyya Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan Sujit Kumar Bhutia Lanrong Bi Xiaolin Bi Trevor J Biden Krikor Bijian Viktor A Billes Nadine Binart Claudia Bincoletto Asa B Birgisdottir Geir Bjorkoy Gonzalo Blanco Ana Blas-Garcia Janusz Blasiak Robert Blomgran Klas Blomgren Janice S Blum Emilio Boada-Romero Mirta Boban Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia Philippe Boeuf Barry Boland Pascale Bomont Paolo Bonaldo Srinivasa Reddy Bonam Laura Bonfili Juan S Bonifacino Brian A Boone Martin D Bootman Matteo Bordi Christoph Borner Beat C Bornhauser Gautam Borthakur Jürgen Bosch Santanu Bose Luis M Botana Juan Botas Chantal M Boulanger Michael E Boulton Mathieu Bourdenx Benjamin Bourgeois Nollaig M Bourke Guilhem Bousquet Patricia Boya Peter V Bozhkov Luiz H M Bozi Tolga O Bozkurt Doug E Brackney Christian H Brandts Ralf J Braun Gerhard H Braus Roberto Bravo-Sagua José M Bravo-San Pedro Patrick Brest Marie-Agnès Bringer Alfredo Briones-Herrera V Courtney Broaddus Peter Brodersen Jeffrey L Brodsky Steven L Brody Paola G Bronson Jeff M Bronstein Carolyn N Brown Rhoderick E Brown Patricia C Brum John H Brumell Nicola Brunetti-Pierri Daniele Bruno Robert J Bryson-Richardson Cecilia Bucci Carmen Buchrieser Marta Bueno Laura Elisa Buitrago-Molina Simone Buraschi Shilpa Buch J Ross Buchan Erin M Buckingham Hikmet Budak Mauricio Budini Geert Bultynck Florin Burada Joseph R Burgoyne M Isabel Burón Victor Bustos Sabrina Büttner Elena Butturini Aaron Byrd Isabel Cabas Sandra Cabrera-Benitez Ken Cadwell Jingjing Cai Lu Cai Qian Cai Montserrat Cairó Jose A Calbet Guy A Caldwell Kim A Caldwell Jarrod A Call Riccardo Calvani Ana C Calvo Miguel Calvo-Rubio Barrera Niels Os Camara Jacques H Camonis Nadine Camougrand Michelangelo Campanella Edward M Campbell François-Xavier Campbell-Valois Silvia Campello Ilaria Campesi Juliane C Campos Olivier Camuzard Jorge Cancino Danilo Candido de Almeida Laura Canesi Isabella Caniggia Barbara Canonico Carles Cantí Bin Cao Michele Caraglia Beatriz Caramés Evie H Carchman Elena Cardenal-Muñoz Cesar Cardenas Luis Cardenas Sandra M Cardoso Jennifer S Carew Georges F Carle Gillian Carleton Silvia Carloni Didac Carmona-Gutierrez Leticia A Carneiro Oliana Carnevali Julian M Carosi Serena Carra Alice Carrier Lucie Carrier Bernadette Carroll A Brent Carter Andreia Neves Carvalho Magali Casanova Caty Casas Josefina Casas Chiara Cassioli Eliseo F Castillo Karen Castillo Sonia Castillo-Lluva Francesca Castoldi Marco Castori Ariel F Castro Margarida Castro-Caldas Javier Castro-Hernandez Susana Castro-Obregon Sergio D Catz Claudia Cavadas Federica Cavaliere Gabriella Cavallini Maria Cavinato Maria L Cayuela Paula Cebollada Rica Valentina Cecarini Francesco Cecconi Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko Simone Cenci Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré João J Cerqueira Janete M Cerutti Davide Cervia Vildan Bozok Cetintas Silvia Cetrullo Han-Jung Chae Andrei S Chagin Chee-Yin Chai Gopal Chakrabarti Oishee Chakrabarti Tapas Chakraborty Trinad Chakraborty Mounia Chami Georgios Chamilos David W Chan Edmond Y W Chan Edward D Chan H Y Edwin Chan Helen H Chan Hung Chan Matthew T V Chan Yau Sang Chan Partha K Chandra Chih-Peng Chang Chunmei Chang Hao-Chun Chang Kai Chang Jie Chao Tracey Chapman Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand Samrat Chatterjee Shail K Chaube Anu Chaudhary Santosh Chauhan Edward Chaum Frédéric Checler Michael E Cheetham Chang-Shi Chen Guang-Chao Chen Jian-Fu Chen Liam L Chen Leilei Chen Lin Chen Mingliang Chen Mu-Kuan Chen Ning Chen Quan Chen Ruey-Hwa Chen Shi Chen Wei Chen Weiqiang Chen Xin-Ming Chen Xiong-Wen Chen Xu Chen Yan Chen Ye-Guang Chen Yingyu Chen Yongqiang Chen Yu-Jen Chen Yue-Qin Chen Zhefan Stephen Chen Zhi Chen Zhi-Hua Chen Zhijian J Chen Zhixiang Chen Hanhua Cheng Jun Cheng Shi-Yuan Cheng Wei Cheng Xiaodong Cheng Xiu-Tang Cheng Yiyun Cheng Zhiyong Cheng Zhong Chen Heesun Cheong Jit Kong Cheong Boris V Chernyak Sara Cherry Chi Fai Randy Cheung Chun Hei Antonio Cheung King-Ho Cheung Eric Chevet Richard J Chi Alan Kwok Shing Chiang Ferdinando Chiaradonna Roberto Chiarelli Mario Chiariello Nathalia Chica Susanna Chiocca Mario Chiong Shih-Hwa Chiou Abhilash I Chiramel Valerio Chiurchiù Dong-Hyung Cho Seong-Kyu Choe Augustine M K Choi Mary E Choi Kamalika Roy Choudhury Norman S Chow Charleen T Chu Jason P Chua John Jia En Chua Hyewon Chung Kin Pan Chung Seockhoon Chung So-Hyang Chung Yuen-Li Chung Valentina Cianfanelli Iwona A Ciechomska Mariana Cifuentes Laura Cinque Sebahattin Cirak Mara Cirone Michael J Clague Robert Clarke Emilio Clementi Eliana M Coccia Patrice Codogno Ehud Cohen Mickael M Cohen Tania Colasanti Fiorella Colasuonno Robert A Colbert Anna Colell Miodrag Čolić Nuria S Coll Mark O Collins María I Colombo Daniel A Colón-Ramos Lydie Combaret Sergio Comincini Márcia R Cominetti Antonella Consiglio Andrea Conte Fabrizio Conti Viorica Raluca Contu Mark R Cookson Kevin M Coombs Isabelle Coppens Maria Tiziana Corasaniti Dale P Corkery Nils Cordes Katia Cortese Maria do Carmo Costa Sarah Costantino Paola Costelli Ana Coto-Montes Peter J Crack Jose L Crespo Alfredo Criollo Valeria Crippa Riccardo Cristofani Tamas Csizmadia Antonio Cuadrado Bing Cui Jun Cui Yixian Cui Yong Cui Emmanuel Culetto Andrea C Cumino Andrey V Cybulsky Mark J Czaja Stanislaw J Czuczwar Stefania D'Adamo Marcello D'Amelio Daniela D'Arcangelo Andrew C D'Lugos Gabriella D'Orazi James A da Silva Hormos Salimi Dafsari Ruben K Dagda Yasin Dagdas Maria Daglia Xiaoxia Dai Yun Dai Yuyuan Dai Jessica Dal Col Paul Dalhaimer Luisa Dalla Valle Tobias Dallenga Guillaume Dalmasso Markus Damme Ilaria Dando Nico P Dantuma April L Darling Hiranmoy Das Srinivasan Dasarathy Santosh K Dasari Srikanta Dash Oliver Daumke Adrian N Dauphinee Jeffrey S Davies Valeria A Dávila Roger J Davis Tanja Davis Sharadha Dayalan Naidu Francesca De Amicis Karolien De Bosscher Francesca De Felice Lucia De Franceschi Chiara De Leonibus Mayara G de Mattos Barbosa Guido R Y De Meyer Angelo De Milito Cosimo De Nunzio Clara De Palma Mauro De Santi Claudio De Virgilio Daniela De Zio Jayanta Debnath Brian J DeBosch Jean-Paul Decuypere Mark A Deehan Gianluca Deflorian James DeGregori Benjamin Dehay Gabriel Del Rio Joe R Delaney Lea M D Delbridge Elizabeth Delorme-Axford M Victoria Delpino Francesca Demarchi Vilma Dembitz Nicholas D Demers Hongbin Deng Zhiqiang Deng Joern Dengjel Paul Dent Donna Denton Melvin L DePamphilis Channing J Der Vojo Deretic Albert Descoteaux Laura Devis Sushil Devkota Olivier Devuyst Grant Dewson Mahendiran Dharmasivam Rohan Dhiman Diego di Bernardo Manlio Di Cristina Fabio Di Domenico Pietro Di Fazio Alessio Di Fonzo Giovanni Di Guardo Gianni M Di Guglielmo Luca Di Leo Chiara Di Malta Alessia Di Nardo Martina Di Rienzo Federica Di Sano George Diallinas Jiajie Diao Guillermo Diaz-Araya Inés Díaz-Laviada Jared M Dickinson Marc Diederich Mélanie Dieudé Ivan Dikic Shiping Ding Wen-Xing Ding Luciana Dini Jelena Dinić Miroslav Dinic Albena T Dinkova-Kostova Marc S Dionne Jörg H W Distler Abhinav Diwan Ian M C Dixon Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny Ina Dobrinski Oxana Dobrovinskaya Radek Dobrowolski Renwick C J Dobson Jelena Đokić Serap Dokmeci Emre Massimo Donadelli Bo Dong Xiaonan Dong Zhiwu Dong Gerald W Dorn Ii Volker Dotsch Huan Dou Juan Dou Moataz Dowaidar Sami Dridi Liat Drucker Ailian Du Caigan Du Guangwei Du Hai-Ning Du Li-Lin Du André du Toit Shao-Bin Duan Xiaoqiong Duan Sónia P Duarte Anna Dubrovska Elaine A Dunlop Nicolas Dupont Raúl V Durán Bilikere S Dwarakanath Sergey A Dyshlovoy Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari Leopold Eckhart Charles L Edelstein Thomas Efferth Eftekhar Eftekharpour Ludwig Eichinger Nabil Eid Tobias Eisenberg N Tony Eissa Sanaa Eissa Miriam Ejarque Abdeljabar El Andaloussi Nazira El-Hage Shahenda El-Naggar Anna Maria Eleuteri Eman S El-Shafey Mohamed Elgendy Aristides G Eliopoulos María M Elizalde Philip M Elks Hans-Peter Elsasser Eslam S Elsherbiny Brooke M Emerling N C Tolga Emre Christina H Eng Nikolai Engedal Anna-Mart Engelbrecht Agnete S T Engelsen Jorrit M Enserink Ricardo Escalante Audrey Esclatine Mafalda Escobar-Henriques Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen Lucile Espert Makandjou-Ola Eusebio Gemma Fabrias Cinzia Fabrizi Antonio Facchiano Francesco Facchiano Bengt Fadeel Claudio Fader Alex C Faesen W Douglas Fairlie Alberto Falcó Bjorn H Falkenburger Daping Fan Jie Fan Yanbo Fan Evandro F Fang Yanshan Fang Yognqi Fang Manolis Fanto Tamar Farfel-Becker Mathias Faure Gholamreza Fazeli Anthony O Fedele Arthur M Feldman Du Feng Jiachun Feng Lifeng Feng Yibin Feng Yuchen Feng Wei Feng Thais Fenz Araujo Thomas A Ferguson Álvaro F Fernández Jose C Fernandez-Checa Sonia Fernández-Veledo Alisdair R Fernie Anthony W Ferrante Alessandra Ferraresi Merari F Ferrari Julio C B Ferreira Susan Ferro-Novick Antonio Figueras Riccardo Filadi Nicoletta Filigheddu Eduardo Filippi-Chiela Giuseppe Filomeni Gian Maria Fimia Vittorio Fineschi Francesca Finetti Steven Finkbeiner Edward A Fisher Paul B Fisher Flavio Flamigni Steven J Fliesler Trude H Flo Ida Florance Oliver Florey Tullio Florio Erika Fodor Carlo Follo Edward A Fon Antonella Forlino Francesco Fornai Paola Fortini Anna Fracassi Alessandro Fraldi Brunella Franco Rodrigo Franco Flavia Franconi Lisa B Frankel Scott L Friedman Leopold F Fröhlich Gema Frühbeck Jose M Fuentes Yukio Fujiki Naonobu Fujita Yuuki Fujiwara Mitsunori Fukuda Simone Fulda Luc Furic Norihiko Furuya Carmela Fusco Michaela U Gack Lidia Gaffke Sehamuddin Galadari Alessia Galasso Maria F Galindo Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage Lorenzo Galluzzi Vincent Galy Noor Gammoh Boyi Gan Ian G Ganley Feng Gao Hui Gao Minghui Gao Ping Gao Shou-Jiang Gao Wentao Gao Xiaobo Gao Ana Garcera Maria Noé Garcia Verónica E Garcia Francisco García-Del Portillo Vega Garcia-Escudero Aracely Garcia-Garcia Marina Garcia-Macia Diana García-Moreno Carmen Garcia-Ruiz Patricia García-Sanz Abhishek D Garg Ricardo Gargini Tina Garofalo Robert F Garry Nils C Gassen Damian Gatica Liang Ge Wanzhong Ge Ruth Geiss-Friedlander Cecilia Gelfi Pascal Genschik Ian E Gentle Valeria Gerbino Christoph Gerhardt Kyla Germain Marc Germain David A Gewirtz Elham Ghasemipour Afshar Saeid Ghavami Alessandra Ghigo Manosij Ghosh Georgios Giamas Claudia Giampietri Alexandra Giatromanolaki Gary E Gibson Spencer B Gibson Vanessa Ginet Edward Giniger Carlotta Giorgi Henrique Girao Stephen E Girardin Mridhula Giridharan Sandy Giuliano Cecilia Giulivi Sylvie Giuriato Julien Giustiniani Alexander Gluschko Veit Goder Alexander Goginashvili Jakub Golab David C Goldstone Anna Golebiewska Luciana R Gomes Rodrigo Gomez Rubén Gómez-Sánchez Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto Raquel Gomez-Sintes Qingqiu Gong Felix M Goni Javier González-Gallego Tomas Gonzalez-Hernandez Rosa A Gonzalez-Polo Jose A Gonzalez-Reyes Patricia González-Rodríguez Ing Swie Goping Marina S Gorbatyuk Nikolai V Gorbunov Kıvanç Görgülü Roxana M Gorojod Sharon M Gorski Sandro Goruppi Cecilia Gotor Roberta A Gottlieb Illana Gozes Devrim Gozuacik Martin Graef Markus H Gräler Veronica Granatiero Daniel Grasso Joshua P Gray Douglas R Green Alexander Greenhough Stephen L Gregory Edward F Griffin Mark W Grinstaff Frederic Gros Charles Grose Angelina S Gross Florian Gruber Paolo Grumati Tilman Grune Xueyan Gu Jun-Lin Guan Carlos M Guardia Kishore Guda Flora Guerra Consuelo Guerri Prasun Guha Carlos Guillén Shashi Gujar Anna Gukovskaya Ilya Gukovsky Jan Gunst Andreas Günther Anyonya R Guntur Chuanyong Guo Chun Guo Hongqing Guo Lian-Wang Guo Ming Guo Pawan Gupta Shashi Kumar Gupta Swapnil Gupta Veer Bala Gupta Vivek Gupta Asa B Gustafsson David D Gutterman Ranjitha H B Annakaisa Haapasalo James E Haber Aleksandra Hać Shinji Hadano Anders J Hafrén Mansour Haidar Belinda S Hall Gunnel Halldén Anne Hamacher-Brady Andrea Hamann Maho Hamasaki Weidong Han Malene Hansen Phyllis I Hanson Zijian Hao Masaru Harada Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic Nirmala Hariharan Nigil Haroon James Harris Takafumi Hasegawa Noor Hasima Nagoor Jeffrey A Haspel Volker Haucke Wayne D Hawkins Bruce A Hay Cole M Haynes Soren B Hayrabedyan Thomas S Hays Congcong He Qin He Rong-Rong He You-Wen He Yu-Ying He Yasser Heakal Alexander M Heberle J Fielding Hejtmancik Gudmundur Vignir Helgason Vanessa Henkel Marc Herb Alexander Hergovich Anna Herman-Antosiewicz Agustín Hernández Carlos Hernandez Sergio Hernandez-Diaz Virginia Hernandez-Gea Amaury Herpin Judit Herreros Javier H Hervás Daniel Hesselson Claudio Hetz Volker T Heussler Yujiro Higuchi Sabine Hilfiker Joseph A Hill William S Hlavacek Emmanuel A Ho Idy H T Ho Philip Wing-Lok Ho Shu-Leong Ho Wan Yun Ho G Aaron Hobbs Mark Hochstrasser Peter H M Hoet Daniel Hofius Paul Hofman Annika Höhn Carina I Holmberg Jose R Hombrebueno Chang-Won Hong Yi-Ren Hong Lora V Hooper Thorsten Hoppe Rastislav Horos Yujin Hoshida I-Lun Hsin Hsin-Yun Hsu Bing Hu Dong Hu Li-Fang Hu Ming Chang Hu Ronggui Hu Wei Hu Yu-Chen Hu Zhuo-Wei Hu Fang Hua Jinlian Hua Yingqi Hua Chongmin Huan Canhua Huang Chuanshu Huang Chuanxin Huang Chunling Huang Haishan Huang Kun Huang Michael L H Huang Rui Huang Shan Huang Tianzhi Huang Xing Huang Yuxiang Jack Huang Tobias B Huber Virginie Hubert Christian A Hubner Stephanie M Hughes William E Hughes Magali Humbert Gerhard Hummer James H Hurley Sabah Hussain Salik Hussain Patrick J Hussey Martina Hutabarat Hui-Yun Hwang Seungmin Hwang Antonio Ieni Fumiyo Ikeda Yusuke Imagawa Yuzuru Imai Carol Imbriano Masaya Imoto Denise M Inman Ken Inoki Juan Iovanna Renato V Iozzo Giuseppe Ippolito Javier E Irazoqui Pablo Iribarren Mohd Ishaq Makoto Ishikawa Nestor Ishimwe Ciro Isidoro Nahed Ismail Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas Eisuke Itakura Daisuke Ito Davor Ivankovic Saška Ivanova Anand Krishnan V Iyer José M Izquierdo Masanori Izumi Marja Jäättelä Majid Sakhi Jabir William T Jackson Nadia Jacobo-Herrera Anne-Claire Jacomin Elise Jacquin Pooja Jadiya Hartmut Jaeschke Chinnaswamy Jagannath Arjen J Jakobi Johan Jakobsson Bassam Janji Pidder Jansen-Dürr Patric J Jansson Jonathan Jantsch Sławomir Januszewski Alagie