Publications by authors named "Françoise Van den Bergh"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impaired Myocardial Energetics Causes Mechanical Dysfunction in Decompensated Failing Hearts.

Function (Oxf) 2020 22;1(2):zqaa018. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Cardiac mechanical function is supported by ATP hydrolysis, which provides the chemical-free energy to drive the molecular processes underlying cardiac pumping. Physiological rates of myocardial ATP consumption require the heart to resynthesize its entire ATP pool several times per minute. In the failing heart, cardiomyocyte metabolic dysfunction leads to a reduction in the capacity for ATP synthesis and associated free energy to drive cellular processes. Yet it remains unclear if and how metabolic/energetic dysfunction that occurs during heart failure affects mechanical function of the heart. We hypothesize that changes in phosphate metabolite concentrations (ATP, ADP, inorganic phosphate) that are associated with decompensation and failure have direct roles in impeding contractile function of the myocardium in heart failure, contributing to the whole-body phenotype. To test this hypothesis, a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) rat model of pressure overload, hypertrophy, and decompensation was used to assess relationships between metrics of whole-organ pump function and myocardial energetic state. A multiscale computational model of cardiac mechanoenergetic coupling was used to identify and quantify the contribution of metabolic dysfunction to observed mechanical dysfunction. Results show an overall reduction in capacity for oxidative ATP synthesis fueled by either fatty acid or carbohydrate substrates as well as a reduction in total levels of adenine nucleotides and creatine in myocardium from TAC animals compared to sham-operated controls. Changes in phosphate metabolite levels in the TAC rats are correlated with impaired mechanical function, consistent with the overall hypothesis. Furthermore, computational analysis of myocardial metabolism and contractile dynamics predicts that increased levels of inorganic phosphate in TAC compared to control animals kinetically impair the myosin ATPase crossbridge cycle in decompensated hypertrophy/heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/function/zqaa018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7552914PMC
September 2020

Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation regulates mitochondrial dynamics in brown adipocytes.

Science 2020 04 19;368(6486):54-60. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) engages mitochondria at specialized ER domains known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). Here, we used three-dimensional high-resolution imaging to investigate the formation of pleomorphic "megamitochondria" with altered MAMs in brown adipocytes lacking the Sel1L-Hrd1 protein complex of ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). Mice with ERAD deficiency in brown adipocytes were cold sensitive and exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction. ERAD deficiency affected ER-mitochondria contacts and mitochondrial dynamics, at least in part, by regulating the turnover of the MAM protein, sigma receptor 1 (SigmaR1). Thus, our study provides molecular insights into ER-mitochondrial cross-talk and expands our understanding of the physiological importance of Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aay2494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7409365PMC
April 2020

Brain Metabolism Monitoring through CCO Measurements Using All-Fiber-Integrated Super-Continuum Source.

Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 2020 21;11234. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

