Publications by authors named "François Piumi"

32 Publications

Conserved white-rot enzymatic mechanism for wood decay in the Basidiomycota genus Pycnoporus.

DNA Res 2020 Apr;27(2)

INRAE, UMR1163, Biodiversity and Biotechnology of Fungi, Aix Marseille University, 13009 Marseille, France.

White-rot (WR) fungi are pivotal decomposers of dead organic matter in forest ecosystems and typically use a large array of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes to deconstruct lignocellulose. However, the extent of lignin and cellulose degradation may vary between species and wood type. Here, we combined comparative genomics, transcriptomics and secretome proteomics to identify conserved enzymatic signatures at the onset of wood-decaying activity within the Basidiomycota genus Pycnoporus. We observed a strong conservation in the genome structures and the repertoires of protein-coding genes across the four Pycnoporus species described to date, despite the species having distinct geographic distributions. We further analysed the early response of P. cinnabarinus, P. coccineus and P. sanguineus to diverse (ligno)-cellulosic substrates. We identified a conserved set of enzymes mobilized by the three species for breaking down cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. The co-occurrence in the exo-proteomes of H2O2-producing enzymes with H2O2-consuming enzymes was a common feature of the three species, although each enzymatic partner displayed independent transcriptional regulation. Finally, cellobiose dehydrogenase-coding genes were systematically co-regulated with at least one AA9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase gene, indicative of enzymatic synergy in vivo. This study highlights a conserved core white-rot fungal enzymatic mechanism behind the wood-decaying process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/dnares/dsaa011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7406137PMC
April 2020

Subclinical endometritis in dairy cattle is associated with distinct mRNA expression patterns in blood and endometrium.

PLoS One 2019 2;14(8):e0220244. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

UMR BDR, INRA, ENVA, Université Paris Saclay, Jouy en Josas, France.

Cattle with subclinical endometritis (SCE) are sub-fertile and diagnosing subclinical uterine disease remains a challenge. The hypothesis for this study was that endometrial inflammation is reflected in mRNA expression patterns of peripheral blood leucocytes. Transcriptome profiles were evaluated in healthy cows and in cows with SCE using circulating white blood cells (WBC) and endometrial biopsy samples collected from the same animals at 45-55 days postpartum. Bioinformatic analyses of microarray-based transcriptional data identified gene profiles associated with distinct biological functions in circulating WBC and endometrium. In circulating WBC, SCE promotes a pro-inflammatory environment, whereas functions related to tissue remodeling are also affected in the endometrium. Nineteen differentially expressed genes associated with SCE were common to both circulating WBC and the endometrium. Among these genes, transcript abundance of immune factors C3, C2, LTF, PF4 and TRAPPC13 were up-regulated in SCE cows at 45-55 days postpartum. Moreover, mRNA expression of C3, CXCL8, LTF, TLR2 and TRAPPC13 was temporally regulated during the postpartum period in circulating WBC of healthy cows compared with SCE cows. This observation might indicate an advantageous modulation of the immune system in healthy animals. The transcript abundance of these genes represents a potential source of indicators for postpartum uterine health.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220244PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6677313PMC
February 2020

A multi-scale analysis of bull sperm methylome revealed both species peculiarities and conserved tissue-specific features.

BMC Genomics 2018 May 29;19(1):404. Epub 2018 May 29.

UMR BDR, INRA, ENVA, Université Paris Saclay, 78350, Jouy en Josas, France.

Background: Spermatozoa have a remarkable epigenome in line with their degree of specialization, their unique nature and different requirements for successful fertilization. Accordingly, perturbations in the establishment of DNA methylation patterns during male germ cell differentiation have been associated with infertility in several species. While bull semen is widely used in artificial insemination, the literature describing DNA methylation in bull spermatozoa is still scarce. The purpose of this study was therefore to characterize the bull sperm methylome relative to both bovine somatic cells and the sperm of other mammals through a multiscale analysis.