Jassey Steve Jean Hélène Jeltsch-David Pavla Jendelova Andreas Jenny Thomas E Jensen Niels Jessen Jenna L Jewell Jing Ji Lijun Jia Rui Jia Liwen Jiang Qing Jiang Richeng Jiang Teng Jiang Xuejun Jiang Yu Jiang Maria Jimenez-Sanchez Eun-Jung Jin Fengyan Jin Hongchuan Jin Li Jin Luqi Jin Meiyan Jin Si Jin Eun-Kyeong Jo Carine Joffre Terje Johansen Gail V W Johnson Simon A Johnston Eija Jokitalo Mohit Kumar Jolly Leo A B Joosten Joaquin Jordan Bertrand Joseph Dianwen Ju Jeong-Sun Ju Jingfang Ju Esmeralda Juárez Delphine Judith Gábor Juhász Youngsoo Jun Chang Hwa Jung Sung-Chul Jung Yong Keun Jung Heinz Jungbluth Johannes Jungverdorben Steffen Just Kai Kaarniranta Allen Kaasik Tomohiro Kabuta Daniel Kaganovich Alon Kahana Renate Kain Shinjo Kajimura Maria Kalamvoki Manjula Kalia Danuta S Kalinowski Nina Kaludercic Ioanna Kalvari Joanna Kaminska Vitaliy O Kaminskyy Hiromitsu Kanamori Keizo Kanasaki Chanhee Kang Rui Kang Sang Sun Kang Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan Tomotake Kanki Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti Anumantha G Kanthasamy Arthi Kanthasamy Marc Kantorow Orsolya Kapuy Michalis V Karamouzis Md Razaul Karim Parimal Karmakar Rajesh G Katare Masaru Kato Stefan H E Kaufmann Anu Kauppinen Gur P Kaushal Susmita Kaushik Kiyoshi Kawasaki Kemal Kazan Po-Yuan Ke Damien J Keating Ursula Keber John H Kehrl Kate E Keller Christian W Keller Jongsook Kim Kemper Candia M Kenific Oliver Kepp Stephanie Kermorgant Andreas Kern Robin Ketteler Tom G Keulers Boris Khalfin Hany Khalil Bilon Khambu Shahid Y Khan Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal Rekha Khandia Widuri Kho Noopur V Khobrekar Sataree Khuansuwan Mukhran Khundadze Samuel A Killackey Dasol Kim Deok Ryong Kim Do-Hyung Kim Dong-Eun Kim Eun Young Kim Eun-Kyoung Kim Hak-Rim Kim Hee-Sik Kim Hyung-Ryong Kim Jeong Hun Kim Jin Kyung Kim Jin-Hoi Kim Joungmok Kim Ju Hwan Kim Keun Il Kim Peter K Kim Seong-Jun Kim Scot R Kimball Adi Kimchi Alec C Kimmelman Tomonori Kimura Matthew A King Kerri J Kinghorn Conan G Kinsey Vladimir Kirkin Lorrie A Kirshenbaum Sergey L Kiselev Shuji Kishi Katsuhiko Kitamoto Yasushi Kitaoka Kaio Kitazato Richard N Kitsis Josef T Kittler Ole Kjaerulff Peter S Klein Thomas Klopstock Jochen Klucken Helene Knævelsrud Roland L Knorr Ben C B Ko Fred Ko Jiunn-Liang Ko Hotaka Kobayashi Satoru Kobayashi Ina Koch Jan C Koch Ulrich Koenig Donat Kögel Young Ho Koh Masato Koike Sepp D Kohlwein Nur M Kocaturk Masaaki Komatsu Jeannette König Toru Kono Benjamin T Kopp Tamas Korcsmaros Gözde Korkmaz Viktor I Korolchuk Mónica Suárez Korsnes Ali Koskela Janaiah Kota Yaichiro Kotake Monica L Kotler Yanjun Kou Michael I Koukourakis Evangelos Koustas Attila L Kovacs Tibor Kovács Daisuke Koya Tomohiro Kozako Claudine Kraft Dimitri Krainc Helmut Krämer Anna D Krasnodembskaya Carole Kretz-Remy Guido Kroemer Nicholas T Ktistakis Kazuyuki Kuchitsu Sabine Kuenen Lars Kuerschner Thomas Kukar Ajay Kumar Ashok Kumar Deepak Kumar Dhiraj Kumar Sharad Kumar Shinji Kume Caroline Kumsta Chanakya N Kundu Mondira Kundu Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara Lukasz Kurgan Tatiana G Kutateladze Ozlem Kutlu SeongAe Kwak Ho Jeong Kwon Taeg Kyu Kwon Yong Tae Kwon Irene Kyrmizi Albert La Spada Patrick Labonté Sylvain Ladoire Ilaria Laface Frank Lafont Diane C Lagace Vikramjit Lahiri Zhibing Lai Angela S Laird Aparna Lakkaraju Trond Lamark Sheng-Hui Lan Ane Landajuela Darius J R Lane Jon D Lane Charles H Lang Carsten Lange Ülo Langel Rupert Langer Pierre Lapaquette Jocelyn Laporte Nicholas F LaRusso Isabel Lastres-Becker Wilson Chun Yu Lau Gordon W Laurie Sergio Lavandero Betty Yuen Kwan Law Helen Ka-Wai Law Rob Layfield Weidong Le Herve Le Stunff Alexandre Y Leary Jean-Jacques Lebrun Lionel Y W Leck Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet Changwook Lee Chung-Pei Lee Da-Hye Lee Edward B Lee Erinna F Lee Gyun Min Lee He-Jin Lee Heung Kyu Lee Jae Man Lee Jason S Lee Jin-A Lee Joo-Yong Lee Jun Hee Lee Michael Lee Min Goo Lee Min Jae Lee Myung-Shik Lee Sang Yoon Lee Seung-Jae Lee Stella Y Lee Sung Bae Lee Won Hee Lee Ying-Ray Lee Yong-Ho Lee Youngil Lee Christophe Lefebvre Renaud Legouis Yu L Lei Yuchen Lei Sergey Leikin Gerd Leitinger Leticia Lemus Shuilong Leng Olivia Lenoir Guido Lenz Heinz Josef Lenz Paola Lenzi Yolanda León Andréia M Leopoldino Christoph Leschczyk Stina Leskelä Elisabeth Letellier Chi-Ting Leung Po Sing Leung Jeremy S Leventhal Beth Levine Patrick A Lewis Klaus Ley Bin Li Da-Qiang Li Jianming Li Jing Li Jiong Li Ke Li Liwu Li Mei Li Min Li Min Li Ming Li Mingchuan Li Pin-Lan Li Ming-Qing Li Qing Li Sheng Li Tiangang Li Wei Li Wenming Li Xue Li Yi-Ping Li Yuan Li Zhiqiang Li Zhiyong Li Zhiyuan Li Jiqin Lian Chengyu Liang Qiangrong Liang Weicheng Liang Yongheng Liang YongTian Liang Guanghong Liao Lujian Liao Mingzhi Liao Yung-Feng Liao Mariangela Librizzi Pearl P Y Lie Mary A Lilly Hyunjung J Lim Thania R R Lima Federica Limana Chao Lin Chih-Wen Lin Dar-Shong Lin Fu-Cheng Lin Jiandie D Lin Kurt M Lin Kwang-Huei Lin Liang-Tzung Lin Pei-Hui Lin Qiong Lin Shaofeng Lin Su-Ju Lin Wenyu Lin Xueying Lin Yao-Xin Lin Yee-Shin Lin Rafael Linden Paula Lindner Shuo-Chien Ling Paul Lingor Amelia K Linnemann Yih-Cherng Liou Marta M Lipinski Saška Lipovšek Vitor A Lira Natalia Lisiak Paloma B Liton Chao Liu Ching-Hsuan Liu Chun-Feng Liu Cui Hua Liu Fang Liu Hao Liu Hsiao-Sheng Liu Hua-Feng Liu Huifang Liu Jia Liu Jing Liu Julia Liu Leyuan Liu Longhua Liu Meilian Liu Qin Liu Wei Liu Wende Liu Xiao-Hong Liu Xiaodong Liu Xingguo Liu Xu Liu Xuedong Liu Yanfen Liu Yang Liu Yang Liu Yueyang Liu Yule Liu J Andrew Livingston Gerard Lizard Jose M Lizcano Senka Ljubojevic-Holzer Matilde E LLeonart David Llobet-Navàs Alicia Llorente Chih Hung Lo Damián Lobato-Márquez Qi Long Yun Chau Long Ben Loos Julia A Loos Manuela G López Guillermo López-Doménech José Antonio López-Guerrero Ana T López-Jiménez Óscar López-Pérez Israel López-Valero Magdalena J Lorenowicz Mar Lorente Peter Lorincz Laura Lossi Sophie Lotersztajn Penny E Lovat Jonathan F Lovell Alenka Lovy Péter Lőw Guang Lu Haocheng Lu Jia-Hong Lu Jin-Jian Lu Mengji Lu Shuyan Lu Alessandro Luciani John M Lucocq Paula Ludovico Micah A Luftig Morten Luhr Diego Luis-Ravelo Julian J Lum Liany Luna-Dulcey Anders H Lund Viktor K Lund Jan D Lünemann Patrick Lüningschrör Honglin Luo Rongcan Luo Shouqing Luo Zhi Luo Claudio Luparello Bernhard Lüscher Luan Luu Alex Lyakhovich Konstantin G Lyamzaev Alf Håkon Lystad Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk Alvin C Ma Changle Ma Mengxiao Ma Ning-Fang Ma Quan-Hong Ma Xinliang Ma Yueyun Ma Zhenyi Ma Ormond A MacDougald Fernando Macian Gustavo C MacIntosh Jeffrey P MacKeigan Kay F Macleod Sandra Maday Frank Madeo Muniswamy Madesh Tobias Madl Julio Madrigal-Matute Akiko Maeda Yasuhiro Maejima Marta Magarinos Poornima Mahavadi Emiliano Maiani Kenneth Maiese Panchanan Maiti Maria Chiara Maiuri Barbara Majello Michael B Major Elena Makareeva Fayaz Malik Karthik Mallilankaraman Walter Malorni Alina Maloyan Najiba Mammadova Gene Chi Wai Man Federico Manai Joseph D Mancias Eva-Maria Mandelkow Michael A Mandell Angelo A Manfredi Masoud H Manjili Ravi Manjithaya Patricio Manque Bella B Manshian Raquel Manzano Claudia Manzoni Kai Mao Cinzia Marchese Sandrine Marchetti Anna Maria Marconi Fabrizio Marcucci Stefania Mardente Olga A Mareninova Marta Margeta Muriel Mari Sara Marinelli Oliviero Marinelli Guillermo Mariño Sofia Mariotto Richard S Marshall Mark R Marten Sascha Martens Alexandre P J Martin Katie R Martin Sara Martin Shaun Martin Adrián Martín-Segura Miguel A Martín-Acebes Inmaculada Martin-Burriel Marcos Martin-Rincon Paloma Martin-Sanz José A Martina Wim Martinet Aitor Martinez Ana Martinez Jennifer Martinez Moises Martinez Velazquez Nuria Martinez-Lopez Marta Martinez-Vicente Daniel O Martins Joilson O Martins Waleska K Martins Tania Martins-Marques Emanuele Marzetti Shashank Masaldan Celine Masclaux-Daubresse Douglas G Mashek Valentina Massa Lourdes Massieu Glenn R Masson Laura Masuelli Anatoliy I Masyuk Tetyana V Masyuk Paola Matarrese Ander Matheu Satoaki Matoba Sachiko Matsuzaki Pamela Mattar Alessandro Matte Domenico Mattoscio José L Mauriz Mario Mauthe Caroline Mauvezin Emanual Maverakis Paola Maycotte Johanna Mayer Gianluigi Mazzoccoli Cristina Mazzoni Joseph R Mazzulli Nami McCarty Christine McDonald Mitchell R McGill Sharon L McKenna BethAnn McLaughlin Fionn McLoughlin Mark A McNiven Thomas G McWilliams Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou Tania Catarina Medeiros Diego L Medina Lynn A Megeney Klara Megyeri Maryam Mehrpour Jawahar L Mehta Alfred J Meijer Annemarie H Meijer Jakob Mejlvang Alicia Meléndez Annette Melk Gonen Memisoglu Alexandrina F Mendes Delong Meng Fei Meng Tian Meng Rubem Menna-Barreto Manoj B Menon Carol Mercer Anne E Mercier Jean-Louis Mergny Adalberto Merighi Seth D Merkley Giuseppe Merla Volker Meske Ana Cecilia Mestre Shree Padma Metur Christian Meyer Hemmo Meyer Wenyi Mi Jeanne Mialet-Perez Junying Miao Lucia Micale Yasuo Miki Enrico Milan Małgorzata Milczarek Dana L Miller Samuel I Miller Silke Miller Steven W Millward Ira Milosevic Elena A Minina Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Mehdi Mirzaei Amit Mishra Nandita Mishra Paras Kumar Mishra Maja Misirkic Marjanovic Roberta Misasi Amit Misra Gabriella Misso Claire Mitchell Geraldine Mitou Tetsuji Miura Shigeki Miyamoto Makoto Miyazaki Mitsunori Miyazaki Taiga Miyazaki Keisuke Miyazawa Noboru Mizushima Trine H Mogensen Baharia Mograbi Reza Mohammadinejad Yasir Mohamud Abhishek Mohanty Sipra Mohapatra Torsten Möhlmann Asif Mohmmed Anna Moles Kelle H Moley Maurizio Molinari Vincenzo Mollace Andreas Buch Møller Bertrand Mollereau Faustino Mollinedo Costanza Montagna Mervyn J Monteiro Andrea Montella L Ruth Montes Barbara Montico Vinod K Mony Giacomo Monzio Compagnoni Michael N Moore Mohammad A Moosavi Ana L Mora Marina Mora David Morales-Alamo Rosario Moratalla Paula I Moreira Elena Morelli Sandra Moreno Daniel Moreno-Blas Viviana Moresi Benjamin Morga Alwena H Morgan Fabrice Morin Hideaki Morishita Orson L Moritz Mariko Moriyama Yuji Moriyasu Manuela Morleo Eugenia Morselli Jose F Moruno-Manchon Jorge Moscat Serge Mostowy Elisa Motori Andrea Felinto Moura Naima Moustaid-Moussa Maria Mrakovcic Gabriel Muciño-Hernández Anupam Mukherjee Subhadip Mukhopadhyay Jean M Mulcahy Levy Victoriano Mulero Sylviane Muller Christian Münch Ashok Munjal Pura Munoz-Canoves Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano Christian Münz Tomokazu Murakawa Claudia Muratori Brona M Murphy J Patrick Murphy Aditya Murthy Timo T Myöhänen Indira U Mysorekar Jennifer Mytych Seyed Mohammad Nabavi Massimo Nabissi Péter Nagy Jihoon Nah Aimable Nahimana Ichiro Nakagawa Ken Nakamura Hitoshi Nakatogawa Shyam S Nandi Meera Nanjundan Monica Nanni Gennaro Napolitano Roberta Nardacci Masashi Narita Melissa Nassif Ilana Nathan Manabu Natsumeda Ryno J Naude Christin Naumann Olaia Naveiras Fatemeh Navid Steffan T Nawrocki Taras Y Nazarko Francesca Nazio Florentina Negoita Thomas Neill Amanda L Neisch Luca M Neri Mihai G Netea Patrick Neubert Thomas P Neufeld Dietbert Neumann Albert Neutzner Phillip T Newton Paul A Ney Ioannis P Nezis Charlene C W Ng Tzi Bun Ng Hang T T Nguyen Long T Nguyen Hong-Min Ni Clíona Ní Cheallaigh Zhenhong Ni M Celeste Nicolao Francesco Nicoli Manuel Nieto-Diaz Per Nilsson Shunbin Ning Rituraj Niranjan Hiroshi Nishimune Mireia Niso-Santano Ralph A Nixon Annalisa Nobili Clevio Nobrega Takeshi Noda Uxía Nogueira-Recalde Trevor M Nolan Ivan Nombela Ivana Novak Beatriz Novoa Takashi Nozawa Nobuyuki Nukina Carmen Nussbaum-Krammer Jesper Nylandsted Tracey R O'Donovan Seónadh M O'Leary Eyleen J O'Rourke Mary P O'Sullivan Timothy E O'Sullivan Salvatore Oddo Ina Oehme Michinaga Ogawa Eric Ogier-Denis Margret H Ogmundsdottir Besim Ogretmen Goo Taeg Oh Seon-Hee Oh Young J Oh Takashi Ohama Yohei Ohashi Masaki Ohmuraya Vasileios Oikonomou Rani Ojha Koji Okamoto Hitoshi Okazawa Masahide Oku Sara Oliván Jorge M A Oliveira Michael Ollmann James A Olzmann Shakib Omari M Bishr Omary Gizem Önal Martin Ondrej Sang-Bing Ong Sang-Ging Ong Anna Onnis Juan A Orellana Sara Orellana-Muñoz Maria Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez Elena Ortona Heinz D Osiewacz Abdel-Hamid K Osman Rosario Osta Marisa S Otegui Kinya Otsu Christiane Ott Luisa Ottobrini Jing-Hsiung James Ou Tiago F Outeiro Inger Oynebraten Melek Ozturk Gilles Pagès Susanta Pahari Marta Pajares Utpal B Pajvani Rituraj Pal Simona Paladino Nicolas Pallet Michela Palmieri Giuseppe Palmisano Camilla Palumbo Francesco Pampaloni Lifeng Pan Qingjun Pan Wenliang Pan Xin Pan Ganna Panasyuk Rahul Pandey Udai B Pandey Vrajesh Pandya Francesco Paneni Shirley Y Pang Elisa Panzarini Daniela L Papademetrio Elena Papaleo Daniel Papinski Diana Papp Eun Chan Park Hwan Tae Park Ji-Man Park Jong-In Park Joon Tae Park Junsoo Park Sang Chul Park Sang-Youel Park Abraham H Parola Jan B Parys Adrien Pasquier Benoit Pasquier João F Passos Nunzia Pastore Hemal H Patel Daniel Patschan Sophie Pattingre Gustavo Pedraza-Alva Jose Pedraza-Chaverri Zully Pedrozo Gang Pei Jianming Pei Hadas Peled-Zehavi Joaquín M Pellegrini Joffrey Pelletier Miguel A Peñalva Di Peng Ying Peng Fabio Penna Maria Pennuto Francesca Pentimalli Cláudia Mf Pereira Gustavo J S Pereira Lilian C Pereira Luis Pereira de Almeida Nirma D Perera Ángel Pérez-Lara Ana B Perez-Oliva María Esther Pérez-Pérez Palsamy Periyasamy Andras Perl Cristiana Perrotta Ida Perrotta Richard G Pestell Morten Petersen Irina Petrache Goran Petrovski Thorsten Pfirrmann Astrid S Pfister Jennifer A Philips Huifeng Pi Anna Picca Alicia M Pickrell Sandy Picot Giovanna M Pierantoni Marina Pierdominici Philippe Pierre Valérie Pierrefite-Carle Karolina Pierzynowska Federico Pietrocola Miroslawa Pietruczuk Claudio Pignata Felipe X Pimentel-Muiños Mario Pinar Roberta O Pinheiro Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski Paolo Pinton Karolina Pircs Sujan Piya Paola Pizzo Theo S Plantinga Harald W Platta Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala Markus Plomann Egor Y Plotnikov Helene Plun-Favreau Ryszard Pluta Roger Pocock Stefanie Pöggeler Christian Pohl Marc Poirot Angelo