Publications by authors named "Franca Zani"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of tetradentate ligands bearing hydrazone and/or thiosemicarbazone motifs and their diorganotin(IV) complexes.

J Inorg Biochem 2016 10 8;163:118-130. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/ Francisco Tomás y Valiente 7, 28049 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Four novel ligands derived from 2,3-butanedione have been synthesized, two dissymmetric thiosemicarbazone/3-hydroxy-2-naphthohydrazone ligands, HL (bearing 4-isopropyl-3-thiosemicarbazone) and HL (containing 4-cyclohexyl-3-thiosemicarbazone) and the symmetric HL, diacetyl bis(3-hydroxy-2-naphthohydrazone), and HL, diacetyl bis(4-cyclohexyl-3-thiosemicarbazone). Their reactivity with SnRCl (R=methyl, n-butyl and phenyl) was explored and the resulting complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, mass spectrometry, IR, H, C and Sn NMR and seven of them also by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the reactivity of the dissymmetric ligands is strongly different and while the cyclohexyl derivative is very stable, with isopropyl easily undergoes a symmetrization reaction to yield the corresponding symmetric ligands. The antimicrobial activity of the ligands and the corresponding diorganotin(IV) complexes was investigated in vitro against seven species of microorganisms and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined. The results showed that the ligand HL and several of its derivatives, together with methyl and phenyl complexes of HL, have the ability of inhibiting the growth of tested bacteria and fungi to different extents. Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus Gram positive strains were the most sensitive microorganisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2016.07.002DOI Listing
October 2016

A new efficient route to 7-aryl-6-fluoro-8-nitroquinolones as potent antibacterial agents.

Eur J Med Chem 2014 Oct 26;86:364-7. Epub 2014 Aug 26.

Dipartimento di Farmacia, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 27/A, Parma 43124, Italy. Electronic address:

A series of 7-aryl-6-fluoro-8-nitroquinolones (6a-e) were synthesized through a novel, simple and clean synthetic procedure, through a Suzuki-Miyaura reaction. The target compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial properties against bacterial and fungal strains. All of them showed antibacterial activity higher than the activity of ciprofloxacin, both towards Gram positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and Gram negative Haemophilus influenzae strains. Compound 6d, containing the trisubstituted 7-aryl moiety, emerged as the most active quinolone derivative with MIC values ranging from 0.00007 μg/mL to 0.015 μg/mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.08.065DOI Listing
October 2014

Design synthesis and antibacterial activity studies of new thiadiazoloquinolone compounds.

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2014 Dec 10;29(6):777-85. Epub 2014 Feb 10.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, The University of Jordan , Amman , Jordan .

Abstract New 9-(alkyl/aryl)-4-fluoro-6-oxo[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-h]quinoline-5-carboxylic acids and their esters were designed and synthesized. A detailed discussion of the reactions utilized in the preparation of the intermediate and target compounds is reported. All the newly synthesized compounds were fully characterized using all the physico-chemical means needed. All the intermediates and the final esters and acids were tested against bacterial and fungal strains. The acids 25a and 25c proved to be very active against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria with MIC 0.15-3 µg/mL. The structure-activity relationship of antibacterial thiadiazoloquinolones shows that compounds 25a and 25c are twice less potent than the corresponding cyclopropyl derivative 16. Therefore, the cyclopropyl moiety on N-9 seems to be the most suitable substituent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14756366.2013.855925DOI Listing
December 2014

Sterilization of corticosteroids for ocular and pulmonary delivery with supercritical carbon dioxide.

Int J Pharm 2013 Jun 26;450(1-2):218-24. Epub 2013 Apr 26.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

Glucocorticosteroids, a class of drugs widely used in the treatment of allergies, airways inflammation and inflammatory ocular diseases, are often difficult to sterilize due to their inherent sensibility to heat or irradiation induced degradation. Being often in form of suspension, obviously the final medicinal product cannot be sterilized by filtration. The effectiveness of supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) based method for the sterilization of food and biomedical materials is well documented in the literature. Few reports are available on the sterilization of drugs especially in powder form with SC-CO2. The aim of the present work was to investigate the suitability of SC-CO2 at mild temperature for the decontamination of two model corticosteroid powders (beclometasone dipropionate and budesonide) both in dry or wet form. We found that SC treatment in wet environment reduces by at least six orders of magnitude the contamination of micronized steroidal drugs while retaining the particle size distribution. The findings of this work are of particular interest for the application in the case of aqueous suspension of steroids for aerosol therapy or ocular delivery, where the sterilization process with SC-CO2 could be carried out directly on the bulk of the final formulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.04.055DOI Listing
June 2013

Lecithin/chitosan controlled release nanopreparations of tamoxifen citrate: loading, enzyme-trigger release and cell uptake.