Results: The quantification of DNA methylation at CCGG sites using luminometric methylation assay (LUMA) highlighted the undermethylation of bull sperm compared to the sperm of rams, stallions, mice, goats and men. Total blood cells displayed a similarly high level of methylation in bulls and rams, suggesting that undermethylation of the bovine genome was specific to sperm. Annotation of CCGG sites in different species revealed no striking bias in the distribution of genome features targeted by LUMA that could explain undermethylation of bull sperm. To map DNA methylation at a genome-wide scale, bull sperm was compared with bovine liver, fibroblasts and monocytes using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA followed by microarray hybridization (MeDIP-chip). These two methods exhibited differences in terms of genome coverage, and consistently, two independent sets of sequences differentially methylated in sperm and somatic cells were identified for RRBS and MeDIP-chip. Remarkably, in the two sets most of the differentially methylated sequences were hypomethylated in sperm. In agreement with previous studies in other species, the sequences that were specifically hypomethylated in bull sperm targeted processes relevant to the germline differentiation program (piRNA metabolism, meiosis, spermatogenesis) and sperm functions (cell adhesion, fertilization), as well as satellites and rDNA repeats.

Conclusions: These results highlight the undermethylation of bull spermatozoa when compared with both bovine somatic cells and the sperm of other mammals, and raise questions regarding the dynamics of DNA methylation in bovine male germline. Whether sperm undermethylation has potential interactions with structural variation in the cattle genome may deserve further attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-018-4764-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5975405PMC
May 2018

Molecular and catalytic properties of fungal extracellular cellobiose dehydrogenase produced in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems.

Microb Cell Fact 2017 Feb 28;16(1):37. Epub 2017 Feb 28.

Department of Food Sciences and Technology, Vienna Institute of Biotechnology, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is an extracellular enzyme produced by lignocellulolytic fungi. cdh gene expression is high in cellulose containing media, but relatively low CDH concentrations are found in the supernatant of fungal cultures due to strong binding to cellulose. Therefore, heterologous expression of CDH in Pichia pastoris was employed in the last 15 years, but the obtained enzymes were over glycosylated and had a reduced specific activity.

Results: We compare the well-established CDH expression host P. pastoris with the less frequently used hosts Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Trichoderma reesei. The study evaluates the produced quantity and protein homogeneity of Corynascus thermophilus CDH in the culture supernatants, the purification, and finally compares the enzymes in regard to cofactor loading, glycosylation, catalytic constants and thermostability.

Conclusions: Whereas E. coli could only express the catalytic dehydrogenase domain of CDH, all eukaryotic hosts could express full length CDH including the cytochrome domain. The CDH produced by T. reesei was most similar to the CDH originally isolated from the fungus C. thermophilus in regard to glycosylation, cofactor loading and catalytic constants. Under the tested experimental conditions the fungal expression hosts produce CDH of superior quality and uniformity compared to P. pastoris.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-017-0653-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5331742PMC
February 2017

Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically important fungal genus Aspergillus.

Authors:
Ronald P de Vries Robert Riley Ad Wiebenga Guillermo Aguilar-Osorio Sotiris Amillis Cristiane Akemi Uchima Gregor Anderluh Mojtaba Asadollahi Marion Askin Kerrie Barry Evy Battaglia Özgür Bayram Tiziano Benocci Susanna A Braus-Stromeyer Camila Caldana David Cánovas Gustavo C Cerqueira Fusheng Chen Wanping Chen Cindy Choi Alicia Clum Renato Augusto Corrêa Dos Santos André Ricardo de Lima Damásio George Diallinas Tamás Emri Erzsébet Fekete Michel Flipphi Susanne Freyberg Antonia Gallo Christos Gournas Rob Habgood Matthieu Hainaut María Laura Harispe Bernard Henrissat Kristiina S Hildén Ryan Hope Abeer Hossain Eugenia Karabika Levente Karaffa Zsolt Karányi Nada Kraševec Alan Kuo Harald Kusch Kurt LaButti Ellen L Lagendijk Alla Lapidus Anthony Levasseur Erika Lindquist Anna Lipzen Antonio F Logrieco Andrew MacCabe Miia R Mäkelä Iran Malavazi Petter Melin Vera Meyer Natalia Mielnichuk Márton Miskei Ákos P Molnár Giuseppina Mulé Chew Yee Ngan Margarita Orejas Erzsébet Orosz Jean Paul Ouedraogo Karin M Overkamp Hee-Soo Park Giancarlo Perrone Francois Piumi Peter J Punt Arthur F J Ram Ana Ramón Stefan Rauscher Eric Record Diego Mauricio Riaño-Pachón Vincent Robert Julian Röhrig Roberto Ruller Asaf Salamov Nadhira S Salih Rob A Samson Erzsébet Sándor Manuel Sanguinetti Tabea Schütze Kristina Sepčić Ekaterina Shelest Gavin Sherlock Vicky Sophianopoulou Fabio M Squina Hui Sun Antonia Susca Richard B Todd Adrian Tsang Shiela E Unkles Nathalie van de Wiele Diana van Rossen-Uffink Juliana Velasco de Castro Oliveira Tammi C Vesth Jaap Visser Jae-Hyuk Yu Miaomiao Zhou Mikael R Andersen David B Archer Scott E Baker Isabelle Benoit Axel A Brakhage Gerhard H Braus Reinhard Fischer Jens C Frisvad Gustavo H Goldman Jos Houbraken Berl Oakley István Pócsi Claudio Scazzocchio Bernhard Seiboth Patricia A vanKuyk Jennifer Wortman Paul S Dyer Igor V Grigoriev

