Publications by authors named "Françoise Lallemand"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Progenitor cell mobilizing treatments prevent experimental transplant arteriosclerosis.

J Surg Res 2012 Aug 22;176(2):657-65. Epub 2011 Dec 22.

Inserm U644, Institute for Biomedical Research, Rouen University, Rouen, France.

Objective: Vascular rejection after organ transplantation is characterized by an arterial occlusive lesion, resulting from intimal proliferation occurring in response to arterial wall immune aggression. Our hypothesis is that an early endothelial repair may prevent vascular graft rejection. The aim of the current study was to compare different pharmacologic progenitor cell mobilizing treatments for their protective effects against vascular rejection.

Methods And Results: Aortic transplants were made from balb/c donor to C57Bl/6 recipient mice. Three different mobilizing pharmacologic agents were used: low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF), simvastatin, and AMD3100. The circulating levels of progenitor cells were found to be increased by all three treatments, as determined by flow cytometry. For each treatment, the design was: treated allografts, nontreated allografts, treated isografts, and nontreated isografts. After 21 d, morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. We found that the three treatments significantly reduced intimal proliferation, compared with nontreated allografts. This was associated with intimal re-endothelialization of the grafts. Further, in chimeric mice that had previously received GFP-transgenic bone marrow transplantation, GFP-positive cells were found in the vascular allograft intima, indicating that re-endothelialization was, at least partly, due to the recruitment of bone marrow-derived, presumably endothelial progenitor circulating cells.

Conclusions: In this aortic allograft model, three different mobilizing treatments were found to partially prevent vascular transplant rejection. Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells mobilized by the three treatments may play a direct role in the endothelial repair process and in the suppression of intimal proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2011.11.1014DOI Listing
August 2012

Characterization and clinical evaluation of CD10+ stroma cells in the breast cancer microenvironment.

Clin Cancer Res 2012 Feb 10;18(4):1004-14. Epub 2012 Jan 10.

Breast Cancer Translational Research Laboratory JC Heuson, Institut Jules Bordet, 125 Bld de Waterloo, Brussels 1000, Belgium.

Purpose: There is growing evidence that interaction between stromal and tumor cells is pivotal in breast cancer progression and response to therapy. Based on earlier research suggesting that during breast cancer progression, striking changes occur in CD10(+) stromal cells, we aimed to better characterize this cell population and its clinical relevance.

Experimental Design: We developed a CD10(+) stroma gene expression signature (using HG U133 Plus 2.0) on the basis of the comparison of CD10 cells isolated from tumoral (n = 28) and normal (n = 3) breast tissue. We further characterized the CD10(+) cells by coculture experiments of representative breast cancer cell lines with the different CD10(+) stromal cell types (fibroblasts, myoepithelial, and mesenchymal stem cells). We then evaluated its clinical relevance in terms of in situ to invasive progression, invasive breast cancer prognosis, and prediction of efficacy of chemotherapy using publicly available data sets.

Results: This 12-gene CD10(+) stroma signature includes, among others, genes involved in matrix remodeling (MMP11, MMP13, and COL10A1) and genes related to osteoblast differentiation (periostin). The coculture experiments showed that all 3 CD10(+) cell types contribute to the CD10(+) stroma signature, although mesenchymal stem cells have the highest CD10(+) stroma signature score. Of interest, this signature showed an important role in differentiating in situ from invasive breast cancer, in prognosis of the HER2(+) subpopulation of breast cancer only, and potentially in nonresponse to chemotherapy for those patients.

Conclusions: Our results highlight the importance of CD10(+) cells in breast cancer prognosis and efficacy of chemotherapy, particularly within the HER2(+) breast cancer disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-0383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4446057PMC
February 2012

Heart rate reduction induced by the if current inhibitor ivabradine improves diastolic function and attenuates cardiac tissue hypoxia.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2012 Mar;59(3):260-7

INSERM U644, Institut Hospitalier Recherche BioMedicale Normandie, IFRMP n°23, UFR de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Rouen, France.

Aims: Enhanced heart rate (HR) is a compensatory mechanism in chronic heart failure (CHF), preserving cardiac output, but at the cost of increased left ventricular (LV) oxygen consumption and impaired diastolic function. The HR reduction (HRR) induced by the If current inhibitor ivabradine prevents LV systolic dysfunction in CHF, but whether HRR improves LV diastolic function is unknown.

Methods: LV diastolic function and remodeling were assessed in rats with CHF after coronary ligation after long-term (90 days, starting 7 days after ligation) and delayed short-term (4 days, starting 93 days after ligation) ivabradine treatment (10 mg·kg·d).

Results: Long- and short-term HRR reduced LV end-diastolic pressure, LV relaxation, and LV end-diastolic pressure-volume relation. Simultaneously, LV hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression was reduced. Long-term and, to a more marked extent, short-term HRR increased endothelial cell proliferation, associated after long-term HRR with the prevention of CHF-related LV capillary rarefaction. Long-term and, to a lesser extent, short-term HRR increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, associated after long-term HRR with improved nitric oxide-dependent coronary vasodilatation.

Conclusions: Long-term HRR induced by ivabradine improves diastolic LV function probably involving attenuated hypoxia, reduced remodeling, and/or preserved nitric oxide bioavailability, resulting from processes triggered early after HRR initiation: angiogenesis and/or preservation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0b013e31823e5e01DOI Listing
March 2012

DNA methylation profiling reveals a predominant immune component in breast cancers.