Poletti Marisa Ponpuak Hana Popelka Blagovesta Popova Helena Porta Soledad Porte Alcon Eliana Portilla-Fernandez Martin Post Malia B Potts Joanna Poulton Ted Powers Veena Prahlad Tomasz K Prajsnar Domenico Praticò Rosaria Prencipe Muriel Priault Tassula Proikas-Cezanne Vasilis J Promponas Christopher G Proud Rosa Puertollano Luigi Puglielli Thomas Pulinilkunnil Deepika Puri Rajat Puri Julien Puyal Xiaopeng Qi Yongmei Qi Wenbin Qian Lei Qiang Yu Qiu Joe Quadrilatero Jorge Quarleri Nina Raben Hannah Rabinowich Debora Ragona Michael J Ragusa Nader Rahimi Marveh Rahmati Valeria Raia Nuno Raimundo Namakkal-Soorappan Rajasekaran Sriganesh Ramachandra Rao Abdelhaq Rami Ignacio Ramírez-Pardo David B Ramsden Felix Randow Pundi N Rangarajan Danilo Ranieri Hai Rao Lang Rao Rekha Rao Sumit Rathore J Arjuna Ratnayaka Edward A Ratovitski Palaniyandi Ravanan Gloria Ravegnini Swapan K Ray Babak Razani Vito Rebecca Fulvio Reggiori Anne Régnier-Vigouroux Andreas S Reichert David Reigada Jan H Reiling Theo Rein Siegfried Reipert Rokeya Sultana Rekha Hongmei Ren Jun Ren Weichao Ren Tristan Renault Giorgia Renga Karen Reue Kim Rewitz Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade Ramos S Amer Riazuddin Teresa M Ribeiro-Rodrigues Jean-Ehrland Ricci Romeo Ricci Victoria Riccio Des R Richardson Yasuko Rikihisa Makarand V Risbud Ruth M Risueño Konstantinos Ritis Salvatore Rizza Rosario Rizzuto Helen C Roberts Luke D Roberts Katherine J Robinson Maria Carmela Roccheri Stephane Rocchi George G Rodney Tiago Rodrigues Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva Amaia Rodriguez Ruth Rodriguez-Barrueco Nieves Rodriguez-Henche Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha Jeroen Roelofs Robert S Rogers Vladimir V Rogov Ana I Rojo Krzysztof Rolka Vanina Romanello Luigina Romani Alessandra Romano Patricia S Romano David Romeo-Guitart Luis C Romero Montserrat Romero Joseph C Roney Christopher Rongo Sante Roperto Mathias T Rosenfeldt Philip Rosenstiel Anne G Rosenwald Kevin A Roth Lynn Roth Steven Roth Kasper M A Rouschop Benoit D Roussel Sophie Roux Patrizia Rovere-Querini Ajit Roy Aurore Rozieres Diego Ruano David C Rubinsztein Maria P Rubtsova Klaus Ruckdeschel Christoph Ruckenstuhl Emil Rudolf Rüdiger Rudolf Alessandra Ruggieri Avnika Ashok Ruparelia Paola Rusmini Ryan R Russell Gian Luigi Russo Maria Russo Rossella Russo Oxana O Ryabaya Kevin M Ryan Kwon-Yul Ryu Maria Sabater-Arcis Ulka Sachdev Michael Sacher Carsten Sachse Abhishek Sadhu Junichi Sadoshima Nathaniel Safren Paul Saftig Antonia P Sagona Gaurav Sahay Amirhossein Sahebkar Mustafa Sahin Ozgur Sahin Sumit Sahni Nayuta Saito Shigeru Saito Tsunenori Saito Ryohei Sakai Yasuyoshi Sakai Jun-Ichi Sakamaki Kalle Saksela Gloria Salazar Anna Salazar-Degracia Ghasem H Salekdeh Ashok K Saluja Belém Sampaio-Marques Maria Cecilia Sanchez Jose A Sanchez-Alcazar Victoria Sanchez-Vera Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu J Thomas Sanderson Marco Sandri Stefano Santaguida Laura Santambrogio Magda M Santana Giorgio Santoni Alberto Sanz Pascual Sanz Shweta Saran Marco Sardiello Timothy J Sargeant Apurva Sarin Chinmoy Sarkar Sovan Sarkar Maria-Rosa Sarrias Surajit Sarkar Dipanka Tanu Sarmah Jaakko Sarparanta Aishwarya Sathyanarayan Ranganayaki Sathyanarayanan K Matthew Scaglione Francesca Scatozza Liliana Schaefer Zachary T Schafer Ulrich E Schaible Anthony H V Schapira Michael Scharl Hermann M Schatzl Catherine H Schein Wiep Scheper David Scheuring Maria Vittoria Schiaffino Monica Schiappacassi Rainer Schindl Uwe Schlattner Oliver Schmidt Roland Schmitt Stephen D Schmidt Ingo Schmitz Eran Schmukler Anja Schneider Bianca E Schneider Romana Schober Alejandra C Schoijet Micah B Schott Michael Schramm Bernd Schröder Kai Schuh Christoph Schüller Ryan J Schulze Lea Schürmanns Jens C Schwamborn Melanie Schwarten Filippo Scialo Sebastiano Sciarretta Melanie J Scott Kathleen W Scotto A Ivana Scovassi Andrea Scrima Aurora Scrivo David Sebastian Salwa Sebti Simon Sedej Laura Segatori Nava Segev Per O Seglen Iban Seiliez Ekihiro Seki Scott B Selleck Frank W Sellke Joshua T Selsby Michael Sendtner Serif Senturk Elena Seranova Consolato Sergi Ruth Serra-Moreno Hiromi Sesaki Carmine Settembre Subba Rao Gangi Setty Gianluca Sgarbi Ou Sha John J Shacka Javeed A Shah Dantong Shang Changshun Shao Feng Shao Soroush Sharbati Lisa M Sharkey Dipali Sharma Gaurav Sharma Kulbhushan Sharma Pawan Sharma Surendra Sharma Han-Ming Shen Hongtao Shen Jiangang Shen Ming Shen Weili Shen Zheni Shen Rui Sheng Zhi Sheng Zu-Hang Sheng Jianjian Shi Xiaobing Shi Ying-Hong Shi Kahori Shiba-Fukushima Jeng-Jer Shieh Yohta Shimada Shigeomi Shimizu Makoto Shimozawa Takahiro Shintani Christopher J Shoemaker Shahla Shojaei Ikuo Shoji Bhupendra V Shravage Viji Shridhar Chih-Wen Shu Hong-Bing Shu Ke Shui Arvind K Shukla Timothy E Shutt Valentina Sica Aleem Siddiqui Amanda Sierra Virginia Sierra-Torre Santiago Signorelli Payel Sil Bruno J de Andrade Silva Johnatas D Silva Eduardo Silva-Pavez Sandrine Silvente-Poirot Rachel E Simmonds Anna Katharina Simon Hans-Uwe Simon Matias Simons Anurag Singh Lalit P Singh Rajat Singh Shivendra V Singh Shrawan K Singh Sudha B Singh Sunaina Singh Surinder Pal Singh Debasish Sinha Rohit Anthony Sinha Sangita Sinha Agnieszka Sirko Kapil Sirohi Efthimios L Sivridis Panagiotis Skendros Aleksandra Skirycz Iva Slaninová Soraya S Smaili Andrei Smertenko Matthew D Smith Stefaan J Soenen Eun Jung Sohn Sophia P M Sok Giancarlo Solaini Thierry Soldati Scott A Soleimanpour Rosa M Soler Alexei Solovchenko Jason A Somarelli Avinash Sonawane Fuyong Song Hyun Kyu Song Ju-Xian Song Kunhua Song Zhiyin Song Leandro R Soria Maurizio Sorice Alexander A Soukas Sandra-Fausia Soukup Diana Sousa Nadia Sousa Paul A Spagnuolo Stephen A Spector M M Srinivas Bharath Daret St Clair Venturina Stagni Leopoldo Staiano Clint A Stalnecker Metodi V Stankov Peter B Stathopulos Katja Stefan Sven Marcel Stefan Leonidas Stefanis Joan S Steffan Alexander Steinkasserer Harald Stenmark Jared Sterneckert Craig Stevens Veronika Stoka Stephan Storch Björn Stork Flavie Strappazzon Anne Marie Strohecker Dwayne G Stupack Huanxing Su Ling-Yan Su Longxiang Su Ana M Suarez-Fontes Carlos S Subauste Selvakumar Subbian Paula V Subirada Ganapasam Sudhandiran Carolyn M Sue Xinbing Sui Corey Summers Guangchao Sun Jun Sun Kang Sun Meng-Xiang Sun Qiming Sun Yi Sun Zhongjie Sun Karen K S Sunahara Eva Sundberg Katalin Susztak Peter Sutovsky Hidekazu Suzuki Gary Sweeney J David Symons Stephen Cho Wing Sze Nathaniel J Szewczyk Anna Tabęcka-Łonczynska Claudio Tabolacci Frank Tacke Heinrich Taegtmeyer Marco Tafani Mitsuo Tagaya Haoran Tai Stephen W G Tait Yoshinori Takahashi Szabolcs Takats Priti Talwar Chit Tam Shing Yau Tam Davide Tampellini Atsushi Tamura Chong Teik Tan Eng-King Tan Ya-Qin Tan Masaki Tanaka Motomasa Tanaka Daolin Tang Jingfeng Tang Tie-Shan Tang Isei Tanida Zhipeng Tao Mohammed Taouis Lars Tatenhorst Nektarios Tavernarakis Allen Taylor Gregory A Taylor Joan M Taylor Elena Tchetina Andrew R Tee Irmgard Tegeder David Teis Natercia Teixeira Fatima Teixeira-Clerc Kumsal A Tekirdag Tewin Tencomnao Sandra Tenreiro Alexei V Tepikin Pilar S Testillano Gianluca Tettamanti Pierre-Louis Tharaux Kathrin Thedieck Arvind A Thekkinghat Stefano Thellung Josephine W Thinwa V P Thirumalaikumar Sufi Mary Thomas Paul G Thomes Andrew Thorburn Lipi Thukral Thomas Thum Michael Thumm Ling Tian Ales Tichy Andreas Till Vincent Timmerman Vladimir I Titorenko Sokol V Todi Krassimira Todorova Janne M Toivonen Luana Tomaipitinca Dhanendra Tomar Cristina Tomas-Zapico Sergej Tomić Benjamin Chun-Kit Tong Chao Tong Xin Tong Sharon A Tooze Maria L Torgersen Satoru Torii Liliana Torres-López Alicia Torriglia Christina G Towers Roberto Towns Shinya Toyokuni Vladimir Trajkovic Donatella Tramontano Quynh-Giao Tran Leonardo H Travassos Charles B Trelford Shirley Tremel Ioannis P Trougakos Betty P Tsao Mario P Tschan Hung-Fat Tse Tak Fu Tse Hitoshi Tsugawa Andrey S Tsvetkov David A Tumbarello Yasin Tumtas María J Tuñón Sandra Turcotte Boris Turk Vito Turk Bradley J Turner Richard I Tuxworth Jessica K Tyler Elena V Tyutereva Yasuo Uchiyama Aslihan Ugun-Klusek Holm H Uhlig Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł Ilya V Ulasov Midori Umekawa Christian Ungermann Rei Unno Sylvie Urbe Elisabet Uribe-Carretero Suayib Üstün Vladimir N Uversky Thomas Vaccari Maria I Vaccaro Björn F Vahsen Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg Rut Valdor Maria J Valente Ayelén Valko Richard B Vallee Angela M Valverde Greet Van den Berghe Stijn van der Veen Luc Van Kaer Jorg van Loosdregt Sjoerd J L van Wijk Wim Vandenberghe Ilse Vanhorebeek Marcos A Vannier-Santos Nicola Vannini M Cristina Vanrell Chiara Vantaggiato Gabriele Varano Isabel Varela-Nieto Máté Varga M Helena Vasconcelos Somya Vats Demetrios G Vavvas Ignacio Vega-Naredo Silvia Vega-Rubin-de-Celis Guillermo Velasco Ariadna P Velázquez Tibor Vellai Edo Vellenga Francesca Velotti Mireille Verdier Panayotis Verginis Isabelle Vergne Paul Verkade Manish Verma Patrik Verstreken Tim Vervliet Jörg Vervoorts Alexandre T Vessoni Victor M Victor Michel Vidal Chiara Vidoni Otilia V Vieira Richard D Vierstra Sonia Viganó Helena Vihinen Vinoy Vijayan Miquel Vila Marçal Vilar José M Villalba Antonio Villalobo Beatriz Villarejo-Zori Francesc Villarroya Joan Villarroya Olivier Vincent Cecile Vindis Christophe Viret Maria Teresa Viscomi Dora Visnjic Ilio Vitale David J Vocadlo Olga V Voitsekhovskaja Cinzia Volonté Mattia Volta Marta Vomero Clarissa Von Haefen Marc A Vooijs Wolfgang Voos Ljubica Vucicevic Richard Wade-Martins Satoshi Waguri Kenrick A Waite Shuji Wakatsuki David W Walker Mark J Walker Simon A Walker Jochen Walter Francisco G Wandosell Bo Wang Chao-Yung Wang Chen Wang Chenran Wang Chenwei Wang Cun-Yu Wang Dong Wang Fangyang Wang Feng Wang Fengming Wang Guansong Wang Han Wang Hao Wang Hexiang Wang Hong-Gang Wang Jianrong Wang Jigang Wang Jiou Wang Jundong Wang Kui Wang Lianrong Wang Liming Wang Maggie Haitian Wang Meiqing Wang Nanbu Wang Pengwei Wang Peipei Wang Ping Wang Ping Wang Qing Jun Wang Qing Wang Qing Kenneth Wang Qiong A Wang Wen-Tao Wang Wuyang Wang Xinnan Wang Xuejun Wang Yan Wang Yanchang Wang Yanzhuang Wang Yen-Yun Wang Yihua Wang Yipeng Wang Yu Wang Yuqi Wang Zhe Wang Zhenyu Wang Zhouguang Wang Gary Warnes Verena Warnsmann Hirotaka Watada Eizo Watanabe Maxinne Watchon Anna Wawrzyńska Timothy E Weaver Grzegorz Wegrzyn Ann M Wehman Huafeng Wei Lei Wei Taotao Wei Yongjie Wei Oliver H Weiergräber Conrad C Weihl Günther Weindl Ralf Weiskirchen Alan Wells Runxia H Wen Xin Wen Antonia Werner Beatrice Weykopf Sally P Wheatley J Lindsay Whitton Alexander J Whitworth Katarzyna Wiktorska Manon E Wildenberg Tom Wileman Simon Wilkinson Dieter Willbold Brett Williams Robin S B Williams Roger L Williams Peter R Williamson Richard A Wilson Beate Winner Nathaniel J Winsor Steven S Witkin Harald Wodrich Ute Woehlbier Thomas Wollert Esther Wong Jack Ho Wong Richard W Wong Vincent Kam Wai Wong W Wei-Lynn Wong An-Guo Wu Chengbiao Wu Jian Wu Junfang Wu Kenneth K Wu Min Wu Shan-Ying Wu Shengzhou Wu Shu-Yan Wu Shufang Wu William K K Wu Xiaohong Wu Xiaoqing Wu Yao-Wen Wu Yihua Wu Ramnik J Xavier Hongguang Xia Lixin Xia Zhengyuan Xia Ge Xiang Jin Xiang Mingliang Xiang Wei Xiang Bin Xiao Guozhi Xiao Hengyi Xiao Hong-Tao Xiao Jian Xiao Lan Xiao Shi Xiao Yin Xiao Baoming Xie Chuan-Ming Xie Min Xie Yuxiang Xie Zhiping Xie Zhonglin Xie Maria Xilouri Congfeng Xu En Xu Haoxing Xu Jing Xu JinRong Xu Liang Xu Wen Wen Xu Xiulong Xu Yu Xue Sokhna M S Yakhine-Diop Masamitsu Yamaguchi Osamu Yamaguchi Ai Yamamoto Shunhei Yamashina Shengmin Yan Shian-Jang Yan Zhen Yan Yasuo Yanagi Chuanbin Yang Dun-Sheng Yang Huan Yang Huang-Tian Yang Hui Yang Jin-Ming Yang Jing Yang Jingyu Yang Ling Yang Liu Yang Ming Yang Pei-Ming Yang Qian Yang Seungwon Yang Shu Yang Shun-Fa Yang Wannian Yang Wei Yuan Yang Xiaoyong Yang Xuesong Yang Yi Yang Ying Yang Honghong Yao Shenggen Yao Xiaoqiang Yao Yong-Gang Yao Yong-Ming Yao Takahiro Yasui Meysam Yazdankhah Paul M Yen Cong Yi Xiao-Ming Yin Yanhai Yin Zhangyuan Yin Ziyi Yin Meidan Ying Zheng Ying Calvin K Yip Stephanie Pei Tung Yiu Young H Yoo Kiyotsugu Yoshida Saori R Yoshii Tamotsu Yoshimori Bahman Yousefi Boxuan Yu Haiyang Yu Jun Yu Jun Yu Li Yu Ming-Lung Yu Seong-Woon Yu Victor C Yu W Haung Yu Zhengping Yu Zhou Yu Junying Yuan Ling-Qing Yuan Shilin Yuan Shyng-Shiou F Yuan Yanggang Yuan Zengqiang Yuan Jianbo Yue Zhenyu Yue Jeanho Yun Raymond L Yung David N Zacks Gabriele Zaffagnini Vanessa O Zambelli Isabella Zanella Qun S Zang Sara Zanivan Silvia Zappavigna Pilar Zaragoza Konstantinos S Zarbalis Amir Zarebkohan Amira Zarrouk Scott O Zeitlin Jialiu Zeng Ju-Deng Zeng Eva Žerovnik Lixuan Zhan Bin Zhang Donna D Zhang Hanlin Zhang Hong Zhang Hong Zhang Honghe Zhang Huafeng Zhang Huaye Zhang Hui Zhang Hui-Ling Zhang Jianbin Zhang Jianhua Zhang Jing-Pu Zhang Kalin Y B Zhang Leshuai W Zhang Lin Zhang Lisheng Zhang Lu Zhang Luoying Zhang Menghuan Zhang Peng Zhang Sheng Zhang Wei Zhang Xiangnan Zhang Xiao-Wei Zhang Xiaolei Zhang Xiaoyan Zhang Xin Zhang Xinxin Zhang Xu Dong Zhang Yang Zhang Yanjin Zhang Yi Zhang Ying-Dong Zhang Yingmei Zhang Yuan-Yuan Zhang Yuchen Zhang Zhe Zhang Zhengguang Zhang Zhibing Zhang Zhihai Zhang Zhiyong Zhang Zili Zhang Haobin Zhao Lei Zhao Shuang Zhao Tongbiao Zhao Xiao-Fan Zhao Ying Zhao Yongchao Zhao Yongliang Zhao Yuting Zhao Guoping Zheng Kai Zheng Ling Zheng Shizhong Zheng Xi-Long Zheng Yi Zheng Zu-Guo Zheng Boris Zhivotovsky Qing Zhong Ao Zhou Ben Zhou Cefan Zhou Gang Zhou Hao Zhou Hong Zhou Hongbo Zhou Jie Zhou Jing Zhou Jing Zhou Jiyong Zhou Kailiang Zhou Rongjia Zhou Xu-Jie Zhou Yanshuang Zhou Yinghong Zhou Yubin Zhou Zheng-Yu Zhou Zhou Zhou Binglin Zhu Changlian Zhu Guo-Qing Zhu Haining Zhu Hongxin Zhu Hua Zhu Wei-Guo Zhu Yanping Zhu Yushan Zhu Haixia Zhuang Xiaohong Zhuang Katarzyna Zientara-Rytter Christine M Zimmermann Elena Ziviani Teresa Zoladek Wei-Xing Zong Dmitry B Zorov Antonio Zorzano Weiping Zou Zhen Zou Zhengzhi Zou Steven Zuryn Werner Zwerschke Beate Brand-Saberi X Charlie Dong Chandra Shekar Kenchappa Zuguo Li Yong Lin Shigeru Oshima Yueguang Rong Judith C Sluimer Christina L Stallings Chun-Kit Tong