Genome Biol 2017 02 14;18(1):28. Epub 2017 Feb 14.

US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, 2800 Mitchell Drive, Walnut Creek, CA, 94598, USA.

Background: The fungal genus Aspergillus is of critical importance to humankind. Species include those with industrial applications, important pathogens of humans, animals and crops, a source of potent carcinogenic contaminants of food, and an important genetic model. The genome sequences of eight aspergilli have already been explored to investigate aspects of fungal biology, raising questions about evolution and specialization within this genus.

Results: We have generated genome sequences for ten novel, highly diverse Aspergillus species and compared these in detail to sister and more distant genera. Comparative studies of key aspects of fungal biology, including primary and secondary metabolism, stress response, biomass degradation, and signal transduction, revealed both conservation and diversity among the species. Observed genomic differences were validated with experimental studies. This revealed several highlights, such as the potential for sex in asexual species, organic acid production genes being a key feature of black aspergilli, alternative approaches for degrading plant biomass, and indications for the genetic basis of stress response. A genome-wide phylogenetic analysis demonstrated in detail the relationship of the newly genome sequenced species with other aspergilli.

Conclusions: Many aspects of biological differences between fungal species cannot be explained by current knowledge obtained from genome sequences. The comparative genomics and experimental study, presented here, allows for the first time a genus-wide view of the biological diversity of the aspergilli and in many, but not all, cases linked genome differences to phenotype. Insights gained could be exploited for biotechnological and medical applications of fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-017-1151-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5307856PMC
February 2017

Heterologous Production and Characterization of Two Glyoxal Oxidases from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2016 08 29;82(16):4867-75. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

Aix Marseille Université, INRA, BBF (Biodiversité et Biotechnologie Fongiques), Marseille, France

Unlabelled: The genome of the white rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus includes a large number of genes encoding enzymes implicated in lignin degradation. Among these, three genes are predicted to encode glyoxal oxidase, an enzyme previously isolated from Phanerochaete chrysosporium The glyoxal oxidase of P. chrysosporium is physiologically coupled to lignin-oxidizing peroxidases via generation of extracellular H2O2 and utilizes an array of aldehydes and α-hydroxycarbonyls as the substrates. Two of the predicted glyoxal oxidases of P. cinnabarinus, GLOX1 (PciGLOX1) and GLOX2 (PciGLOX2), were heterologously produced in Aspergillus niger strain D15#26 (pyrG negative) and purified using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, yielding 59 and 5 mg of protein for PciGLOX1 and PciGLOX2, respectively. Both proteins were approximately 60 kDa in size and N-glycosylated. The optimum temperature for the activity of these enzymes was 50°C, and the optimum pH was 6. The enzymes retained most of their activity after incubation at 50°C for 4 h. The highest relative activity and the highest catalytic efficiency of both enzymes occurred with glyoxylic acid as the substrate. The two P. cinnabarinus enzymes generally exhibited similar substrate preferences, but PciGLOX2 showed a broader substrate specificity and was significantly more active on 3-phenylpropionaldehyde.

Importance: This study addresses the poorly understood role of how fungal peroxidases obtain an in situ supply of hydrogen peroxide to enable them to oxidize a variety of organic and inorganic compounds. This cooperative activity is intrinsic in the living organism to control the amount of toxic H2O2 in its environment, thus providing a feed-on-demand scenario, and can be used biotechnologically to supply a cheap source of peroxide for the peroxidase reaction. The secretion of multiple glyoxal oxidases by filamentous fungi as part of a lignocellulolytic mechanism suggests a controlled system, especially as these enzymes utilize fungal metabolites as the substrates. Two glyoxal oxidases have been isolated and characterized to date, and the differentiation of the substrate specificity of the two enzymes produced by Pycnoporus cinnabarinus illustrates the alternative mechanisms existing in a single fungus, together with the utilization of these enzymes to prepare platform chemicals for industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00304-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4968546PMC
August 2016

Activities of Secreted Aryl Alcohol Quinone Oxidoreductases from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus Provide Insights into Fungal Degradation of Plant Biomass.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2016 Apr 4;82(8):2411-2423. Epub 2016 Apr 4.