EMBO Mol Med 2011 Dec 16;3(12):726-41. Epub 2011 Nov 16.

Laboratory of Cancer Epigenetics, Faculty of Medicine, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Breast cancer is a molecularly, biologically and clinically heterogeneous group of disorders. Understanding this diversity is essential to improving diagnosis and optimizing treatment. Both genetic and acquired epigenetic abnormalities participate in cancer, but the involvement of the epigenome in breast cancer and its contribution to the complexity of the disease are still poorly understood. By means of DNA methylation profiling of 248 breast tissues, we have highlighted the existence of previously unrecognized breast cancer groups that go beyond the currently known 'expression subtypes'. Interestingly, we showed that DNA methylation profiling can reflect the cell type composition of the tumour microenvironment, and in particular a T lymphocyte infiltration of the tumours. Further, we highlighted a set of immune genes having high prognostic value in specific tumour categories. The immune component uncovered here by DNA methylation profiles provides a new perspective for the importance of the microenvironment in breast cancer, holding implications for better management of breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/emmm.201100801DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3377115PMC
December 2011

Arteriogenic therapy by intramyocardial sustained delivery of a novel growth factor combination prevents chronic heart failure.

Circulation 2011 Aug 8;124(9):1059-69. Epub 2011 Aug 8.

Inserm U644, Institute for Biomedical Research, Rouen University, 22 Blvd Gambetta, 76183 Rouen, France.

Background: Therapeutic angiogenesis is a promising approach for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure. We aimed to improve proangiogenic therapies by identifying novel arteriogenic growth factor combinations, developing injectable delivery systems for spatiotemporally controlled growth factor release, and evaluating functional consequences of targeted intramyocardial growth factor delivery in chronic heart failure.

Methods And Results: First, we observed that fibroblast growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor synergistically stimulate vascular cell migration and proliferation in vitro. Using 2 in vivo angiogenesis assays (n=5 mice per group), we found that the growth factor combination results in a more potent and durable angiogenic response than either growth factor used alone. Furthermore, we determined that the molecular mechanisms involve potentiation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways, as well as upregulation of angiogenic growth factor receptors. Next, we developed crosslinked albumin-alginate microcapsules that sequentially release fibroblast growth factor-2 and hepatocyte growth factor. Finally, in a rat model of chronic heart failure induced by coronary ligation (n=14 to 15 rats per group), we found that intramyocardial slow release of fibroblast growth factor-2 with hepatocyte growth factor potently stimulates angiogenesis and arteriogenesis and prevents cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, as determined by immunohistochemistry, leading to improved cardiac perfusion after 3 months, as shown by magnetic resonance imaging. These multiple beneficial effects resulted in reduced adverse cardiac remodeling and improved left ventricular function, as revealed by echocardiography.

Conclusion: Our data showing the selective advantage of using fibroblast growth factor-2 together with hepatocyte growth factor suggest that this growth factor combination may constitute an efficient novel treatment for chronic heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.010264DOI Listing
August 2011

Improvement of left ventricular diastolic function induced by β-blockade: a comparison between nebivolol and metoprolol.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2011 Aug 24;51(2):168-76. Epub 2011 May 24.

INSERM U644, Institut Fédératif de Recherches Multidisciplinaires sur les Peptides n°23 Institut de Recherche et d'Innovation Biomédicale de Haute Normandie, UFR de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Rouen, France.

Objectives: Enhanced adrenergic drive is involved in the development of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction observed in metabolic syndrome (MS). Thus, β-blockers might improve LV dysfunction observed in MS, but whether this occurs is unknown.

Methods: We assessed in Zucker fa/fa rats the effects of short- (5 days) and long-term (90 days) metoprolol ('pure' β-blockade; 80 mg/kg/day) or nebivolol (β-blocker with vasodilating properties; 5mg/kg/day) treatment on LV hemodynamics and remodeling, as well as the long-term effects on coronary and peripheral endothelial dysfunction.

Results: At identical degree of β(1)-receptor blockade, metoprolol and nebivolol decreased heart rate to the same extent and preserved cardiac output via increased stroke volume. None of the β-blockers, either after long- or short-term administration, modified LV end-systolic pressure-volume relation. Both β-blockers reduced, after long-term administration, LV end-diastolic pressure, Tau and end-diastolic pressure-volume relation, and this was associated with reduced LV collagen density, but not heart weight. Similar hemodynamic effects were also observed after short-term nebivolol, but not short-term metoprolol. These short-term effects of nebivolol were abolished by NO synthase inhibition. At the vascular level, nebivolol, and to a lesser extend metoprolol, improved NO dependent coronary vasorelaxation, which was abolished by NO synthase inhibition.

Conclusions: In a model of MS, the β-blockers metoprolol and nebivolol improve to the same extent LV hemodynamics, remodeling and diastolic function, but nebivolol prevent more markedly endothelium dependent vasorelaxation involving a more marked enhancement of NO bio-availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2011.05.012DOI Listing
August 2011

In vitro and ex vivo evaluation of smart infra-red fluorescent caspase-3 probes for molecular imaging of cardiovascular apoptosis.

Int J Mol Imaging 2011 5;2011:413290. Epub 2011 May 5.

Inserm U644 and Rouen University Hospital, Institute for Biomedical Research and IRFMP23, University of Rouen, 76183 Rouen, France.