J Control Release 2013 May 18;167(3):276-83. Epub 2013 Feb 18.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 27/A, 43124 Parma, Italy.

Tamoxifen citrate (TAM), an anticancer drug with amphiphilic properties, was loaded in lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles (LCN) with a view to oral administration. The influence of tamoxifen loading on the physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles was studied. Size, surface charge and morphological properties of tamoxifen-loaded nanoparticles (LCN-TAM) were assessed. The increase in the tamoxifen amount in the LCN-TAM preparation up to 60 mg/100 ml maintained the positive zeta potential value of about +45 mV. A statistically significant decrease in particle size was observed for TAM amounts between 5 and 20mg. A strong influence of loaded tamoxifen on the structure of lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles was observed, supported by the quantification of free chitosan and morphological analysis. A loading of tamoxifen in nanoparticles of around 19% was obtained. The release of the drug from the LCN-TAM colloidal dispersion was measured, showing that tamoxifen citrate was released very slowly in simulated gastro-intestinal fluids without enzymes. When enzymes able to dismantle the nanoparticle structure were added to the dissolution medium, drug release was triggered and continued in a prolonged manner. Tamoxifen-loaded nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity towards MCF-7 cells comparable to that obtained with tamoxifen citrate solution, but the rate of this toxic effect was dependent on drug release. Caco-2 cells, used as a model of the intestinal epithelium, were shown to take up the TAM loaded nanoparticles extensively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2013.02.009DOI Listing
May 2013

Palladium(II) complexes of quinolinylaminophosphonates: synthesis, structural characterization, antitumor and antimicrobial activity.

J Inorg Biochem 2011 Jun 24;105(6):867-79. Epub 2011 Mar 24.

Division of Physical Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb, Croatia.

Three types of palladium(II) halide complexes of quinolinylaminophosphonates have been synthesized and studied. Diethyl and dibutyl [α-anilino-(quinolin-2-ylmethyl)]phosphonates (L1, L2) act as N,N-chelate ligands through the quinoline and aniline nitrogens giving complexes cis-[Pd(L1/L2)X(2)] (X═Cl, Br) (1-4). Their 3-substituted analogues [α-anilino-(quinolin-3-ylmethyl)]phosphonates (L3, L4) form dihalidopalladium complexes trans-[Pd(L3/L4)(2)X(2)] (5-8), with trans N-bonded ligand molecules only through the quinoline nitrogen. Dialkyl [α-(quinolin-3-ylamino)-N-benzyl]phosphonates (L5, L6) give tetrahalidodipalladium complexes [Pd(2)(L5/L6)(3)X(4)] (9-12), containing one bridging and two terminal ligand molecules. The bridging molecule is bonded to the both palladium atoms, one through the quinoline and the other through the aminoquinoline nitrogen, whereas terminal ligand molecules are coordinated each only to one palladium via the quinoline nitrogen. Each palladium ion is also bonded to two halide ions in a trans square-planar fashion. The new complexes were identified and characterized by elemental analyses and by IR, UV-visible, (1)H, (13)C and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance and ESI-mass spectroscopic studies. The crystal structures of complexes 1-4 and 6 were determined by X-ray structure analysis. The antitumor activity of complexes in vitro was investigated on several human tumor cell lines and the highest activity with cell growth inhibitory effects in the low micromolar range was observed for dipalladium complexes 11 and 12 derived from dibutyl ester L6. The antimicrobial properties in vitro of ligands and their complexes were studied using a wide spectrum of bacterial and fungal strains. No specific activity was noted. Only ligands L3 and L4 and tetrahalidodipalladium complexes 9 and 11 show poor activities against some Gram positive bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2011.03.011DOI Listing
June 2011

Synthesis and biological evaluation of tetracyclic thienopyridones as antibacterial and antitumor agents.