INRA, UMR 1163 Biotechnologie des Champignons Filamenteux, Polytech Marseille, Marseille, France.

Auxiliary activities family 3 subfamily 2 (AA3_2) from the CAZy database comprises various functions related to ligninolytic enzymes, such as fungal aryl alcohol oxidases (AAO) and glucose oxidases, both of which are flavoenzymes. The recent study of the Pycnoporus cinnabarinus CIRM BRFM 137 genome combined with its secretome revealed that four AA3_2 enzymes are secreted during biomass degradation. One of these AA3_2 enzymes, scf184803.g17, has recently been produced heterologously in Aspergillus niger Based on the enzyme's activity and specificity, it was assigned to the glucose dehydrogenases (PcinnabarinusGDH [PcGDH]). Here, we analyze the distribution of the other three AA3_2 enzymes (scf185002.g8, scf184611.g7, and scf184746.g13) to assess their putative functions. These proteins showed the highest homology with aryl alcohol oxidase from Pleurotus eryngii Biochemical characterization demonstrated that they were also flavoenzymes harboring flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a cofactor and able to oxidize a wide variety of phenolic and nonphenolic aryl alcohols and one aliphatic polyunsaturated primary alcohol. Though presenting homology with fungal AAOs, these enzymes exhibited greater efficiency in reducing electron acceptors (quinones and one artificial acceptor) than molecular oxygen and so were defined as aryl-alcohol:quinone oxidoreductases (AAQOs) with two enzymes possessing residual oxidase activity (PcAAQO2 and PcAAQO3). Structural comparison of PcAAQO homology models with P. eryngii AAO demonstrated a wider substrate access channel connecting the active-site cavity to the solvent, explaining the absence of activity with molecular oxygen. Finally, the ability of PcAAQOs to reduce radical intermediates generated by laccase from P. cinnabarinus was demonstrated, shedding light on the ligninolytic system of this fungus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03761-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4959486PMC
April 2016

Enhanced degradation of softwood versus hardwood by the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus coccineus.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2015 18;8:216. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

Aix Marseille Université, UMR1163 Biodiversité et Biotechnologie Fongiques, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille, France ; INRA, UMR1163 Biodiversité et Biotechnologie Fongiques, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille, France ; Polytech'Marseille, UMR1163 Biodiversité et Biotechnologie Fongiques, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille, France.

Background: White-rot basidiomycete fungi are potent degraders of plant biomass, with the ability to mineralize all lignocellulose components. Recent comparative genomics studies showed that these fungi use a wide diversity of enzymes for wood degradation. Deeper functional analyses are however necessary to understand the enzymatic mechanisms leading to lignocellulose breakdown. The Polyporale fungus Pycnoporus coccineus BRFM310 grows well on both coniferous and deciduous wood. In the present study, we analyzed the early response of the fungus to softwood (pine) and hardwood (aspen) feedstocks and tested the effect of the secreted enzymes on lignocellulose deconstruction.

Results: Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses revealed that P. coccineus grown separately on pine and aspen displayed similar sets of transcripts and enzymes implicated in lignin and polysaccharide degradation. In particular, the expression of lignin-targeting oxidoreductases, such as manganese peroxidases, increased upon cultivation on both woods. The sets of enzymes secreted during growth on both pine and aspen were more efficient in saccharide release from pine than from aspen, and characterization of the residual solids revealed polysaccharide conversion on both pine and aspen fiber surfaces.

Conclusion: The combined analysis of soluble sugars and solid residues showed the suitability of P. coccineus secreted enzymes for softwood degradation. Analyses of solubilized products and residual surface chemistries of enzyme-treated wood samples pointed to differences in fiber penetration by different P. coccineus secretomes. Accordingly, beyond the variety of CAZymes identified in P. coccineus genome, transcriptome and secretome, we discuss several parameters such as the abundance of manganese peroxidases and the potential role of cytochrome P450s and pectin degradation on the efficacy of fungi for softwood conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-015-0407-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4683735PMC
December 2015

A novel glucose dehydrogenase from the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus: production in Aspergillus niger and physicochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2014 Dec 26;98(24):10105-18. Epub 2014 Jun 26.