Purpose. The aim of this paper is to develop new optical bioprobes for the imaging of apoptosis. Procedure. We developed quenched near-infrared probes which become fluorescent upon cleavage by caspase-3, the key regulatory enzyme of apoptosis. Results. Probes were shown to be selectively cleaved by recombinant caspase-3. Apoptosis of cultured endothelial cells was associated with an increased fluorescent signal for the cleaved probes, which colocalized with caspase-3 and was reduced by the addition of a caspase-3 inhibitor. Flow cytometry demonstrated a similar profile between the cleaved probes and annexin V. Ex vivo experiments showed that sections of hearts obtained from mice treated with the proapoptotic drug doxorubicin displayed an increase in the fluorescent signal for the cleaved probes, which was reduced by a caspase-3 inhibitor. Conclusion. We demonstrated the capacity of these novel probes to detect apoptosis by optical imaging in vitro and ex vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/413290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3099191PMC
July 2011

Multifactorial approach to predicting resistance to anthracyclines.

J Clin Oncol 2011 Apr 21;29(12):1578-86. Epub 2011 Mar 21.

Breast Cancer Translational Research Laboratory JC Heuson, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Institut Jules Bordet, 125 Bld de Waterloo, 1000 Brussels, Belgium.

Purpose: Validated biomarkers predictive of response/resistance to anthracyclines in breast cancer are currently lacking. The neoadjuvant Trial of Principle (TOP) study, in which patients with estrogen receptor (ER) -negative tumors were treated with anthracycline (epirubicin) monotherapy, was specifically designed to evaluate the predictive value of topoisomerase II-α (TOP2A) and develop a gene expression signature to identify those patients who do not benefit from anthracyclines.

Patients And Methods: The TOP trial included 149 patients, 139 of whom were evaluable for response prediction analyses. The primary end point was pathologic complete response (pCR). TOP2A and gene expression profiles were evaluated using pre-epirubicin biopsies. Gene expression data from ER-negative samples of the EORTC (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer) 10994/BIG (Breast International Group) 00-01 and MDACC (MD Anderson Cancer Center) 2003-0321 neoadjuvant trials were used for validation purposes.

Results: A pCR was obtained in 14% of the evaluable patients in the TOP trial. TOP2A amplification, but not protein overexpression, was significantly associated with pCR (P ≤ .001 v P ≤ .33). We developed an anthracycline-based score (A-Score) combining three signatures: a TOP2A gene signature and two previously published signatures related to tumor invasion and immune response. The A-Score was characterized by a high negative predictive value ([NPV]; NPV, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.00) overall and in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -negative and HER2-positive subpopulations. Its performance was independently confirmed in the anthracycline-based arms of the two validation trials (BIG 00-01: NPV, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.94 and MDACC 2003-0321: NPV, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.00).

Conclusion: Given its high NPV, the A-Score could become, if further validated, a useful clinical tool to identify those patients who do not benefit from anthracyclines and could therefore be spared the non-negligible adverse effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2010.31.2231DOI Listing
April 2011

Reduced cardiac remodelling and prevention of glutathione deficiency after omega-3 supplementation in chronic heart failure.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2011 Jun;25(3):323-32

INSERM U644, Institut Fédératif de Recherches Multidisciplinaires sur les Peptides n°23, Rouen Institut for Biomedical Research and Inovation, UFR de Médecine et de Pharmacie, 22 Boulevard Gambetta, 76183 Rouen, France.

n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3) supplementation is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality and post-infarction death. However, the impact of omega-3 supplementation in congestive heart failure (CHF) is still unknown. This study assesses the effects of omega-3 supplementation on left ventricular (LV) function and remodelling. We assessed, in rats with CHF induced by left coronary ligation, the effects of a 1-week and a 12-week supplementation with omega-3 (450 mg/kg per day) on LV hemodynamics, function and structure. Chronic omega-3 reduces total peripheral resistance due to an increase in cardiac output without modification of arterial pressure. Only chronic omega-3 reduces LV end-diastolic pressure and LV relaxation constant. Moreover, chronic omega-3 decreases LV systolic and diastolic diameters, LV weight and collagen density. Acute and chronic omega-3 increase LV γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase and oppose glutathione deficiency resulting in a reduction of myocardial oxidized glutathione. In experimental CHF, long-term omega-3 supplementation improves LV hemodynamics and function and prevents LV remodelling and glutathione deficiency. The latter might be one of the mechanisms involved, but whether other mechanism, independent of myocardial redox 'status', such as reduced inflammation, are implicated remains to be confirmed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-8206.2010.00839.xDOI Listing
June 2011

PIK3CA mutations associated with gene signature of low mTORC1 signaling and better outcomes in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010 Jun 17;107(22):10208-13. Epub 2010 May 17.

Department of Research, Molecular Oncology Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002, Australia.

PIK3CA mutations are reported to be present in approximately 25% of breast cancer (BC), particularly the estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and HER2-overexpressing (HER2+) subtypes, making them one of the most common genetic aberrations in BC. In experimental models, these mutations have been shown to activate AKT and induce oncogenic transformation, and hence these lesions have been hypothesized to render tumors highly sensitive to therapeutic PI3K/mTOR inhibition. By analyzing gene expression and protein data from nearly 1,800 human BCs, we report that a PIK3CA mutation-associated gene signature (PIK3CA-GS) derived from exon 20 (kinase domain) mutations was able to predict PIK3CA mutation status in two independent datasets, strongly suggesting a characteristic set of gene expression-induced changes. However, in ER+/HER2- BC despite pathway activation, PIK3CA mutations were associated with a phenotype of relatively low mTORC1 signaling and a good prognosis with tamoxifen monotherapy. The relationship between clinical outcome and the PIK3CA-GS was also assessed. Although the PIK3CA-GS was not associated with prognosis in ER- and HER2+ BC, it could identify better clinical outcomes in ER+/HER2- disease. In ER+ BC cell lines, PIK3CA mutations were also associated with sensitivity to tamoxifen. These findings could have important implications for the treatment of PIK3CA-mutant BCs and the development of PI3K/mTOR inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0907011107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2890442PMC
June 2010

Syngeneic bone marrow cell therapy prevents intimal proliferation in allogeneic vascular transplantation.