Bioorg Med Chem 2011 Apr 12;19(8):2541-8. Epub 2011 Mar 12.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

A facile synthesis of model 4-oxopyrido[3',2':4,5]thieno[3,2-b]indole-3-carboxylic acids 9a-e was achieved via Stille arylation of 2-chloro-3-nitro-4-oxothieno[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carboxylate and a subsequent microwave-assisted phosphite-mediated Cadogan reaction. The new compounds were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity. Compounds 9a-c and 9e exhibited very high potency against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium at concentrations 0.000015-0.007 μg/mL. They also displayed excellent activity towards other Gram positive bacilli and staphylococci and Gram negative Haemophilus influenzae, being in most cases superior or equal to commercial fluoroquinolones. Both 9a and 9c were inhibitors of the DNA gyrase activity. As concerns antitumor properties, compounds 9b-e showed growth inhibition of MCF-7 breast tumor and A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells with IC(50) 1.6-2.8 μM and 2.6-6.9 μM, respectively, coupled with absence of cytotoxicity towards normal cells. These compounds are promising as dual acting chemotherapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2011.03.018DOI Listing
April 2011

Antimicrobial activity of organotin(IV) complexes with the ligand benzil bis(benzoylhydrazone) and 4,4'-bipyridyl as coligand.

J Inorg Biochem 2011 May 3;105(5):600-8. Epub 2011 Feb 3.

Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Several methyltin(IV) and butyltin(IV) complexes with the ligand benzil bis(benzoylhydrazone) and 4,4'-bipyridyl as coligand were synthesised and characterized by elemental analysis and by IR, (1)H, (13)C and (119)Sn NMR spectroscopies. Some of them were also analyzed using single crystal X-ray diffraction. The title compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial properties. All buthyltin complexes showed significant inhibition of Gram positive bacteria, resulting Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea and both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis the most sensitive strains. Furthermore, they were able to inhibit the growth of Gram negative bacteria, especially Proteus vulgaris, whereas no activity was exhibited against fungi. All methyltin complexes were devoid of antimicrobial properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2011.01.014DOI Listing
May 2011

Synthesis and biological evaluation of tetracyclic fluoroquinolones as antibacterial and anticancer agents.

Bioorg Med Chem 2010 Aug 3;18(16):5873-84. Epub 2010 Jul 3.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan.

A simple and efficient synthesis of 6-fluoro-4-oxopyrido[2,3-a]carbazole-3-carboxylic acids (13a-e) and a structurally related 6-fluoro-4-oxothieno[2',3':4,5]pyrrolo[3,2-h]quinoline (13f) was achieved via Stille arylation of 7-chloro-6-fluoro-8-nitro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylate and a subsequent microwave-assisted phosphite-mediated Cadogan reaction. The new compounds were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity. The ability of 13a-f to inhibit the activity of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV was also investigated. The thieno isostere (13f) emerged as the most active antibacterial, while the 9-fluoro derivative (13e) was the most potent against multidrug-resistant staphylococci. Compounds 13a, 13c-f displayed growth inhibition against MCF-7 breast tumor and A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells coupled with an absence of cytotoxicity toward normal human-derm fibroblasts (HuDe). Compound 13e was the most active anticancer against MCF-7 cells, with greater potency than ellipticine (IC(50) 0.8 and 1.6muM, respectively). The most active compounds in this series show promise as dual acting anticancer and antibacterial chemotherapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2010.06.098DOI Listing
August 2010

Characterization of a polyurethane-based controlled release system for local delivery of chlorhexidine diacetate.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2010 Feb 10;74(2):255-64. Epub 2009 Nov 10.

Laboratoire de Recherche et Développement de Pharmacie Galénique Industrielle, Université de Lyon, Lyon 08, France.

Conventional formulations of chlorhexidine usually provide short-term efficiency, requiring repeated applications to maintain antibacterial activity. Therefore, appropriate release system of chlorhexidine controlling local drug delivery would reduce the number of applications and enhance patient compliance. The aim of this study was to develop a controlled release system based on medical polyurethane for the local delivery of chlorhexidine diacetate (CDA). CDA-loaded polyurethane films (CDA-Films) and CDA-loaded polyurethane sandwiches (CDA-Sandwiches) were obtained by casting and solvent evaporation. The physico-chemical aspects of CDA-loaded polyurethane systems were investigated, and the crystalline state of CDA in the polymeric system was highlighted. CDA-Films exhibited appropriate mechanical properties for further applications. Drug release was measured in two different media: (i) distilled water and (ii) physiological saline solution to mimic in vivo conditions. Drug release studies were performed up to 11days on CDA-Films and 29days for CDA-Sandwiches. Release of CDA depended on drug loading and the structure of the system. In particular, release of CDA from the sandwich system followed zero-order kinetic. The release rate was significantly lower in physiological solution. Antibacterial studies were carried out on CDA-Films against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis showing 35days persisting antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the polyurethane-based system developed in this study is potentially useful as a local delivery system for CDA and could be used not only in surgery but also in dental and clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2009.11.002DOI Listing
February 2010

Complexes of 2-acetyl-gamma-butyrolactone and 2-furancarbaldehyde thiosemicarbazones: antibacterial and antifungal activity.