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Hong Kong Baptist University, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong, China.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

Levels of β-klotho determine the thermogenic responsiveness of adipose tissues: involvement of the autocrine action of FGF21.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 22;320(4):E822-E834. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biomedicine, Faculty of Biology and Institute of Biomedicine (IBUB), University of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is a hormonal regulator of metabolism; it promotes glucose oxidation and the thermogenic capacity of adipose tissues. The levels of β-klotho (KLB), the co-receptor required for FGF21 action, are decreased in brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues during obesity, diabetes, and lipodystrophy. Reduced β-klotho levels have been proposed to account for FGF21 resistance in these conditions. In this study, we explored whether downregulation of β-klotho affects metabolic regulation and the thermogenic responsiveness of adipose tissues using mice with total (KLB-KO) or partial (KLB-heterozygotes) ablation of β-klotho. We herein show that KLB gene dosage was inversely associated with adiposity in mice. Upon cold exposure, impaired browning of subcutaneous WAT and milder alterations in BAT were associated with reduced KLB gene dosage in mice. Cultured brown and beige adipocytes from mice with total or partial ablation of the KLB gene showed reduced thermogenic responsiveness to β3-adrenergic activation by treatment with CL316,243, indicating that these effects were cell-autonomous. Deficiency in FGF21 mimicked the KLB-reduction-induced impairment of thermogenic responsiveness in brown and beige adipocytes. These results indicate that the levels of KLB in adipose tissues determine their thermogenic capacity to respond to cold and/or adrenergic stimuli. Moreover, an autocrine action of FGF21 in brown and beige adipocytes may account for the ability of the KLB level to influence thermogenic responsiveness. Reduced levels of KLB (the obligatory FGF21 co-receptor), as occurring in obesity and type 2 diabetes, reduce the thermogenic responsiveness of adipose tissues in cold-exposed mice. Impaired response to β3-adrenergic activation in brown and beige adipocytes with reduced KLB occurs in a cell-autonomous manner involving an autocrine action of FGF21.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00270.2020DOI Listing
April 2021