J Surg Res 2011 Jun 4;168(1):143-8. Epub 2009 Nov 4.

Nephrology Department, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France.

Background: Transplant arteriosclerosis is characterized by intraluminal obstructive proliferation occurring in response to immune-mediated arterial wall injury. Cell therapy with vascular progenitor cells have been suggested to repair intimal lesions following endothelial injury. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of autologous bone marrow cell direct transfer and of Fucan-mobilization bone marrow-derived progenitor cells on intimal thickening in vascular grafts.

Methods: Aortic allografts were performed in Brown Norway (BN) and Lewis (LEW) rats. Cell therapy was performed by injection of two doses of 10 million LEW bone marrow mononuclear cells to recipient LEW following aortic grafting. Fucan, a low molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide (LMWF) was used to mobilize bone marrow-derived progenitor cells. Five groups of 10 rats included: untreated isografts (BN to BN), untreated allografts, and three allografted groups, respectively, treated by fucan therapy, cell therapy, or cell and fucan therapy. Aorta were studied by morphometric analysis at 30 d.

Results: In the absence of treatment, intimal thickening was greater in allograft than in isograft groups (299±50 versus 3.5±1.7 μm, P<0.001). Cell therapy alone, fucan therapy alone, and the combined treatment were shown to prevent intimal thickening in allografts (5.1±1.7, 6.1±2.3, 4.1±2.5, versus 299±50 μm respectively, P<0.001). In the three treated groups, the intimal lining was a single layer of endothelial cells expressing CD34 positive, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) positive, and Ox3 specific-recipient monoclonal antibody positive.

Conclusion: These results provide the proof of concept of recipient syngenic bone-marrow cell therapy for the prevention of chronic vasculopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2009.10.018DOI Listing
June 2011

The Gene expression Grade Index: a potential predictor of relapse for endocrine-treated breast cancer patients in the BIG 1-98 trial.

BMC Med Genomics 2009 Jul 2;2:40. Epub 2009 Jul 2.

Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: We have previously shown that the Gene expression Grade Index (GGI) was able to identify two subtypes of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors that were associated with statistically distinct clinical outcomes in both untreated and tamoxifen-treated patients. Here, we aim to investigate the ability of the GGI to predict relapses in postmenopausal women who were treated with tamoxifen (T) or letrozole (L) within the BIG 1-98 trial.

Methods: We generated gene expression profiles (Affymetrix) and computed the GGI for a matched, case-control sample of patients enrolled in the BIG 1-98 trial from the two hospitals where frozen samples were available. All relapses (cases) were identified from patients randomized to receive monotherapy or from the switching treatment arms for whom relapse occurred before the switch. Each case was randomly matched with four controls based upon nodal status and treatment (T or L). The prognostic value of GGI was assessed as a continuous predictor and divided at the median. Predictive accuracy of GGI was estimated using time-dependent area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC curves.

Results: Frozen samples were analyzable for 48 patients (10 cases and 38 controls). Seven of the 10 cases had been assigned to receive L. Cases and controls were comparable with respect to menopausal and nodal status, local and chemotherapy, and HER2 positivity. Cases were slightly older than controls and had a larger proportion of large, poorly differentiated ER+/PgR- tumors. The GGI was significantly and linearly related to risk of relapse: each 10-unit increase in GGI resulted in an increase of approximately 11% in the hazard rate (p = 0.02). Within the subgroups of patients with node-positive disease or who were treated with L, the hazard of relapse was significantly greater for patients with GGI at or above the median. AUC reached a maximum of 78% at 27 months.

Conclusion: This analysis supports the GGI as a good predictor of relapse for ER-positive patients, even among patients who receive L. Validation of these results, in a larger series from BIG 1-98, is planned using the simplified GGI represented by a smaller set of genes and tested by qRT-PCR on paraffin-embedded tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1755-8794-2-40DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2713270PMC
July 2009

Gene expression profiling identifies activated growth factor signaling in poor prognosis (Luminal-B) estrogen receptor positive breast cancer.

BMC Med Genomics 2009 Jun 24;2:37. Epub 2009 Jun 24.

Department of Research, Molecular Oncology Lab, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Within estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (ER+ BC), the expression levels of proliferation-related genes can define two clinically distinct molecular subtypes. When treated with adjuvant tamoxifen, those ER+ BCs that are lowly proliferative have a good prognosis (luminal-A subtype), however the clinical outcome of those that are highly proliferative is poor (luminal-B subtype).

Methods: To investigate the biological basis for these observations, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed using microarray data from 246 ER+ BC samples from women treated with adjuvant tamoxifen monotherapy. To create an in vitro model of growth factor (GF) signaling activation, MCF-7 cells were treated with heregulin (HRG), an HER3 ligand.