INRA, UMR 1163 Biotechnologie des Champignons Filamenteux, Polytech Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13228, Marseille cedex 09, France,

Data on glucose dehydrogenases (GDHs) are scarce and availability of these enzymes for application purposes is limited. This paper describes a new GDH from the fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus CIRM BRFM 137 that is the first reported GDH from a white-rot fungus belonging to the Basidiomycota. The enzyme was recombinantly produced in Aspergillus niger, a well-known fungal host producing an array of homologous or heterologous enzymes for industrial applications. The full-length gene that encodes GDH from P. cinnabarinus (PcGDH) consists of 2,425 bp and codes for a deduced protein of 620 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 62.5 kDa. The corresponding complementary DNA was cloned and placed under the control of the strong and constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. The signal peptide of the glucoamylase prepro sequence of A. niger was used to target PcGDH secretion into the culture medium, achieving a yield of 640 mg L(-1), which is tenfold higher than any other reported value. The recombinant PcGDH was purified twofold to homogeneity in a one-step procedure with a 41 % recovery using a Ni Sepharose column. The identity of the recombinant protein was further confirmed by immunodetection using western blot analysis and N-terminal sequencing. The molecular mass of the native PcGDH was 130 kDa, suggesting a homodimeric form. Optimal pH and temperature were found to be similar (5.5 and 60 °C, respectively) to those determined for the previously characterized GDH, i.e., from Glomerella cingulata. However PcGDH exhibits a lower catalytic efficiency of 67 M(-1) s(-1) toward glucose. This substrate is by far the preferred substrate, which constitutes an advantage over other sugar oxidases in the case of blood glucose monitoring. The substrate-binding domain of PcGDH turns out to be conserved as compared to other glucose-methanol-choline (GMCs) oxidoreductases. In addition, the ability of PcGDH to reduce oxidized quinones or radical intermediates was clearly demonstrated, which raises prospects for applying this enzyme to detoxify toxic compounds formed during the degradation of lignin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-014-5891-4DOI Listing
December 2014

The genome of the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus: a basidiomycete model with a versatile arsenal for lignocellulosic biomass breakdown.

BMC Genomics 2014 Jun 18;15:486. Epub 2014 Jun 18.

INRA, UMR1163 Biotechnologie des Champignons Filamenteux, Aix-Marseille Université, Polytech Marseille, 163 avenue de Luminy, CP 925, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France.

Background: Saprophytic filamentous fungi are ubiquitous micro-organisms that play an essential role in photosynthetic carbon recycling. The wood-decayer Pycnoporus cinnabarinus is a model fungus for the study of plant cell wall decomposition and is used for a number of applications in green and white biotechnology.

Results: The 33.6 megabase genome of P. cinnabarinus was sequenced and assembled, and the 10,442 predicted genes were functionally annotated using a phylogenomic procedure. In-depth analyses were carried out for the numerous enzyme families involved in lignocellulosic biomass breakdown, for protein secretion and glycosylation pathways, and for mating type. The P. cinnabarinus genome sequence revealed a consistent repertoire of genes shared with wood-decaying basidiomycetes. P. cinnabarinus is thus fully equipped with the classical families involved in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation, whereas its pectinolytic repertoire appears relatively limited. In addition, P. cinnabarinus possesses a complete versatile enzymatic arsenal for lignin breakdown. We identified several genes encoding members of the three ligninolytic peroxidase types, namely lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and versatile peroxidase. Comparative genome analyses were performed in fungi displaying different nutritional strategies (white-rot and brown-rot modes of decay). P. cinnabarinus presents a typical distribution of all the specific families found in the white-rot life style. Growth profiling of P. cinnabarinus was performed on 35 carbon sources including simple and complex substrates to study substrate utilization and preferences. P. cinnabarinus grew faster on crude plant substrates than on pure, mono- or polysaccharide substrates. Finally, proteomic analyses were conducted from liquid and solid-state fermentation to analyze the composition of the secretomes corresponding to growth on different substrates. The distribution of lignocellulolytic enzymes in the secretomes was strongly dependent on growth conditions, especially for lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases.

Conclusions: With its available genome sequence, P. cinnabarinus is now an outstanding model system for the study of the enzyme machinery involved in the degradation or transformation of lignocellulosic biomass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-15-486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4101180PMC
June 2014

Effective mutations in a high redox potential laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2014 Jun 26;98(11):4949-61. Epub 2014 Jan 26.

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples "Federico II", Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, via Cinthia 4, 80126, Naples, Italy.