Adipose tissue knockdown of lysozyme reduces local inflammation and improves adipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed mice.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Apr 5;166:105486. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Girona (IdIBGi), Girona, Spain; CIBER de la Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Madrid, Spain; Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition (UDEN), Hospital of Girona "Dr Josep Trueta", Girona, Spain; Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Girona, Girona, Spain. Electronic address:

Chronic systemic low-level inflammation in metabolic disease is known to affect adipose tissue biology. Lysozyme (LYZ) is a major innate immune protein but its role in adipose tissue has not been investigated. Here, we aimed to investigate LYZ in human and rodents fat depots, and its possible role in obesity-associated adipose tissue dysfunction. LYZ mRNA and protein were identified to be highly expressed in adipose tissue from subjects with obesity and linked to systemic chronic-low grade inflammation, adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic disturbances, including hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and decreased markers of adipose tissue adipogenesis. These findings were confirmed in experimental models after a high-fat diet in mice and rats and also in ob/ob mice. Importantly, specific inguinal and perigonadal white adipose tissue lysozyme (Lyz2) gene knockdown in high-fat diet-fed mice resulted in improved adipose tissue inflammation in parallel to reduced lysozyme activity. Of note, Lyz2 gene knockdown restored adipogenesis and reduced weight gain in this model. In conclusion, altogether these observations point to lysozyme as a new actor in obesity-associated adipose tissue dysfunction. The therapeutic targeting of lysozyme production might contribute to improve adipose tissue metabolic homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105486DOI Listing
April 2021