Results: We found that a gene set linked to GF signaling was significantly enriched in the luminal-B tumors, despite only 10% of samples over-expressing HER2 by immunohistochemistry. To determine the biological significance of this observation, MCF-7 cells were treated with HRG. These cells displayed phosphorylation of HER2/3 and downstream ERK and S6. Treatment with HRG overcame tamoxifen-induced cell cycle arrest with higher S-phase fraction and increased anchorage independent colony formation. Gene expression profiles of MCF-7 cells treated with HRG confirmed enrichment of the GF signaling gene set and a similar proliferative signature observed in human ER+ BCs resistant to tamoxifen.

Conclusion: These data demonstrate that activation of GF signaling pathways, independent of HER2 over-expression, could be contributing to the poor prognosis of the luminal-B ER+ BC subtype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1755-8794-2-37DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2706265PMC
June 2009

Role of endogenous endothelin in endothelial dysfunction in murine model of systemic sclerosis: tight skin mice 1.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2008 Dec;22(6):649-55

Inserm U644 & Rouen University Hospital, Institute for Biomedical Research and IFRMP 23, University of Rouen, Rouen, France.

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic inflammatory disorder, resulting in severe vascular dysfunction. The endothelin (ET) system has vasoconstrictor and profibrotic properties and has been shown to be activated in SSc. ET antagonists are currently used in SSc-related pulmonary arterial hypertension, but the endothelial impact of ET antagonists remains less known in SSc. We thus assessed the effects of the dual ET(A)-ET(B) antagonist, bosentan, on endothelial dysfunction in a murine model of SSc, the heterozygous tight-skin mice 1 (TSK1(+)). Six-week-old TSK1(+) were either untreated or treated for 6 weeks with bosentan (100 mg/kg/day), and compared with controls. Endothelial function was evaluated in isolated mesenteric resistance arteries, using a small vessel myograph. TSK1(+) displayed endothelial dysfunction, as shown by a decreased response of mesenteric arteries to acetylcholine, especially in the presence of L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), corresponding to NO-independent, prostaglandin-mediated relaxation. The NO-independent relaxation was partially restored in bosentan-treated TSK1(+), and this was abolished by a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor. Therefore, the murine model of SSc, TSK1(+) exhibits severe endothelial dysfunction of peripheral resistance arteries. The ET antagonist bosentan prevents endothelial alterations, suggesting a major role of ET in the adverse vascular effects of SSc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-8206.2008.00634.xDOI Listing
December 2008

Predicting prognosis using molecular profiling in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer treated with tamoxifen.

BMC Genomics 2008 May 22;9:239. Epub 2008 May 22.

Functional Genomics Unit, Jules Bordet Institute, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers (BC) are heterogeneous with regard to their clinical behavior and response to therapies. The ER is currently the best predictor of response to the anti-estrogen agent tamoxifen, yet up to 30-40% of ER+BC will relapse despite tamoxifen treatment. New prognostic biomarkers and further biological understanding of tamoxifen resistance are required. We used gene expression profiling to develop an outcome-based predictor using a training set of 255 ER+ BC samples from women treated with adjuvant tamoxifen monotherapy. We used clusters of highly correlated genes to develop our predictor to facilitate both signature stability and biological interpretation. Independent validation was performed using 362 tamoxifen-treated ER+ BC samples obtained from multiple institutions and treated with tamoxifen only in the adjuvant and metastatic settings.

Results: We developed a gene classifier consisting of 181 genes belonging to 13 biological clusters. In the independent set of adjuvantly-treated samples, it was able to define two distinct prognostic groups (HR 2.01 95%CI: 1.29-3.13; p = 0.002). Six of the 13 gene clusters represented pathways involved in cell cycle and proliferation. In 112 metastatic breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen, one of the classifier components suggesting a cellular inflammatory mechanism was significantly predictive of response.

Conclusion: We have developed a gene classifier that can predict clinical outcome in tamoxifen-treated ER+ BC patients. Whilst our study emphasizes the important role of proliferation genes in prognosis, our approach proposes other genes and pathways that may elucidate further mechanisms that influence clinical outcome and prediction of response to tamoxifen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-9-239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2423197PMC
May 2008

Strong time dependence of the 76-gene prognostic signature for node-negative breast cancer patients in the TRANSBIG multicenter independent validation series.

Clin Cancer Res 2007 Jun;13(11):3207-14

Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Purpose: Recently, a 76-gene prognostic signature able to predict distant metastases in lymph node-negative (N(-)) breast cancer patients was reported. The aims of this study conducted by TRANSBIG were to independently validate these results and to compare the outcome with clinical risk assessment.

Experimental Design: Gene expression profiling of frozen samples from 198 N(-) systemically untreated patients was done at the Bordet Institute, blinded to clinical data and independent of Veridex. Genomic risk was defined by Veridex, blinded to clinical data. Survival analyses, done by an independent statistician, were done with the genomic risk and adjusted for the clinical risk, defined by Adjuvant! Online.

Results: The actual 5- and 10-year time to distant metastasis were 98% (88-100%) and 94% (83-98%), respectively, for the good profile group and 76% (68-82%) and 73% (65-79%), respectively, for the poor profile group. The actual 5- and 10-year overall survival were 98% (88-100%) and 87% (73-94%), respectively, for the good profile group and 84% (77-89%) and 72% (63-78%), respectively, for the poor profile group. We observed a strong time dependence of this signature, leading to an adjusted hazard ratio of 13.58 (1.85-99.63) and 8.20 (1.10-60.90) at 5 years and 5.11 (1.57-16.67) and 2.55 (1.07-6.10) at 10 years for time to distant metastasis and overall survival, respectively.