For monitoring of concussion, brain function, organ condition and other medical applications, what is needed is a non-invasive method of monitoring tissue metabolism. MRI-based functional imaging technology detects changes in blood oxygenation, a correlate of neural activity, and thus may offer a prediction of prognosis in cases of concussion and other cerebral traumas. Yet, potential relationships between perturbations to cerebral metabolism and patient outcomes cannot be effectively exploited clinically because we lack a practical, low-cost, non-invasive means to monitor cerebral oxygenation and metabolism in the emergency department, operating room, or medical facilities. We have developed a device to optically assay the redox state of Cytochrome-C-Oxidase (CCO), the mitochondrial enzyme responsible for the last step of the electron transport chain. Changes in CCO redox reflect changes in respiratory flux, and thus changes in the rate of oxidative adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. In other words, changes in CCO reflect brain cell's metabolic activity more directly than the traditional blood oxygenation measurement methods. To non-invasively measure changes in CCO as well as blood oxygenation, we have developed a Super-Continuum Infrared Spectroscopy of Cytochrome-C-Oxidase (SCISCCO) system that uses an all-fiber integrated, super-continuum light source to simultaneously measure both of the new (CCO) and the traditional (blood oxygenation) markers of neural metabolism. The SCISCCO system is validated by confirming the near-infrared spectrum of CCO . To demonstrate feasibility, the measured responses of oxygenation and CCO responses to acute ischemia (e.g., blood pressure tests) in human participants are compared to data from the literature. Furthermore, we show that the new device's measurements of oxygenated (HbO) and deoxygenated (HbR) hemoglobin in response to breath hold challenges are principled and consistent with previously reported findings. The validated SCISCCO system is finally applied to measure cerebral oxygenation and the redox state of CCO in participants during an attention test protocol. Twenty-five healthy adults completed an attention task that included nine 60-second periods of attention task, interleaved with 60-s periods of resting baseline. It has been well established that the frontal lobe of the human brain is active during tasks of attention. We therefore predicted that attention task should elicit an increase in HbO concentration accompanied by a decrease in redox state of CCO (e.g., ratio of oxidized CCO to reduced CCO) in frontal lobe brain regions as measured with the SCISCCO system. Our findings are consistent with our predictions: HbO concentration increases while CCO concentration decreases during the attention blocks relative to the resting baseline, thereby indicating an increase in oxidative metabolism of the frontal lobe brain regions of interest. Our systematic, multi-method approach thus validates the new device as well as the validity of the metabolic biomarkers that it measures. The SCISCCO system could be a new tool for monitoring brain and organ metabolism, which could be invaluable for screening concussion patients or use in an operating or emergency room to gauge patient's organ response to treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2550137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8220891PMC
February 2020

Sphingolipid accumulation causes mitochondrial dysregulation and cell death.

Cell Death Differ 2017 12 11;24(12):2044-2053. Epub 2017 Aug 11.

Department of Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan,Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Sphingolipids are structural components of cell membranes that have signaling roles to regulate many activities, including mitochondrial function and cell death. Sphingolipid metabolism is integrated with numerous metabolic networks, and dysregulated sphingolipid metabolism is associated with disease. Here, we describe a monogenic yeast model for sphingolipid accumulation. A csg2Δ mutant cannot readily metabolize and accumulates the complex sphingolipid inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC). In these cells, aberrant activation of Ras GTPase is IPC-dependent, and accompanied by increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced mitochondrial mass. Survival or death of csg2Δ cells depends on nutritional status. Abnormal Ras activation in csg2Δ cells is associated with impaired Snf1/AMPK protein kinase, a key regulator of energy homeostasis. csg2Δ cells are rescued from ROS production and death by overexpression of mitochondrial catalase Cta1, abrogation of Ras hyperactivity or genetic activation of Snf1/AMPK. These results suggest that sphingolipid dysregulation compromises metabolic integrity via Ras and Snf1/AMPK pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/cdd.2017.128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5686345PMC
December 2017

Estrogen maintains mitochondrial content and function in the right ventricle of rats with pulmonary hypertension.

Physiol Rep 2017 Mar;5(6)

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin

The typical cause of death in pulmonary hypertension (PH) is right ventricular (RV) failure, with females showing better survival rates than males. Recently, metabolic shift and mitochondrial dysfunction have been demonstrated in RV failure secondary to PH In light of evidence showing that estrogen protects mitochondrial function and biogenesis in noncardiovascular systems, we hypothesized that the mechanism by which estrogen preserves RV function is via protection of mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity in PH We used a well-established model of PH (Sugen+Hypoxia) in ovariectomized female rats with/without estrogen treatment. RV functional measures were derived from pressure-volume relationships measured via RV catheterization in live rats. Citrate synthase activity, a marker of mitochondrial density, was measured in both RV and LV tissues. Respiratory capacity of mitochondria isolated from RV was measured using oxygraphy. We found that RV ventricular-vascular coupling efficiency decreased in the placebo-treated SuHx rats (0.78 ± 0.10 vs. 1.50 ± 0.13 in control,  < 0.05), whereas estrogen restored it. Mitochondrial density decreased in placebo-treated SuHx rats (0.12 ± 0.01 vs. 0.15 ± 0.01 U citrate synthase/mg in control,  < 0.05), and estrogen attenuated the decrease. Mitochondrial quality and oxidative capacity tended to be lower in placebo-treated SuHx rats only. The changes in mitochondrial biogenesis and function paralleled the expression levels of PGC-1 in RV Our results suggest that estrogen protects RV function by preserving mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity. This provides a mechanism by which estrogen provides protection in female PH patients and paves the way to develop estrogen and its targets as a novel RV-specific therapy for PH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5371553PMC
March 2017

Feedback Regulation and Time Hierarchy of Oxidative Phosphorylation in Cardiac Mitochondria.