White adipose tissue-infiltrated CD11b+ myeloid cells are a source of S100A4, a new potential marker of hepatic damage.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Apr;184(4):533-541

Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Germans Trias i Pujol Research Institute.

Context: The endocrine and immunological properties of subcutaneous vs visceral adipose tissue (sWAT and vWAT, respectively) have turned a milestone in the study of metabolic diseases. The cytokine S100A4 is increased in obesity and has a role in adipose tissue dysfunction. However, the cellular source and its potential role in hepatic damage in obesity has not been elucidated.

Objective: We aim to study the regulation of S100A4 in immune cells present in sWAT and vWAT, as well as its potential role as a circulating marker of hepatic inflammation and steatosis.

Design: A cohort of 60 patients with obesity and distinct metabolic status was analyzed. CD11b+ myeloid cells and T cells were isolated from sWAT and vWAT by magnetic-activating cell sorting, and RNA was obtained. S100A4 gene expression was measured, and correlation analysis with clinical data was performed. Liver biopsies were obtained from 20 patients, and S100A4 circulating levels were measured to check the link with hepatic inflammation and steatosis.

Results: S100A4 gene expression was strongly upregulated in sWAT- vs vWAT-infiltrated CD11b+ cells, but this modulation was not observed in T cells. S100A4 mRNA levels from sWAT (and not from vWAT) CD11b+ cells positively correlated with glycemia, triglycerides, TNF-α gene expression and proliferation markers. Finally, circulating S100A4 directly correlated with liver steatosis and hepatic inflammatory markers.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that sWAT-infiltrated CD11b+ cells could be a major source of S100A4 in obesity. Moreover, our correlations identify circulating S100A4 as a potential novel biomarker of hepatic damage and steatosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-20-1130DOI Listing
April 2021

The chemokine CXCL14 is negatively associated with obesity and concomitant type-2 diabetes in humans.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Mar 7;45(3):706-710. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Departament de Bioquímica i Biomedicina Molecular and Institut de Biomedicina (IBUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-14 (CXCL14) levels are downregulated in experimental rodent models of obesity. Moreover, CXCL14 reportedly favors insulin sensitization in obese mice. Here we examined, for the first time, the role of CXCL14 in human obesity. We found that circulating levels of CXCL14 were decreased in patients with obesity and, especially, those with concomitant type-2 diabetes. CXCL14 levels were negatively associated with BMI and with indices of impaired glucose/insulin homeostasis. CXCL14 expression was decreased in subcutaneous adipose tissue from patients with obesity and type-2 diabetes. In adipose tissue, CXCL14 expression was negatively correlated with the expression of genes encoding pro-inflammatory molecules, and positively correlated with GLUT4 and adiponectin expression. In conclusion, obesity, and especially, concomitant type-2 diabetes are associated with abnormally decreased levels of CXCL14 in blood and impaired CXCL14 expression in adipose tissue. CXCL14 downregulation may be a novel biomarker of altered metabolism in obesity. CXCL14 also deserves further research as a therapeutic candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-020-00732-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Altered GDF15 and FGF21 Levels in Response to Strenuous Exercise: A Study in Marathon Runners.

Front Physiol 2020 19;11:550102. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Departament de Bioquimica i Biomedicina Molecular, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Recreational marathon runners face strong physiological challenges. Assessment of potential biomarkers for the biological responses of runners will help to discriminate individual race responsiveness and their physiological consequences. This study sought to analyze the changes in the plasma levels of GDF15 and FGF21, novel endocrine factors related to metabolic stress, in runners following the strenuous exercise of a marathon race.

Methods: Blood samples were obtained from eighteen male runners (mean ±SD, age: 41.7 ±5.0 years, BMI: 23.6 ± 1.8) 48 h before, immediately after, and 48 h after a marathon race, and from age-matched sedentary individuals. The level of GDF15, FGF21, and 38 additional biochemical and hematological parameters were determined.

Results: The basal levels of GDF15 and FGF21 did not differ between runners before the race and sedentary individuals. Significant increases in the mean levels of GDF15 (4.2-fold) and FGF21 (20-fold) were found in runners immediately after the race. The magnitudes of these increases differed markedly among individuals and did not correlate with each other. The GDF15 and FGF21 levels had returned to the basal level 48 h post-race. The post-race value of GDF15 (but not FGF21) correlated positively with increased total white cell count ( = 0.50, = 0.01) and neutrophilia ( = 0.10, = 0.01).

Conclusion: GDF15 and FGF21 are transiently increased in runners following a marathon race. The induction of GDF15 levels is associated with alterations in circulating immune cells levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.550102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711067PMC
November 2020

FGF15/19 is required for adipose tissue plasticity in response to thermogenic adaptations.

Mol Metab 2021 01 7;43:101113. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biomedicine and Institute of Biomedicine, University of Barcelona, Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Esplugues de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; CIBEROBN, Carlos III Health Institute, Spain. Electronic address:

Objective: To determine the role of enterokine FGF15/19 in adipose tissue thermogenic adaptations.

Methods: Circulating FGF19 and gene expression (qRT-PCR) levels were assessed in subcutaneous adipose tissue from obese human patients. Effects of experimentally increased FGF15 and FGF19 levels in vivo were determined in mice using adenoviral and adeno-associated vectors. Adipose tissues were characterized in FGF15-null mice under distinct cold-related thermogenic challenges. The analyses spanned metabolic profiling, tissue characterization, histology, gene expression, and immunoblot assays.

Results: In humans, FGF19 levels are directly associated with UCP1 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Experimental increases in FGF15 or FGF19 induced white fat browning in mice as demonstrated by the appearance of multilocular beige cells and markers indicative of a beige phenotype, including increased UCP1 protein levels. Mice lacking FGF15 showed markedly impaired white adipose tissue browning and a mild reduction in parameters indicative of BAT activity in response to cold-induced environmental thermogenic challenges. This was concomitant with signs of altered systemic metabolism, such as reduced glucose tolerance and impaired cold-induced insulin sensitization.

Conclusions: Enterokine FGF15/19 is a key factor required for adipose tissue plasticity in response to thermogenic adaptations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2020.101113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691747PMC
January 2021

GDF11 induces mild hepatic fibrosis independent of metabolic health.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 10 28;12(20):20024-20046. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

International Clinical Research Center, St. Anne's University Hospital, Brno, Czech Republic.

Background & Aims: Growth Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF11) is an anti-aging factor, yet its role in liver diseases is not established. We evaluated the role of GDF11 in healthy conditions and in the transition from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

Results: GDF11 mRNA levels positively correlated with NAFLD activity score and with CPT1, SREBP, PPARγ and Col1A1 mRNA levels, and associated to portal fibrosis, in morbidly obese patients with NAFLD/NASH. GDF11-treated mice showed mildly exacerbated hepatic collagen deposition, accompanied by weight loss and without changes in liver steatosis or inflammation. GDF11 triggered ALK5-dependent SMAD2/3 nuclear translocation and the pro-fibrogenic activation of HSC.