Since the first report on a laccase, there has been a notable development in the interest towards this class of enzymes, highlighted from the number of scientific papers and patents about them. At the same time, interest in exploiting laccases-mainly high redox potential-for various functions has been growing exponentially over the last 10 years. Despite decades of work, the molecular determinants of the redox potential are far to be fully understood. For this reason, interest in tuning laccase redox potential to provide more efficient catalysts has been growing since the last years. The work herein described takes advantage of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger as host for the heterologous production of the high redox potential laccase POXA1b from Pleurotus ostreatus and of one of its in vitro selected variants (1H6C). The system herein developed allowed to obtain a production level of 35,000 U/L (583.3 μkat/L) for POXA1b and 60,000 U/L (1,000 μkat/L) for 1H6C, corresponding to 13 and 20 mg/L for POXA1b and 1H6C, respectively. The characterised proteins exhibit very similar characteristics, with some exceptions regarding catalytic behaviour, stability and spectro-electrochemical properties. Remarkably, the 1H6C variant shows a higher redox potential with respect to POXA1b. Furthermore, the spectro-electrochemical results obtained for 1H6C make it tempting to claim that we spectro-electrochemically determined the redox potential of the 1H6C T2 site, which has not been studied in any detail by spectro-electrochemistry yet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-013-5491-8DOI Listing
June 2014

Phylogeographic relationships in the polypore fungus Pycnoporus inferred from molecular data.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2011 Dec 3;325(1):37-48. Epub 2011 Oct 3.

INRA, UMR 1163 de Biotechnologie des Champignons Filamenteux, ESIL, Marseille, France.

The genus Pycnoporus forms a group of four species known especially for producing high redox potential laccases suitable for white biotechnology. A sample of 36 Pycnoporus strains originating from different geographical areas was studied to seek informative molecular markers for the typing of new strains in laboratory culture conditions and to analyse the phylogeographic relationships in this cosmopolitan group. ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal DNA and partial regions of β-tubulin and laccase lac3-1 gene were sequenced. Phylogenetic trees inferred from these sequences clearly differentiated the group of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus strains from the group of Pycnoporus puniceus strains into strongly supported clades (100% bootstrap value). Molecular clustering based on lac 3-1 sequences enabled the distribution of Pycnoporus sanguineus and Pycnoporus coccineus through four distinct, well supported clades and sub-clades. A neotropical sub-clade, grouping the P. sanguineus strains from French Guiana and Venezuela, corresponded to P. sanguineus sensu stricto. A paleotropical sub-clade, clustering the strains from Madagascar, Vietnam and New Caledonia, was defined as Pycnoporus cf. sanguineus. The Australian clade corresponded to P. coccineus sensu stricto. The Eastern Asian region clade, clustering the strains from China and Japan, formed a P. coccineus-like group. Laccase gene (lac 3-1) analysis within the Pycnoporus species can highlight enzyme functional diversity associated with biogeographical origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2011.02412.xDOI Listing
December 2011

Genome sequence of the model mushroom Schizophyllum commune.

Nat Biotechnol 2010 Sep 11;28(9):957-63. Epub 2010 Jul 11.

Department of Microbiology and Kluyver Centre for Genomics of Industrial Fermentation, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Much remains to be learned about the biology of mushroom-forming fungi, which are an important source of food, secondary metabolites and industrial enzymes. The wood-degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is both a genetically tractable model for studying mushroom development and a likely source of enzymes capable of efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analyses of its 38.5-megabase genome, which encodes 13,210 predicted genes, reveal the species's unique wood-degrading machinery. One-third of the 471 genes predicted to encode transcription factors are differentially expressed during sexual development of S. commune. Whereas inactivation of one of these, fst4, prevented mushroom formation, inactivation of another, fst3, resulted in more, albeit smaller, mushrooms than in the wild-type fungus. Antisense transcripts may also have a role in the formation of fruiting bodies. Better insight into the mechanisms underlying mushroom formation should affect commercial production of mushrooms and their industrial use for producing enzymes and pharmaceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nbt.1643DOI Listing
September 2010

Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets. XI. The relationship of variable heavy chain gene usage and the genomic organization of the variable heavy chain locus.

J Immunol 2010 Apr 5;184(7):3734-42. Epub 2010 Mar 5.