Conclusion: This independent validation confirmed the performance of the 76-gene signature and adds to the growing evidence that gene expression signatures are of clinical relevance, especially for identifying patients at high risk of early distant metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-2765DOI Listing
June 2007

Low molecular weight fucoidan prevents neointimal hyperplasia after aortic allografting.

Transplantation 2007 May;83(9):1234-41

Inserm U644, IFRMP 23, Rouen University Hospital-Charles Nicolle, Rouen, France.

Background: Fucoidan, a new low molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide (LMWF), has previously been shown to mobilize bone marrow-derived progenitors cells via stimulation of stromal derived factor (SDF)-1 release. Mobilized progenitor cells have been suggested to repair intimal lesions after immune-mediated endothelial injury and thus prevent intimal proliferation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LMWF treatment in a rat aortic allograft model of transplant arteriosclerosis (TA).

Methods: Aortic grafts were performed in Brown Norway (BN, donor) and Lewis (Lew, recipient) rats. The recipient rats were treated with LMWF (5 mg/kg/day) and sacrificed at 30 days. To determine the role of SDF-1 in mediating the effects of LMWF, a specific inhibitor of the SDF-1 receptor CXCR4, AMD 3100 (20 microg/kg/day), was used. The grafted segments were evaluated by morphometric (histochemical) analyses.

Results: Untreated aortic allografts exhibited severe intimal proliferation, indicative of TA. In contrast, LMWF treatment significantly prevented allograft intimal proliferation as compared with controls (5.7+/-3 vs. 66.2+/-6 microm, P<0.01) and permitted a normalization of the intima/media ratio (0.1+/-0.1 vs. 1.7+/-0.3, P<0.01). Further, LMWF treatment stimulated allograft reendothelialization, as evidenced by strong intimal endothelial nitric oxide synthase antibody and CD31 signals. Unexpectedly, AMD treatment failed to prevent the protective effect of LMWF on intimal thickening and AMD treatment alone was found to reduced intimal proliferation in allografts.

Conclusions: We found that LMWF treatment reduced intimal thickness and induced the presence of an endothelial cell lining in the vascular graft at 30 days. Our findings may suggest a novel therapeutic strategy in the prevention of TA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.tp.0000261109.97928.9cDOI Listing
May 2007

Definition of clinically distinct molecular subtypes in estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinomas through genomic grade.

J Clin Oncol 2007 Apr;25(10):1239-46

Jules Bordet Institute; Machine Learning Group, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Purpose: A number of microarray studies have reported distinct molecular profiles of breast cancers (BC), such as basal-like, ErbB2-like, and two to three luminal-like subtypes. These were associated with different clinical outcomes. However, although the basal and the ErbB2 subtypes are repeatedly recognized, identification of estrogen receptor (ER) -positive subtypes has been inconsistent. Therefore, refinement of their molecular definition is needed.

Materials And Methods: We have previously reported a gene expression grade index (GGI), which defines histologic grade based on gene expression profiles. Using this algorithm, we assigned ER-positive BC to either high-or low-genomic grade subgroups and compared these with previously reported ER-positive molecular classifications. As further validation, we classified 666 ER-positive samples into subtypes and assessed their clinical outcome.

Results: Two ER-positive molecular subgroups (high and low genomic grade) could be defined using the GGI. Despite tracking a single biologic pathway, these were highly comparable to the previously described luminal A and B classification and significantly correlated to the risk groups produced using the 21-gene recurrence score. The two subtypes were associated with statistically distinct clinical outcome in both systemically untreated and tamoxifen-treated populations.

Conclusion: The use of genomic grade can identify two clinically distinct ER-positive molecular subtypes in a simple and highly reproducible manner across multiple data sets. This study emphasizes the important role of proliferation-related genes in predicting prognosis in ER-positive BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2006.07.1522DOI Listing
April 2007

Antidonor humoral transfer induces transplant arteriosclerosis in aortic and cardiac graft models in rats.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007 Mar;133(3):791-7

Cardiac and Vascular Surgery Department, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France.

Objective: The humoral pathway is suggested as playing a key role in transplant arteriosclerosis. The humoral immunity is demonstrated in the present study to induce direct vascular lesion.

Methods: Ten abdominal aortic grafts were performed on 4 groups of rats: Brown Norway (BN) isografts, BN to Lewis (LEW) allografts, and two BN to nude (RNU) grafted groups with and without any humoral transfer. The humoral sera were obtained by skin grafts performed in BN to LEW combination. Lewis anti-BN alloantisera was transferred in nude recipients through intraperitoneal injections. The aortic wall was histologically studied with morphometric analysis on the 21st day. Two additional BN to RNU aortic graft groups were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on days 3 (10 rats) and 10 (10 rats).

Results: In the absence of the humoral transfer, the BN aortic wall implanted in RNU remained intact. The humoral transfer induced a marked intimal proliferation (63 +/- 4 vs 4 +/- 1.1 microm; P < .001) and an adventitial cell infiltration (5.1 +/- 0.7 vs 2.8 +/- 0.6 x 10(3) c/mm2, P < .001). The medial thickness and the medial cell density were not modified. On day 3, the remaining endothelial cells were covered by immunoglobulin G deposits. On day 10 the endothelial cells disappeared completely and intimal proliferation occurred. In an additional cardiac graft group, transplant coronary arteriopathy was evidenced in 7 of the 9 nude recipients that had undergone the humoral transfer.