Biophys J 2016 Feb;110(4):972-80

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

To determine how oxidative ATP synthesis is regulated in the heart, the responses of cardiac mitochondria oxidizing pyruvate to alterations in [ATP], [ADP], and inorganic phosphate ([Pi]) were characterized over a range of steady-state levels of extramitochondrial [ATP], [ADP], and [Pi]. Evolution of the steady states of the measured variables with the flux of respiration shows that: (1) a higher phosphorylation potential is achieved by mitochondria at higher [Pi] for a given flux of respiration; (2) the time hierarchy of oxidative phosphorylation is given by phosphorylation subsystem, electron transport chain, and substrate dehydrogenation subsystems listed in increasing order of their response times; (3) the matrix ATP hydrolysis mass action ratio [ADP] × [Pi]/[ATP] provides feedback to the substrate dehydrogenation flux over the entire range of respiratory flux examined in this study; and finally, (4) contrary to previous models of regulation of oxidative phosphorylation, [Pi] does not modulate the activity of complex III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2016.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4776028PMC
February 2016

Open-Loop Control of Oxidative Phosphorylation in Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Mitochondria by Ca(2.).

Biophys J 2016 Feb;110(4):954-61

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

In cardiac muscle, mitochondrial ATP synthesis is driven by demand for ATP through feedback from the products of ATP hydrolysis. However, in skeletal muscle at higher workloads there is an apparent contribution of open-loop stimulation of ATP synthesis. Open-loop control is defined as modulation of flux through a biochemical pathway by a moiety, which is not a reactant or a product of the biochemical reactions in the pathway. The role of calcium, which is known to stimulate the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases, as an open-loop controller, was investigated in isolated cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondria. The kinetics of NADH synthesis and respiration, feedback from ATP hydrolysis products, and stimulation by calcium were characterized in isolated mitochondria to test the hypothesis that calcium has a stimulatory role in skeletal muscle mitochondria not apparent in cardiac mitochondria. A range of respiratory states were obtained in cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondria utilizing physiologically relevant concentrations of pyruvate and malate, and flux of respiration, NAD(P)H fluorescence, and rhodamine 123 fluorescence were measured over a range of extra mitochondrial calcium concentrations. We found that under these conditions calcium stimulates NADH synthesis in skeletal muscle mitochondria but not in cardiac mitochondria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2015.12.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4775874PMC
February 2016

Collagen XVII (BP180) modulates keratinocyte expression of the proinflammatory chemokine, IL-8.

Exp Dermatol 2012 Aug;21(8):605-11

Division of Rheumatology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Collagen XVII (COL17), a transmembrane protein expressed in epidermal keratinocytes (EK), is targeted by pathogenic autoantibodies in bullous pemphigoid. Treatment of EK with anti-COL17 autoantibodies triggers the production of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we test the hypothesis that COL17 is involved in the regulation of the EK proinflammatory response, using IL-8 expression as the primary readout. The absence of COL17 in EK derived from a junctional epidermolysis bullosa patient or shRNA-mediated knockdown of COL17 in normal EK resulted in a dysregulation of IL-8 responses under various conditions. The COL17-deficient cells showed an abnormally high IL-8 response after treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), ultraviolet-B radiation or tumor necrosis factor, but exhibited a blunted IL-8 response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate exposure. Induction of COL17 expression in COL17-negative EK led to a normalization of the LPS-induced proinflammatory response. Although α6β4 integrin was found to be up-regulated in COL17-deficient EK, siRNA-mediated knockdown of the α6 and β4 subunits revealed that COL17's effects on the LPS IL-8 response are not dependent on this integrin. In LPS-treated cells, inhibition of NF-kappa B activity in COL17-negative EK resulted in a normalization of their IL-8 response, and expression of an NF-kappa B-driven reporter was shown to be higher in COL17-deficient, compared with normal EK. These findings support the hypothesis that COL17 plays an important regulatory role in the EK proinflammatory response, acting largely via NF-kappa B. Future investigations will focus on further defining the molecular basis of this novel control network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0625.2012.01529.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3395233PMC
August 2012

Identification of somatic mutations in non-small cell lung carcinomas using whole-exome sequencing.