Conclusions: GDF11 supplementation promotes mild liver fibrosis. Even considering its beneficial metabolic effects, caution should be taken when considering therapeutics that regulate GDF11.

Methods: We analyzed liver biopsies from a cohort of 33 morbidly obese adults with NAFLD/NASH. We determined the correlations in mRNA expression levels between GDF11 and genes involved in NAFLD-to-NASH progression and with pathological features. We also exposed wild type or obese mice with NAFLD to recombinant GDF11 by daily intra-peritoneal injection and monitor the hepatic pathological changes. Finally, we analyzed GDF11-activated signaling pathways in hepatic stellate cells (HSC).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.104182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7655202PMC
October 2020

The protective effect of fibroblast growth factor-21 in alcoholic cardiomyopathy: a role in protecting cardiac mitochondrial function.

J Pathol 2021 Feb 26;253(2):198-208. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Institut de Biomedicina de la Universitat de Barcelona (IBUB) i Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Deu (IRSJD), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) resulting from chronic alcohol misuse is one of the main contributors leading to heart failure and cardiovascular mortality. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a well-established cardioprotective factor. We aimed to study the role of FGF21 in experimentally induced models and clinical affected patients with cardiac damage due to chronic alcohol consumption. We found that circulating FGF21 levels and cardiac FGF21 and β-klotho protein levels were increased in subjects with chronic alcohol consumption. As an experimental model of ACM, we fed wild-type and Fgf21 knockout (Fgf21 ) mice with a 4% alcohol liquid diet for 4 and 12 weeks. FGF21 circulating levels and FGF21 expression in the myocardium were also increased in wild-type mice after chronic alcohol intake. Fgf21 mice develop a higher degree of cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and cardiac dysfunction after chronic alcohol consumption than wild-type mice. Moreover, the myocardium of Fgf21 mice showed signs of metabolic deregulation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction after alcohol intake. Finally, human cardiac biopsies from patients with chronic alcohol consumption developing ACM presented a higher degree of oxidative stress which positively correlated with the FGF21 protein levels in the myocardium. We conclude that plasma levels and cardiac myocyte FGF21 expression were induced in response to chronic alcohol consumption. The lack of FGF21 aggravated cardiac damage produced by ACM, in association with enhanced mitochondrial and oxidative stress, thus pointing to FGF21 as a protective agent against development of alcohol-induced cardiomyopathy. © 2020 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.5573DOI Listing
February 2021

Cardiotrophin-1 contributes to metabolic adaptations through the regulation of lipid metabolism and to the fasting-induced fatty acid mobilization.

FASEB J 2020 12 13;34(12):15875-15887. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Area of Liver, Digestive and Inflammatory Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville (IBiS), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), University of Seville, Virgen del Rocio University Hospital, Seville, Spain.

It is becoming clear that several human pathologies are caused by altered metabolic adaptations. During liver development, there are physiological changes, from the predominant utilization of glucose (fetal life) to the use of lipids (postnatal life). Fasting is another physiological stress that elicits well-known metabolic adjustments. We have reported the metabolic properties of cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), a member of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines. Here, we aimed at analyzing the role of CT-1 in response to these metabolic changes. We used different in vivo models. Furthermore, a differential study was carried out with wild-type and CT-1 null mice in fed (ad libitum) and food-restricted conditions. We demonstrated that Ct-1 is a metabolic gene induced in the liver via PPARα in response to lipids in mice (neonates- and food-restricted adults). We found that Ct-1 mRNA expression in white adipose tissue directly involved PPARα and PPARγ. Finally, the physiological role of CT-1 in fasting is confirmed by the impaired food restriction-induced adipose tissue lipid mobilization in CT-1 null mice. Our findings support a previously unrecognized physiological role of CT-1 in metabolic adaptations, through the regulation of lipid metabolism and contributes to fasting-induced free fatty acid mobilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202000109RDOI Listing
December 2020

SIRT3 deficiency exacerbates fatty liver by attenuating the HIF1α-LIPIN 1 pathway and increasing CD36 through Nrf2.

Cell Commun Signal 2020 09 10;18(1):147. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Institute of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona (IBUB), Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Deficiency of mitochondrial sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a NAD-dependent protein deacetylase that maintains redox status and lipid homeostasis, contributes to hepatic steatosis. In this study, we investigated additional mechanisms that might play a role in aggravating hepatic steatosis in Sirt3-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD).

Methods: Studies were conducted in wild-type (WT) and Sirt3 mice fed a standard diet or a HFD and in SIRT3-knockdown human Huh-7 hepatoma cells.

Results: Sirt3 mice fed a HFD presented exacerbated hepatic steatosis that was accompanied by decreased expression and DNA-binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and of several of its target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, compared to WT mice fed the HFD. Interestingly, Sirt3 deficiency in liver and its knockdown in Huh-7 cells resulted in upregulation of the nuclear levels of LIPIN1, a PPARα co-activator, and of the protein that controls its levels and localization, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). These changes were prevented by lipid exposure through a mechanism that might involve a decrease in succinate levels. Finally, Sirt3 mice fed the HFD showed increased levels of some proteins involved in lipid uptake, such as CD36 and the VLDL receptor. The upregulation in CD36 was confirmed in Huh-7 cells treated with a SIRT3 inhibitor or transfected with SIRT3 siRNA and incubated with palmitate, an effect that was prevented by the Nrf2 inhibitor ML385.

Conclusion: These findings demonstrate new mechanisms by which Sirt3 deficiency contributes to hepatic steatosis. Video abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12964-020-00640-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488148PMC
September 2020

Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside restores insulin signaling and reduces inflammation in hypertrophic adipocytes.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2020 09 18;691:108488. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Obesity is a metabolic disorder characterized by excess adipose tissue, macrophages infiltration, and inflammation which in turn lead to insulin-resistance. Epidemiological evidences reported that anthocyanins possess not only high antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities, but also improve metabolic complications associated with obesity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro beneficial effects of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) in counteracting inflammation and insulin-resistance in 3T3-L1 hypertrophic adipocytes exposed to palmitic acid (PA). In the present study murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes were pretreated with C3G for 24 h and then exposed to palmitic acid (PA) for 24 h. Real-time PCR, western blotting analysis and Oil Red O staining were applied for investigating the mechanism involved in adipocytes dysfunction. C3G pretreatment reduced lipid accumulation, PPARγ pathway and NF-κB pathway induced by PA in murine adipocytes. In addition, our data demonstrated that PA reduced insulin signaling via IRS-1 Serphosphorylation while C3G dose-dependently improved insulin sensitivity restoring IRS-1/PI3K/Akt pathway. Furthermore, C3G improved adiponectin mRNA levels altered by PA in 3T3-L1 murine and SGBS human adipocytes. Herein reported data demonstrate that C3G ameliorated adipose tissue dysfunction, thus suggesting new potential roles for this compound of nutritional interest in the prevention of pathological conditions linked to obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2020.108488DOI Listing
September 2020

Growth Differentiation Factor 15 is a potential biomarker of therapeutic response for TK2 deficient myopathy.

Sci Rep 2020 06 22;10(1):10111. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Biomedical Network Research Centre on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

GDF-15 is a biomarker for mitochondrial diseases. We investigated the application of GDF-15 as biomarker of disease severity and response to deoxynucleoside treatment in patients with thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) deficiency and compared it to FGF-21. GDF-15 and FGF-21 were measured in serum from 24 patients with TK2 deficiency treated 1-49 months with oral deoxynucleosides. Patients were grouped according to age at treatment and biomarkers were analyzed at baseline and various time points after treatment initiation. GDF-15 was elevated on average 30-fold in children and 6-fold in adults before the start of treatment. There was a significant correlation between basal GDF-15 and severity based on pretreatment distance walked (6MWT) and weight (BMI). During treatment, GDF-15 significantly declined, and the decrease was accompanied by relevant clinical improvements. The decline was greater in the paediatric group, which included the most severe patients and showed the greatest clinical benefit, than in the adult patients. The decline of FGF-21 was less prominent and consistent. GDF-15 is a potential biomarker of severity and of therapeutic response for patients with TK2 deficiency. In addition, we show evidence of clinical benefit of deoxynucleoside treatment, especially when treatment is initiated at an early age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66940-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308386PMC
June 2020

Nutritional and metabolic regulation of brown and beige adipose tissues.

J Physiol Biochem 2020 05 30;76(2):181-184. Epub 2020 May 30.

CIBERobn Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Carlos III Health Institute, Madrid, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13105-020-00745-1DOI Listing
May 2020

The kallikrein-kinin pathway as a mechanism for auto-control of brown adipose tissue activity.

Nat Commun 2020 05 1;11(1):2132. Epub 2020 May 1.

Departament de Bioquímica i Biomedicina Molecular, Institut de Biomedicina, Universitat de Barcelona (IBUB) and CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Avda Diagonal 643, 08028, Barcelona, Spain.

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to secrete regulatory factors in response to thermogenic stimuli. Components of the BAT secretome may exert local effects that contribute to BAT recruitment and activation. Here, we found that a thermogenic stimulus leads to enhanced secretion of kininogen (Kng) by BAT, owing to induction of kininogen 2 (Kng2) gene expression. Noradrenergic, cAMP-mediated signals induce KNG2 expression and release in brown adipocytes. Conversely, the expression of kinin receptors, that are activated by the Kng products bradykinin and [Des-Arg9]-bradykinin, are repressed by thermogenic activation of BAT in vivo and of brown adipocytes in vitro. Loss-of-function models for Kng (the circulating-Kng-deficient BN/Ka rat) and bradykinin (pharmacological inhibition of kinin receptors, kinin receptor-null mice) signaling were coincident in showing abnormal overactivation of BAT. Studies in vitro indicated that Kng and bradykinin exert repressive effects on brown adipocyte thermogenic activity by interfering the PKA/p38 MAPK pathway of control of Ucp1 gene transcription, whereas impaired kinin receptor expression enhances it. Our findings identify the kallikrein-kinin system as a relevant component of BAT thermogenic regulation that provides auto-regulatory inhibitory signaling to BAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16009-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195474PMC
May 2020

SIRT3-mediated inhibition of FOS through histone H3 deacetylation prevents cardiac fibrosis and inflammation.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2020 02 28;5(1):14. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutic Chemistry, IBUB (Institut de Biomedicina de la Universitat de Barcelona), Research Institute - Pediatric Research Institute, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, and CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a deacetylase that modulates proteins that control metabolism and protects against oxidative stress. Modulation of SIRT3 activity has been proposed as a promising therapeutic target for ameliorating metabolic diseases and associated cardiac disturbances. In this study, we investigated the role of SIRT3 in inflammation and fibrosis in the heart using male mice with constitutive and systemic deletion of SIRT3 and human cardiac AC16 cells. SIRT3 knockout mice showed cardiac fibrosis and inflammation that was characterized by augmented transcriptional activity of AP-1. Consistent with this, SIRT3 overexpression in human and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes partially prevented the inflammatory and profibrotic response induced by TNF-α. Notably, these effects were associated with a decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of FOS and the DNA-binding activity of AP-1. Finally, we demonstrated that SIRT3 inhibits FOS transcription through specific histone H3 lysine K27 deacetylation at its promoter. These findings highlight an important function of SIRT3 in mediating the often intricate profibrotic and proinflammatory responses of cardiac cells through the modulation of the FOS/AP-1 pathway. Since fibrosis and inflammation are crucial in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and diabetic cardiomyopathy, our results point to SIRT3 as a potential target for treating these diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-0114-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7046732PMC
February 2020

Use of Infrared Thermography to Estimate Brown Fat Activation After a Cooling Protocol in Patients with Severe Obesity That Underwent Bariatric Surgery.