Conclusion: The transplant arterial occlusive lesion is demonstrated here (1) to be induced by humoral antidonor immunity and (2) to be linked to an adventitial or perivascular inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2006.11.015DOI Listing
March 2007

NADPH oxidase inhibition prevents cocaine-induced up-regulation of xanthine oxidoreductase and cardiac dysfunction.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2007 Feb 10;42(2):326-32. Epub 2007 Jan 10.

INSERM U644, UFR de Médecine et de Pharmacie, University of Rouen, 22 boulevard Gambetta, F-76183 Rouen, France.

Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of cocaine-induced cardiomyopathy. In the present study, we aimed to determine the enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, namely NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in male Wistar rats treated for 7 days with cocaine (2x7.5 mg/kg/day, ip) or cocaine with a NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin, 50 mg/kg/day, po) or a XOR inhibitor (allopurinol, 50 mg/kg/day, po). Cocaine-induced cardiac dysfunction is associated with an increase in NADPH oxidase and XOR activities (59% and 29%, respectively) and a decrease in catalase activity. Apocynin or allopurinol treatment prevents the cocaine-induced cardiac alteration by restoration of cardiac output, stroke volume and fractional shortening. This is associated with a reduction of the myocardial production of superoxide anions and an enhancement of catalase activity. Surprisingly, apocynin treatment prevents XOR up-regulation supporting the hypothesis that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS play a role in modulating ROS production by XOR. These data suggest that NADPH and xanthine oxidase act synergically to form myocardial ROS and clearly demonstrate that their inhibition may be critical in preventing the initiation and progression of cocaine-induced LV dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2006.11.011DOI Listing
February 2007

Low molecular weight fucan prevents transplant coronaropathy in rat cardiac allograft model.

Transpl Immunol 2006 Jun 5;16(1):14-9. Epub 2006 Apr 5.

Cardiac and Vascular Surgery Departments, Rouen University Hospital, France.

Introduction: Transplant arteriosclerosis is the main cause of long-term failure after cardiac transplantation. Vascular rejection is thought to be due to intimal proliferation occurring in response to arterial wall immune-mediated injury. A low molecular weight fucan (LMWF) compound, a sulfated polysaccharide, has been demonstrated to increase plasma levels of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and consequently to mobilize bone marrow-derived vascular progenitor cells (BMVPC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of LMWF to prevent coronary intimal proliferation in a rat cardiac allograft model.

Methods: Heterotopic abdominal cardiac graftings were performed in Brown Norway (BN) and Lewis (LEW) rats. Animals were divided into 4 groups of 10 rats. Two groups were treated intramuscularly with LMWF (5 mg/kg/day) (one BN to BN isograft group, and one BN to LEW allograft group); and two control groups were LMWF-untreated (one BN to BN isograft group and one BN to LEW allograft group). All animals were treated by cyclosporin (15 mg/kg/day) sub-cutaneously and sacrificed at day 30. The cardiac grafts were assessed by morphometry of structural parameters and by histological and immunohistochemical analyses.

Results: All cardiac isografts were devoid of any coronary and parenchymal lesions. In contrast, the majority of untreated allografts developed coronary intimal proliferation in close association with intimal and adventitial inflammatory CD68(+) cell infiltration. Further, the parenchyma exhibited large areas of actin(+) cells (myofibroblasts) of recipient origin colocalized with the CD68(+) infiltrating cells. Interestingly, all LMWF-treated allografts were well protected against coronary and parenchymal lesions and the coronary arteries exhibited an intimal monolayer of flat cells, which however were CD34 negative.

Conclusion: treatment with LMWF appeared very effective in this rat cardiac allograft model to prevent arterial and parenchymal lesions occurring in response to alloimmune injury. However this protective effect does not appear to depend on mobilization of bone marrow-derived cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trim.2006.03.003DOI Listing
June 2006

Insights into gene expression changes impacting B-cell transformation: cross-species microarray analysis of bovine leukemia virus tax-responsive genes in ovine B cells.

J Virol 2006 Feb;80(4):1922-38

Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Bordet Institute, 121 Blvd. de Waterloo, 1000 Brussels, Belgium.

Large-animal models for leukemia have the potential to aid in the understanding of networks that contribute to oncogenesis. Infection of cattle and sheep with bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a complex retrovirus related to human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is associated with the development of B-cell leukemia. Whereas the natural disease in cattle is characterized by a low tumor incidence, experimental infection of sheep leads to overt leukemia in the majority of infected animals, providing a model for studying the pathogenesis associated with BLV and HTLV-1. Tax(BLV), the major oncoprotein, initiates a cascade of events leading toward malignancy, although the basis of transformation is not fully understood. We have taken a cross-species ovine-to-human microarray approach to identify Tax(BLV)-responsive transcriptional changes in two sets of cultured ovine B cells following retroviral vector-mediated delivery of Tax(BLV). Using cDNA-spotted microarrays comprising 10,336 human genes/expressed sequence tags, we identified a cohort of differentially expressed genes, including genes related to apoptosis, DNA transcription, and repair; proto-oncogenes; cell cycle regulators; transcription factors; small Rho GTPases/GTPase-binding proteins; and previously reported Tax(HTLV-1)-responsive genes. Interestingly, genes known to be associated with human neoplasia, especially B-cell malignancies, were extensively represented. Others were novel or unexpected. The results suggest that Tax(BLV) deregulates a broad network of interrelated pathways rather than a single B-lineage-specific regulatory process. Although cross-species approaches do not permit a comprehensive analysis of gene expression patterns, they can provide initial clues for the functional roles of genes that participate in B-cell transformation and pinpoint molecular targets not identified using other methods in animal models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.80.4.1922-1938.2006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1367148PMC
February 2006

Tissue Doppler imaging detects early asymptomatic myocardial abnormalities in a dog model of Duchenne's cardiomyopathy.