National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

In this study, we have mapped the 3' H chain V region (V(H)) genes and those in the H chain diversity, H chain joining, and 5' portion of the H chain constant locus. We show that swine possess only two functional H chain diversity segments and only one functional H chain joining segment. These data help to explain more than a decade of observations on the preimmune repertoire of this species and reveal the vulnerability of swine to natural or designed mutational events. The results are consistent with earlier studies on the region containing Enh, Cmu, and Cdelta while revealing that the ancestral IgG3 is the most 5' Cgamma gene. We also observed a recent duplication ( approximately 1.6 million years ago) in the V(H) locus that contains six of the seven V(H) genes that comprise 75% of the preimmune repertoire. Because there are no known transfers of immune regulators or Ags that cross the placenta as in mice and humans, fetal V(H) usage must be intrinsically regulated. Therefore, we quantified V(H) usage in fetal piglets and demonstrated that usage is independent of the position of V(H) genes in the genome; the most 3' functional V(H) gene (IGHV2) is rarely used, whereas certain upstream genes (IGHV14 and IGHV15) are predominately used early in fetal liver but seldom thereafter. Similar to previous studies, three V(H) genes account for 40% of the repertoire and six for approximately 70%. This limited combinatorial diversity of the porcine V(H) repertoire further emphasizes the dependence on CDR3 diversity for generating the preimmune Ab repertoire of this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0903616DOI Listing
April 2010

Hepatic gene expression profiles in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed fishmeal or fish oil-free diets.

Br J Nutr 2008 Nov 28;100(5):953-67. Epub 2008 Apr 28.

INRA, UMR1067 Nutrition Aquaculture and Genomics, Pôle d'Hydrobiologie, CD 918, F-64310 Saint-Pée-sur-Nivelle, France.

Reducing the reliance on fishery by-products as amino acid and fatty acid sources in feeds for farmed fish is a major objective today. We evaluated the effect of dietary fish oil or dietary fishmeal replacement by vegetable oils and plant proteins respectively through analysis of hepatic transcriptomes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were fed right from first feeding with diets based on plant by-products before being killed. We analysed the hepatic gene profile using trout cDNA microarrays (9K). Our data showed that seventy-one and seventy-five genes were affected after fish oil and fishmeal replacement respectively. The major part of modified gene expression coding for proteins of the metabolic pathways was as follows: (i) a lower level of expression for genes of energy metabolism found in fish after fishmeal and fish oil replacement; (ii) a lower level of gene expression for fatty acid metabolism (biosynthesis) in fish fed with vegetable oils; (iii) a differential expression of actors of detoxification metabolism in trout fed with vegetable oils; (iv) a lower level of expression of genes involved in protein metabolism in fish fed with plant proteins. Overall, our data suggest that dietary fish oil replacement is linked to a decreased capacity of fatty acid biosynthesis (fatty acid synthase) and variation of detoxification metabolism (cytochrome P450s) whereas dietary fishmeal replacement may depress protein metabolism in the liver as reflected by glutamine synthetase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114508981411DOI Listing
November 2008

FOLy: an integrated database for the classification and functional annotation of fungal oxidoreductases potentially involved in the degradation of lignin and related aromatic compounds.

Fungal Genet Biol 2008 May 26;45(5):638-45. Epub 2008 Jan 26.

UMR 1163 INRA de Biotechnologie des Champignons Filamenteux, IFR86-BAIM, Universités de Provence et de la Méditerranée, ESIL, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case Postale 925, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France.

The breakdown of lignin by fungi is a key step during carbon recycling in terrestrial ecosystems. This process is of great interest for green and white biotechnological applications. Given the importance of these enzymatic processes, we have classified the enzymes potentially involved in lignin catabolism into sequence-based families and integrated them in a newly developed database, designated Fungal Oxidative Lignin enzymes (FOLy). Families were defined after sequence similarity searches starting from protein sequences and validated by the convergence of results with biochemical experiments reported in the literature. The resulting database was applied as a tool for the functional annotation of genomes from different fungi, namely (i) the Basidiomycota Coprinopsis cinerea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Ustilago maydis and (ii) the Ascomycota Aspergillus nidulans and Trichoderma reesei. Genomic comparison of the oxidoreductases of these fungi revealed significant differences in the putative enzyme arsenals. Two Ascomycota fungal genomes were annotated and new candidate genes were identified that could be useful for lignin degradation and (or) melanin synthesis, and their function investigated experimentally. This database efforts aims at providing the means to get new insights for the understanding and biotechnological exploitation of the lignin degradation. A WWW server giving access to the routinely updated FOLy classifications of enzymes potentially involved in lignin degradation can be found at http://foly.esil.univ-mrs.fr.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.2008.01.004DOI Listing
May 2008

Amplification biases: possible differences among deviating gene expressions.