Carcinogenesis 2012 Jul 17;33(7):1270-6. Epub 2012 Apr 17.

Department of Physiology and Cancer Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) being the predominant form of the disease. Most lung cancer is caused by the accumulation of genomic alterations due to tobacco exposure. To uncover its mutational landscape, we performed whole-exome sequencing in 31 NSCLCs and their matched normal tissue samples. We identified both common and unique mutation spectra and pathway activation in lung adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, two major histologies in NSCLC. In addition to identifying previously known lung cancer genes (TP53, KRAS, EGFR, CDKN2A and RB1), the analysis revealed many genes not previously implicated in this malignancy. Notably, a novel gene CSMD3 was identified as the second most frequently mutated gene (next to TP53) in lung cancer. We further demonstrated that loss of CSMD3 results in increased proliferation of airway epithelial cells. The study provides unprecedented insights into mutational processes, cellular pathways and gene networks associated with lung cancer. Of potential immediate clinical relevance, several highly mutated genes identified in our study are promising druggable targets in cancer therapy including ALK, CTNNA3, DCC, MLL3, PCDHIIX, PIK3C2B, PIK3CG and ROCK2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgs148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3499051PMC
July 2012

Modulation of gene expression and cell-cycle signaling pathways by the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib (Iressa) in rat urinary bladder cancer.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2012 Feb 7;5(2):248-59. Epub 2011 Oct 7.

Department of Surgery and The Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA.

The epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor Iressa has shown strong preventive efficacy in the N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (OH-BBN) model of bladder cancer in the rat. To explore its antitumor mechanism, we implemented a systems biology approach to characterize gene expression and signaling pathways in rat urinary bladder cancers treated with Iressa. Eleven bladder tumors from control rats, seven tumors from rats treated with Iressa, and seven normal bladder epithelia were profiled by the Affymetrix Rat Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. We identified 713 downregulated and 641 upregulated genes in comparing bladder tumors versus normal bladder epithelia. In addition, 178 genes were downregulated and 96 genes were upregulated when comparing control tumors versus Iressa-treated tumors. Two coexpression modules that were significantly correlated with tumor status and treatment status were identified [r = 0.70, P = 2.80 × 10(-15) (bladder tumor vs. normal bladder epithelium) and r = 0.63, P = 2.00 × 10(-42) (Iressa-treated tumor vs. control tumor), respectively]. Both tumor module and treatment module were enriched for genes involved in cell-cycle processes. Twenty-four and twenty-one highly connected hub genes likely to be key drivers in cell cycle were identified in the tumor module and treatment module, respectively. Analysis of microRNA genes on the array chips showed that tumor module and treatment module were significantly associated with expression levels of let-7c (r = 0.54, P = 3.70 × 10(-8) and r = 0.73, P = 1.50 × 10(-65), respectively). These results suggest that let-7c downregulation and its regulated cell-cycle pathway may play an integral role in governing bladder tumor suppression or collaborative oncogenesis and that Iressa exhibits its preventive efficacy on bladder tumorigenesis by upregulating let-7 and inhibiting the cell cycle. Cell culture study confirmed that the increased expression of let-7c decreases Iressa-treated bladder tumor cell growth. The identified hub genes may also serve as pharmacodynamic or efficacy biomarkers in clinical trials of chemoprevention in human bladder cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0363DOI Listing
February 2012

The NC16A domain of collagen XVII plays a role in triple helix assembly and stability.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006 Dec 5;350(4):1032-7. Epub 2006 Oct 5.

Department of Dermatology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.