J Inorg Biochem 2009 Jan 11;103(1):35-42. Epub 2008 Sep 11.

Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidade de Vigo, Vigo, Spain.

Cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc coordination compounds of two thiosemicarbazones with general composition ML(2) (L: monodeprotonated ligand corresponding to 2-acetyl-gamma-butyrolactone thiosemicarbazone, HL(1), and 2-furancarbaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, HL(2)) and also complexes with general composition MCl(2)(HL(2)) were synthesized (except [NiCl(2)(HL(2))] and [Co(L(2))(2)]). The interaction of CuCl(2) with HL(2) gave [CuCl(HL(2))], a copper(I) complex. The ligands and metal complexes were characterized by IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The crystal structure of [Ni(L(2))(2)]x 2dmso was determined and a trans-square planar coordination of the two kappa(2)-N,S chelate rings forming polymeric strips through H-bonds with dmso was observed. Actually, in all the reported complexes both ligands behaved as kappa(2)-N,S chelates, except in the case of [Co(L(1))(2)] in which HL(1) is tridentate kappa(3)-N,S,O. The antimicrobial properties of all compounds were studied using a wide spectrum of bacterial and fungal strains. The copper complexes of HL(2) were the most active against all strains, including dermatophytes and phytopathogenic fungi. Most of the studied compounds, especially [Cu(L(1))(2)], presented good activity against Haemophilus influenzae, a very harmful bacterium to humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2008.08.015DOI Listing
January 2009

Hybrid molecules between benzenesulfonamides and active antimicrobial benzo[d]isothiazol-3-ones.

Eur J Med Chem 2009 Jun 25;44(6):2741-7. Epub 2008 Jul 25.

Dipartimento Farmaceutico, Università degli Studi di Parma, Viale G.P. Usberti 27/A, 43100 Parma, Italy.

Novel hybrid molecules between benzenesulfonamides and active antimicrobial 2-amino-benzo[d]isothiazol-3-ones were synthesized and characterised and their in vitro antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The compounds exhibit moderate antibacterial properties against gram-positive bacteria (MIC 6-100 microg ml(-1)) such as several bacilli, staphylococci and streptococci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains, while no inhibition of gram-negative Escherichia coli is detected up to the concentration of 100 microg ml(-1). Synergistic inhibitory activity occurs when sulfanilamides 4a and 4c are tested in combination with trimethoprim against S. aureus. Concerning antifungal properties, only compound 4c is able to inhibit the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Cryptococcus neoformans yeasts and several dermatophytes. Structure-activity relationships are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2008.07.022DOI Listing
June 2009

2-Heteroarylimino-5-benzylidene-4-thiazolidinones analogues of 2-thiazolylimino-5-benzylidene-4-thiazolidinones with antimicrobial activity: synthesis and structure-activity relationship.

Bioorg Med Chem 2008 Apr 6;16(7):3714-24. Epub 2008 Feb 6.

Dipartimento Farmaceutico, Università degli Studi di Parma, Viale G.P. Usberti 27/A, Parma 43100, Italy.

2-Heteroarylimino-5-benzylidene-4-thiazolidinones, unsubstituted or carrying hydroxy, methoxy, nitro and chloro groups on the benzene ring, were synthesised and assayed in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, yeasts and mould. The antimicrobial activity of the 2-benzo[d]thiazolyl- and of the 2-benzo[d]isothiazolyl-imino-5-benzylidene-4-thiazolidinones is, on the whole, lower in comparison with the high activity detected for the derivatives of the 2-thiazolylimino-5-benzylidene-4-thiazolidinone class. Nevertheless most of the benzo[d]thiazole analogues display good inhibition of the growth of gram positive bacilli and staphylococci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus strains. Among the 2-benzo[d]isothiazole analogues a few derivatives show a strong and selective activity against bacilli. Moreover, it is worth noting that the replacement of the thiazole nucleus for the benzo[d]thiazole bicyclic system in the parent 2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylimino)thiazolidin-4-one leads to significant antifungal properties against both yeasts and moulds, properties not shown by the analogous 2-thiazolyl- and 2-benzo[d]isothiazolyl-imino)thiazolidin-4-ones. The structure-activity relationship of 33 analogues possessing the 2-heteroarylimino-4-thiazolidinone structure is analysed through QSAR models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2008.02.001DOI Listing
April 2008