Obes Surg 2020 06;30(6):2375-2381

Germans Trias i Pujol Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: In contrast to the energy-storing role of white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) acts as the main site of non-shivering thermogenesis in mammals and has been reported to play a role in protection against obesity and associated metabolic alterations in rodents. Infrared thermography (IRT) has been proposed as a novel non-invasive, safe, and quick method to estimate BAT thermogenic activation in humans. The aim of this study is to determine whether the IRT could be a potential new tool to estimate BAT thermogenic activation in patients with severe obesity in response to bariatric surgery.

Methods: Supraclavicular BAT thermogenic activation was evaluated using IRT in a cohort of 31 patients (50 ± 10 years old, BMI = 44.5 ± 7.8; 15 undergoing laparoscopy sleeve gastrectomy and 16 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) at baseline and 6 months after a bariatric surgery. Clinical parameters were determined at these same time points.

Results: Supraclavicular BAT-related activity was detected in our patients by IRT after a cooling stimulus. The BAT thermogenic activation was higher at 6 months after laparoscopy sleeve gastrectomy (0.06 ± 0.1 vs 0.32 ± 0.1), while patients undergoing to a roux-en-Y gastric bypass did not change their thermogenic response using the same cooling stimulus (0.09 ± 0.1 vs 0.08 ± 0.1).

Conclusions: Our study postulates the IRT as a potential tool to evaluate BAT thermogenic activation in patients with obesity before and after a bariatric surgery. Further studies are needed to evaluate differences between LSG technique and RYGB on BAT activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04502-7DOI Listing
June 2020

Differential association between S100A4 levels and insulin resistance in prepubertal children and adult subjects with clinically severe obesity.

Obes Sci Pract 2020 Feb 2;6(1):99-106. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition Germans Trias i Pujol Research Institute Barcelona Spain.

Objectives: S100A4 has been recently identified as an adipokine associated with insulin resistance (IR) in adult subjects with obesity. However, no data about its levels in children with obesity and only a few approaches regarding its potential mechanism of action have been reported. To obtain a deeper understanding of the role of S100A4 in obesity, (a) S100A4 levels were measured in prepubertal children and adult subjects with and without obesity and studied the relationship with IR and (b) the effects of S100A4 in cultured human adipocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were determined.

Methods: Sixty-five children (50 with obesity, age 9.0 ±1.1 years and 15 normal weight, age 8.4 ±0.8 years) and fifty-nine adults (43 with severe obesity, age 46 ±11 years and 16 normal weight, age 45 ±9 years) were included. Blood from children and adults and adipose tissue samples from adults were obtained and analysed. Human adipocytes and VSMC were incubated with S100A4 to evaluate their response to this adipokine.

Results: Circulating S100A4 levels were increased in both children ( = .002) and adults ( < .001) with obesity compared with their normal-weight controls. In subjects with obesity, S100A4 levels were associated with homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adults ( = .42, = .008) but not in children ( = .12, = .356). Human adipocytes were not sensitive to S100A4, while incubation with this adipokine significantly reduced inflammatory markers in VSMC.

Conclusions: Our human data demonstrate that higher S100A4 levels are a marker of IR in adults with obesity but not in prepubertal children. Furthermore, the in vitro results suggest that S100A4 might exert an anti-inflammatory effect. Further studies will be necessary to determine whether S100A4 can be a therapeutic target for obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/osp4.381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042100PMC
February 2020

Reduced circulating levels of chemokine CXCL14 in adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome: normalization after insulin sensitization.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2020 02;8(1)

Biochemistry and Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

Objective: CXCL14 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand-14) is a chemokine released by active brown fat, showing protective effects against insulin resistance in experimental models. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescent girls is usually related to hepato-visceral fat excess and insulin resistance, and associates with comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes. Treatment with a low-dose combination of one antiandrogen and antimineralocorticoid drug (spironolactone) and two insulin sensitizers (pioglitazone/metformin) (SPIOMET) is particularly effective in improving these metabolic derangements. Adipose tissue may be involved in the metabolic alterations of PCOS, and it is a likely target of therapeutic action. We investigated the alterations in CXCL14 levels and the effects of drugs composing SPIOMET treatment on CXCL14 in human adipocytes.

Research Design And Methods: We studied 51 adolescent patients with PCOS and 21 age-matched healthy controls. Thirty-one adolescent patients with PCOS under SPIOMET or oral contraception-based treatment were also studied. For studies in vitro, Simpson Golabi Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) adipose cells were used. Gene expression for CXCL14 and other genes was quantified using quantitative real-time PCR. The levels of CXCL14 and adipokines in serum and cell culture media were determined by ELISA.

Results: Serum CXCL14 levels are reduced in patients with PCOS. One-year SPIOMET treatment normalized CXCL14 concentrations and improved the metabolic status of patients with PCOS. Pioglitazone induced CXCL14 expression in differentiating human SGBS adipocytes, in parallel with the induction of marker genes of brown adipogenesis. Spironolactone induced CXCL14 expression and release in differentiated human adipocytes.

Conclusion: Insulin sensitization with SPIOMET normalizes the abnormally low levels of CXCL14 in girls with PCOS. This is consistent with the effects of pioglitazone and spironolactone inducing CXCL14 expression and promoting a brown-like phenotype in adipocytes. CXCL14 may be a novel biomarker for PCOS as well as a potential mediator of the beneficial effects of the SPIOMET combination and may hold promise as a therapeutic modulator of the disorder.

Trial Registration Numbers: ISRCTN29234515 and ISCRCTN11062950.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-001035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206903PMC
February 2020

Potential role of the melanocortin signaling system interference in the excess weight gain associated to some antiretroviral drugs in people living with HIV.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2020 09 20;44(9):1970-1973. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Departament de Bioquímica i Biomedicina Molecular and Institut de Biomedicina (IBUB), Universitat de Barcelona, CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Barcelona, Spain.

Exposure to some antiretroviral drugs, especially integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INsTI)-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been associated with weight gain in people living with HIV (PLWH) exceeding what would be a "return to health" phenomenon. Notwithstanding the fact that weight gain and obesity are multifactorial, the common epidemiological link in PLWH is INsTI-based cART. Here, we postulate that interference with the melanocortin system (MCS) functioning by INsTI plays an essential role in excess weight gain and obesity in PLWH, similar to disturbances caused by melanocortin receptor (MCR) mutations in the general population and by antipsychotic therapy in psychiatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-020-0551-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445112PMC
September 2020

Glucocorticoid gene regulation of aquaporin-7.

Vitam Horm 2020 25;112:179-207. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Laboratorio de Rumiología y Metabolismo Nutricional (RuMeN), Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, UNAM, Cuautitlán, Mexico. Electronic address:

AQP7 is the primary glycerol transporter in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues. There are immediate and quantitatively important actions of cortisone over the expression of AQP7 in murine and human adipocytes. Short-term response (minutes) of cortisone treatment result in an mRNA overexpression in white and brown differentiated adipocytes (between 1.5 and 6 folds). Conversely, long-term response (hours or days) result in decreased mRNA expression. The effects observed on AQP7 mRNA expression upon cortisone treatment in brown and white differentiated adipocytes are concordant with those observed for GK and HSD1B11.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.vh.2019.08.005DOI Listing
April 2021

Infrared Thermography for Estimating Supraclavicular Skin Temperature and BAT Activity in Humans: A Systematic Review.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2019 12 5;27(12):1932-1949. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

PROFITH (PROmoting FITness and Health through Physical Activity) Research Group, Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Sport and Health University Research Institute (iMUDS), University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Objective: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic tissue with potential as a therapeutic target in the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders. The most used technique for quantifying human BAT activity is the measurement of F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake via a positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan following exposure to cold. However, several studies have indicated the measurement of the supraclavicular skin temperature (SST) by infrared thermography (IRT) to be a less invasive alternative. This work reviews the state of the art of this latter method as a means of determining BAT activity in humans.

Methods: The data sources for this review were PubMed, Web of Science, and EBSCOhost (SPORTdiscus), and eligible studies were those conducted in humans.

Results: In most studies in which participants were first cooled, an increase in IRT-measured SST was noted. However, only 5 of 24 such studies also involved a nuclear technique that confirmed increased activity in BAT, and only 2 took into account the thickness of the fat layer when measuring SST by IRT.

Conclusions: More work is needed to understand the involvement of tissues other than BAT in determining IRT-measured SST; at present, IRT cannot determine whether any increase in SST is due to increased BAT activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.22635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6899990PMC
December 2019

Circulating growth-and-differentiation factor-15 in early life: relation to prenatal and postnatal growth and adiposity measurements.

Pediatr Res 2020 04 23;87(5):897-902. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Pediatric Research Institute Sant Joan de Déu, University of Barcelona, 08950, Esplugues, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Growth-and-differentiation-factor-15 (GDF15) is a regulator of energy homeostasis. To determine the relationship between circulating GDF15 and parameters of metabolic health, we assessed longitudinally GDF15 concentrations in infants born either appropriate- (AGA) or small-for-gestational-age (SGA), the latter population known to be at risk for metabolic alterations, particularly after a rapid postnatal catch-up in weight.

Methods: The study cohort consisted of 103 infants (70 AGA and 33 SGA). Assessments included body length, weight, and ponderal index (PI); fasting glucose, insulin, IGF-I, high-molecular-weight adiponectin, GDF15; and body composition (by absorptiometry) at birth, and at age 4, 12 and 24 months.

Results: GDF15 levels at birth were significantly higher than those at each subsequent time point and were similar in AGA and SGA subjects. GDF15 concentrations dropped at age 4 months, more substantially in SGA infants, and continued to decline in both subgroups reaching adult concentrations by age 24 months. GDF15 levels correlated inversely with the changes in PI, IGF-I and body fat throughout follow-up.

Conclusions: Early life is associated with supra-adult concentrations of GDF15. The lower levels of GDF15 in SGA subjects may be an adaptive mechanism to promote catch-up in weight and might increase the risk for obesity later in life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-019-0633-zDOI Listing
April 2020

A Role for Oncostatin M in the Impairment of Glucose Homeostasis in Obesity.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 Mar;105(3)

Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Germans Trias i Pujol Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain.

Context: Oncostatin M (OSM) plays a key role in inflammation, but its regulation and function during obesity is not fully understood.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of OSM with the inflammatory state that leads to impaired glucose homeostasis in obesity. We also assessed whether OSM immunoneutralization could revert metabolic disturbances caused by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice.

Design: 28 patients with severe obesity were included and stratified into two groups: (1) glucose levels <100 mg/dL and (2) glucose levels >100 mg/dL. White adipose tissue was obtained to examine OSM gene expression. Human adipocytes were used to evaluate the effect of OSM in the inflammatory response, and HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice were injected with anti-OSM antibody to evaluate its effects.

Results: OSM expression was elevated in subcutaneous and visceral fat from patients with obesity and hyperglycemia, and correlated with Glut4 mRNA levels, serum insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers. OSM inhibited adipogenesis and induced inflammation in human adipocytes. Finally, OSM receptor knockout mice had increased Glut4 mRNA levels in adipose tissue, and OSM immunoneutralization resulted in a reduction of glucose levels and Ccl2 expression in adipose tissue from HFD-fed mice.

Conclusions: OSM contributes to the inflammatory state during obesity and may be involved in the development of insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgz090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7112982PMC
March 2020