Collagen XVII/BP180 is a transmembrane constituent of the epidermal anchoring complex. To study the role of its non-collagenous linker domain, NC16A, in protein assembly and stability, we analyzed the following recombinant proteins: the collagen XVII extracellular domain with or without NC16A, and a pair of truncated proteins comprising the COL15-NC15 stretch expressed with or without NC16A. All four proteins were found to exist as stable collagen triple helices; however, the two missing NC16A exhibited melting temperatures significantly lower than their NC16A-containing counterparts. Protein refolding experiments revealed that the rate of triple helix assembly of the collagen model peptide GPP(10) is greatly increased by the addition of an upstream NC16A domain. In summary, the NC16A linker domain of collagen XVII exhibits a positive effect on both the rate of assembly and the stability of the adjoining collagen structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.09.147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1847801PMC
December 2006

BP180 (type XVII collagen) and its role in cutaneous biology and disease.

Adv Dermatol 2003 ;19:37-71

Department of Dermatology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.

BP180 is a key component of the epidermal anchoring complex and functions to maintain adherence of the epidermis to the basement membrane. Structural studies have revealed that BP180 is a type II transmembrane protein with a long carboxy-terminal collagenous domain that projects into the extracellular region beneath the epidermal hemidesmosome. The collagenous domains have the characteristic tripeptide repeat, Gly-X-Y. A normal proteolytic processing event results in the shedding of the BP180 extracellular domain (LAD1) from the keratinocyte cell surface. The biologic relevance of this process is not yet known. The interactions of BP180 with other constituents of the anchoring complex have been extensively studied and underscore the importance of BP180 in the assembly and functioning of this cell-matrix adhesion structure. In addition to its role in maintaining the integrity of the dermal-epidermal junction, there is evidence that BP180 is involved in transmembrane signal transduction and in the regulation of keratinocyte differentiation. BP180 mutations are responsible for certain forms of JEB and a rare subform of epidermolysis bullosa simplex. In addition, 5 acquired blistering disorders (i.e. BP, HG, CP, LAD and LPP) are associated with an autoimmune response to BP180. In vivo and in vitro disease model systems have clearly established the pathogenic relevance of autoantibodies directed against specific sites on the BP180 extracellular domain. Molecular and cellular analyses of the autoimmune response in BP and HG have been unable to distinguish these 2 diseases, supporting the notion that HG can be considered a pregnancy-associated form of BP. In contrast, the anti-BP180 immune response of the other 3 disease--CP, LAD, and LPP--can be immunologically distinguished from BP and HG. The distinctions lie within the isotype and subclass of the autoantibodies, as well as in differences in their fine specificities or complement-fixing properties, or both. These differences are thought to account for the heterogeneous phenotypes observed in this family of autoimmune diseases.
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December 2003

Identification of a potential effector function for IgE autoantibodies in the organ-specific autoimmune disease bullous pemphigoid.

J Invest Dermatol 2003 May;120(5):784-8

Department of Dermatology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA.

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune skin disease characterized by autoantibodies against the hemidesmosomal protein BP180. In addition to IgG autoantibodies, IgE class autoantibodies have been reported in BP patients. Because animal models utilizing only IgG antibodies do not totally replicate human BP, we examined the specificity and potential relevance of IgE autoantibodies in this disease. Thirty BP patients participated in these studies. Serum IgE was measured and the IgE specificity was determined by immunoblotting. Double labeling Immunofluorescence was performed using combinations of specific antibodies to human mast cell tryptase, IgE and BP180. BP180-stimulated histamine release was measured from basophils of untreated BP patients (n=9), BP patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy (n=9) and controls (n=16). Elevated IgE levels were found In 70% of untreated BP patients. IgE autoantibodies directed against BP180 were detected in 86% of untreated patients and in all but one of these patients the IgE reacted with the NC16A domain of BP180. IgE-coated mast cells were detected in perilesional skin of the BP patients. Moreover, BP180 peptides were detected on these mast cells. BP180-stimulated histamine release was significantly higher in basophils obtained from untreated BP patients compared with control basophils (p=0.006) or from treated BP patients (p=0.01). These findings support the hypothesis that IgE autoantibodies are involved in the pathogenesis of BP. IgE and IgG BP autoantibodies share the same antigenic specificity. Antigen-specific degranulation of basophils and/or mast cells from BP patients suggests a mechanism by which IgE may contribute to lesion development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2003.12146.xDOI Listing
May 2003
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