Association of nicotinamide with parabens: effect on solubility, partition and transdermal permeation.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2008 Jun 18;69(2):613-21. Epub 2008 Jan 18.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

Nicotinamide is a hydrophilic molecule, freely soluble in water, used as cosmetic active ingredient for its moisturizing and depigmenting properties. Moreover it has the ability to augment the solubility of poorly water-soluble molecules acting as a hydrotrope. The aim of this work was to study the effect of nicotinamide on the transdermal permeation of methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl paraben. Parabens flux was measured in vitro in the presence and absence of different amounts of nicotinamide. From solubility studies it was found that nicotinamide forms one or more complexes with methyl, propyl and butyl paraben in water, even though with low stability constants. The interaction of ethyl paraben seems to be less easy to explain. The association of nicotinamide with parabens causes a significant reduction of the permeability coefficients of these preservatives through rabbit ear skin, caused by a reduction of the stratum corneum/vehicle partition coefficient. The effects of nicotinamide on parabens solubility, permeation and partitioning are potentially very interesting because nicotinamide can facilitate paraben dissolution in aqueous media (solutions, gels), reduce parabens partitioning in the oily phase thus guaranteeing an effective concentration in the water phase in emulsion and reduce transdermal penetration, thus reducing the toxicological risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2007.12.008DOI Listing
June 2008

Complexes of 2-thiophenecarbonyl and isonicotinoyl hydrazones of 3-(N-methyl)isatin. A study of their antimicrobial activity.

J Inorg Biochem 2007 Jan 19;101(1):138-47. Epub 2006 Sep 19.

Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidade de Vigo, 36200 Vigo, Spain.

Cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes of 2-thiophenecarbonyl and isonicotinoyl hydrazones of 3-(N-methyl)isatin (HL(1) and HL(2), respectively) were synthesized and characterized, being the crystal structures of HL(1), HL(2) and [Ni(L(1))(2)].2CHCl(3) elucidated by X-ray diffraction techniques. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of all these compounds was tested against several bacteria and fungi. HL(1)and its complexes exhibited a strong inhibition of the growth of Haemophilus influenzae (MIC 0.15-1.50microg/mL) and good antibacterial properties towards Bacillus subtilis (MIC 3-25microg/mL). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was defined as the lowest concentration of compound inhibiting the growth of each strain. The antibacterial effectiveness was confirmed against a number of Gram positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Yeasts and moulds showed a low susceptibility, except the dermatophyte mould Epidermophyton floccosum that is inhibited at concentrations ranging from 6 to 50microg/mL. In general, the antimicrobial activity of the thiophene derivatives was greater than that of the isonicotinic analogues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2006.09.004DOI Listing
January 2007

Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of novel 2-thiazolylimino-5-arylidene-4-thiazolidinones.

Bioorg Med Chem 2006 Jun 20;14(11):3859-64. Epub 2006 Feb 20.

Dipartimento Farmaceutico, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 27/A, Parma 43100, Italy.

New 2-thiazolylimino-5-arylidene-4-thiazolidinones (compounds 4a-j), unsubstituted or carrying hydroxy, methoxy, nitro and chloro groups on the benzene ring, were synthesized and assayed in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, yeasts and mould. The compounds were very potent towards all tested Gram positive microorganisms (MIC ranging from 0.03 to 6 microg/mL in most of the cases) and Gram negative Haemophilus influenzae (MIC 0.15-1.5 microg/mL), whereas no effectiveness was exhibited against Gram negative Escherichia coli and fungi up to the concentration of 100 microg/mL. The 5-arylidene derivatives showed an antibacterial efficacy considerably greater than that of the parent 2-(thiazol-2-ylimino)thiazolidin-4-one 3, suggesting that the substituted and unsubstituted 5-arylidene moiety plays an important role in enhancing the antimicrobial properties of this class of compounds. The remarkable inhibition of the growth of penicillin-resistant staphylococci makes these substances promising agents also for the treatment of infections caused by microorganisms resistant to currently available drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2006.01.043DOI Listing
June 2006

Copper complexes of imidazole-2-, pyrrole-2- and indol-3-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbazones: inhibitory activity against fungi and bacteria.

J Inorg Biochem 2005 Nov 26;99(11):2231-9. Epub 2005 Sep 26.

Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidade de Vigo, 36200 Vigo, Spain.