Eur Heart J 2004 Nov;25(21):1934-9

INSERM E0001, Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

Aims: Early diagnosis of Duchenne's dilated cardiomyopathy remains a challenge for conventional echocardiography. We sought to determine whether tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) could detect early alteration in myocardial function in a dog model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, i.e. the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD).

Methods And Results: Myocardial function was assessed by TDI in 20 dogs with normal conventional parameters of systolic function (eight controls and 12 GRMD, 25+/-11 weeks) without knowledge of the genotype. M-mode TDI was recorded from a short-axis view for measurement of endocardial and epicardial velocities and myocardial velocity gradient (MVG) within the posterior wall. Controls and GRMD dogs were comparable regarding left ventricular fractional shortening (37+/-2 vs 42+/-3%, p=ns). Conversely, TDI showed, in all GRMD dogs, a dramatic decrease in systolic MVG (0.8+/-0.1 vs 2.9+/-0.3 s(-1), p<0.0001) and early diastolic MVG (2.3+/-2.2 vs 10.8+/-1.1 s(-1), p<0.0001). This MVG alteration was related to a significant decrease in endocardial velocities in GRMD whereas epicardial velocities were comparable in the two groups.

Conclusion: These results show that TDI is more sensitive than conventional echocardiography in detecting pre-clinical myocardial abnormalities before occurrence of left ventricular dilation and dysfunction. TDI should be part of the screening techniques for the early diagnosis of cardiomyopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ehj.2004.09.007DOI Listing
November 2004

Long-term heart rate reduction induced by the selective I(f) current inhibitor ivabradine improves left ventricular function and intrinsic myocardial structure in congestive heart failure.

Circulation 2004 Apr 23;109(13):1674-9. Epub 2004 Feb 23.

INSERM U644, UFR de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Rouen, France.

Background: Heart rate reduction (HRR) improves left ventricular (LV) filling, increases myocardial O2 supply, and reduces myocardial O2 consumption, which are all beneficial in congestive heart failure (CHF). However, the long-term effects of HRR on cardiac function and remodeling are unknown.

Methods And Results: We assessed, in rats with CHF, the effects of long-term HRR induced by the selective I(f) current inhibitor ivabradine (as food admix for 90 days starting 7 days after coronary artery ligation). To assess intrinsic modifications of LV tissue induced by long-term HRR, all parameters were reassessed 3 days after interruption of treatment. Ivabradine decreased heart rate over the 90-day treatment period (-18% versus untreated at 10 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)), without modifying blood pressure, LV end-diastolic pressure, or dP/dt(max/min). Ivabradine significantly reduced LV end-systolic but not end-diastolic diameter, which resulted in preserved cardiac output due to increased stroke volume. In the Langendorff preparation, ivabradine shifted LV systolic but not end-diastolic pressure-volume relations to the left. Ivabradine decreased LV collagen density and increased LV capillary density without modifying LV weight. Three days after interruption of treatment, the effects of ivabradine on LV geometry, shortening, and stroke volume persisted despite normalization of heart rate.

Conclusions: In rats with CHF, long-term HRR induced by the selective I(f) inhibitor ivabradine improves LV function and increases stroke volume, preserving cardiac output despite the HRR. The improvement of cardiac function is related not only to the HRR per se but also to modifications in the extracellular matrix and/or function of myocytes as a consequence of long-term HRR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000118464.48959.1CDOI Listing
April 2004

Prolonged cardiac dysfunction after withdrawal of chronic cocaine exposure in rats.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2003 Nov;42(5):642-7

INSERM E 9920, IFRMP no. 23, University Medical School, Rouen, France.

Cocaine abuse causes myocardial dysfunction and induces oxidative stress. However, the reversibility of these effects is unknown. We evaluated myocardial function and oxidative stress after cocaine withdrawal, in a rat model of chronic cocaine exposure. Standard echocardiography and Doppler tissue imaging were performed after 4 weeks (W4) of cocaine administration (2 x 7.5 mg/kg/d, i.p.) and 4 weeks after interruption (W8). At these time points, redox state (reduced glutathione GSH, oxidized glutathione GSH, and GSH/GSSG) as well as activities of GSH peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase were determined in the left ventricle (LV). At W4, LV fractional shortening, posterior wall thickening, systolic myocardial ventricular gradient (SMVG), dP/dt(max), and dp/dt(min) were decreased, compared with control values while LV myocardial thickness was increased. At W8, even though dP/dtmax and dp/dt(min) were restored, myocardial function was still impaired as demonstrated by the decrease in posterior wall thickening, and systolic myocardial velocity gradient. At W4, CAT and GPX activities as well as GSH/GSSG ratio were reduced while SOD activity was increased. Antioxidant markers and redox ratio remained altered 4 weeks after the last injection. Thus, these data demonstrate the persistence of LV dysfunction after cocaine withdrawal, which occurs in a context of a deficit in antioxidant defenses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005344-200311000-00010DOI Listing
November 2003