Copper complexes of thiosemicarbazones of imidazole-2-carbaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde and indole-3-carbaldehyde were synthesised and characterised. The antimicrobial properties of the free ligands and their complexes were evaluated against yeasts, moulds and bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative). Some copper chelates exhibited a moderate inhibitory activity, better than that of the corresponding free ligands. In particular, the pyrrole derivative [Cu(HL(2))(2)] proved to be a wide spectrum agent, showing an interesting inhibition of the growth of all Gram-positive bacteria and fungi tested at concentrations of 12-50 microg/mL. In contrast, a selective effect was observed for imidazole and indole chelates against fungi and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2005.07.018DOI Listing
November 2005

Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 2-(benzylidene-amino)-benzo[d]isothiazol-3-ones.

Eur J Med Chem 2004 Feb;39(2):135-40

Dipartimento Farmaceutico, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 27/A, 43100 Parma, Italy.

The in vitro antimicrobial activity of 2-amino-benzo[d]isothiazol-3-one and of several 2-arylideneamino derivatives carrying in the second position a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or an arylalkenylidene moiety was determined by the broth dilution method against several strains selected to define their spectrum and potency. All the compounds demonstrated good antibacterial properties against Bacillus subtilis, streptococci, enterococci and staphylococci including penicillin-resistant clinical isolates. Several compounds showed excellent inhibitory properties against Streptococcus pyogenes, which is the most sensitive microorganism tested. Many benzisothiazolones exhibited good activity against Gram-negative Haemophilus influenzae. As regards antifungal activity, several of the tested compounds inhibited Saccharomyces cerevisiae at concentrations of 3-6 microg ml-1. In all cases the parent 2-amino-benzo[d]isothiazol-3-one was the most effective agent, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.07 to 6 microg ml-1. The results obtained indicate that most of these compounds are wide-spectrum antimicrobial substances and promising agents against penicillin-resistant staphylococci.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2003.11.004DOI Listing
February 2004

The suitability of disintegrating force kinetics for studying the effect of manufacturing parameters on spironolactone tablet properties.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2003 ;4(2):E17

Department of Pharmacy, University of Parma, Italy.

The aim of this paper was to study the effect of the granulate properties and tablet compression force on disintegrating force behavior in order to investigate the capability of the disintegrating force to characterize tablets that have the same composition but were manufactured in different conditions. Several tablets containing spironolactone in the external or internal granulated mixture of calcium carbonate and maize starch differing in particle size distribution, were prepared at 3 compression levels. The force developed by tablets during water uptake and disintegration was measured and plotted versus time. The curves obtained were analyzed by the Weibull equation in order to calculate the parameters characterizing the tablet disintegration kinetics. The disintegrating force time parameter, the maximum force developed, and the area under the curve were determined. In general, the reduction of time parameter value and/or the increase in maximum force developed corresponded to an acceleration in tablet disintegration. In addition, the area under the force curve increased in stronger tablets, monitoring in a sensitive way the tablet structural changes introduced by compression force. The results showed that the disintegrating force measurement can detect small changes in the structure of the tablet that cannot be discriminated by pharmacopoeia tests. The effect of manufacturing, in particular compression force, on tablet properties was quantified by the parameters of disintegrating force kinetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/pt040217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2750595PMC
October 2003

Hydrazones of 1,2-benzisothiazole hydrazides: synthesis, antimicrobial activity and QSAR investigations.

Eur J Med Chem 2002 Jul;37(7):553-64

Dipartimento Farmaceutico, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 27/A, 43100, Parma, Italy. [email protected]

A series of hydrazones of 1,2-benzisothiazole hydrazides 1a-m, 2a-m, 3a-m, 4a-m, 5a-m as well as their cyclic (1 and 4) and acyclic (2, 3 and 5) 1,2-benzisothiazole parent hydrazides, were synthesised and evaluated as antibacterial and antifungal agents. All of the 2-amino-1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one derivatives, belonging to series I and IV, showed a good antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria. Most of them were active against yeasts too. Compounds 1 and 4, together with 1l, proved to be the most effective compounds. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) investigation with a 2D-QSAR analysis was applied to find a correlation between different experimental or calculated physicochemical parameters of the compounds studied. A 3D-QSAR study was performed, applying Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA) method, to derive quantitative models relating the structural features of 1,2-benzisothiazole derivatives 1, 1a-m and 4, 4a-m and their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, resulted the most sensitive micro-organism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0223-5234(02)01378-8DOI Listing
July 2002
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