BMC Genomics 2008 Jan 28;9:46. Epub 2008 Jan 28.

Biologie du Développement et Reproduction UMR 1198; ENVA; CNRS, FRE 2857, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, F-78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France.

Background: Gene expression profiling has become a tool of choice to study pathological or developmental questions but in most cases the material is scarce and requires sample amplification. Two main procedures have been used: in vitro transcription (IVT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the former known as linear and the latter as exponential. Previous reports identified enzymatic pitfalls in PCR and IVT protocols; however the possible differences between the sequences affected by these amplification defaults were only rarely explored.

Results: Screening a bovine cDNA array dedicated to embryonic stages with embryonic (n = 3) and somatic tissues (n = 2), we proceeded to moderate amplifications starting from 1 mug of total RNA (global PCR or IVT one round). Whatever the tissue, 16% of the probes were involved in deviating gene expressions due to amplification defaults. These distortions were likely due to the molecular features of the affected sequences (position within a gene, GC content, hairpin number) but also to the relative abundance of these transcripts within the tissues. These deviating genes mainly encoded housekeeping genes from physiological or cellular processes (70%) and constituted 2 subsets which did not overlap (molecular features, signal intensities, gene ID). However, the differential expressions identified between embryonic stages were both reliable (minor intersect with biased expressions) and relevant (biologically validated). In addition, the relative expression levels of those genes were biologically similar between amplified and unamplified samples.

Conclusion: Conversely to the most recent reports which challenged the use of intense amplification procedures on minute amounts of RNA, we chose moderate PCR and IVT amplifications for our gene profiling study. Conclusively, it appeared that systematic biases arose even with moderate amplification procedures, independently of (i) the sample used: brain, ovary or embryos, (ii) the enzymatic properties initially inferred (exponential or linear) and (iii) the preliminary optimization of the protocols. Moreover the use of an in-house developed array, small-sized but well suited to the tissues we worked with, was of real interest for the search of differential expressions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-9-46DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2257942PMC
January 2008

Gene expression profiling on sheep brain reveals differential transcripts in scrapie-affected/not-affected animals.

Brain Res 2007 Apr 17;1142:217-22. Epub 2007 Jan 17.

Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

This study aimed at identifying genes that could mark scrapie infection in the central nervous system of sheep. We used the subtractive suppressive hybridization (SSH) technique on brain samples from sheep healthy or clinically affected by scrapie. Following subtraction, several discrete differential bands appeared between the two reciprocally subtracted samples. These bands were cloned and sequenced, allowing identifying the genes COX1, CHN1, PPP2CA, LRFN5, CAMK2A and RABEPK. Two of the genes identified, CHN1 and RABEPK, appear to locate inside a QTL region known to modulate prion disease incubation time in mice, and LRFN5 maps inside a QTL region identified in sheep. Furthermore, CHN1 and RABEKP showed new unreported differential splicing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2007.01.033DOI Listing
April 2007

Ruminants genome no longer contains Whey Acidic Protein gene but only a pseudogene.

Gene 2006 Mar 17;370:104-12. Epub 2006 Feb 17.

Laboratoire de Biologie du Développement et de la Reproduction, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), 78352 Jouy-en-Josas Cedex, France.

Whey Acidic Protein (WAP) has been identified in the milk of only a few species, including mouse, rat, rabbit, camel, pig, tammar wallaby, brushtail possum, echidna and platypus. Despite intensive studies, it has not yet been found in the milk of Ruminants. We have isolated and characterized genomic WAP clones from ewe, goat and cow, identified their chromosomal localization and examined the expression of the endogenous WAP sequence in the mammary glands of all three species. The WAP sequences were localized on chromosome 4 (4q26) as expected from comparative mapping data. The three ruminant WAP sequences reveal the same deletion of a nucleotide at the end of the first exon when compared with the pig sequence. Due to this frameshift mutation, the putative proteins encoded by these sequences do not harbor the features of a usual WAP protein with two four-disulfide core domains. Moreover, RT-PCR experiments have shown that these sequences are not transcribed and are, thus, pseudogenes. This loss of functionality of the gene in Ruminants raises the question of the biological role of the WAP. Some putative roles previously suggested for WAP are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2005.11.025DOI Listing
March 2006

Molecular evidence for a critical period in mural trophoblast development in bovine blastocysts.

Dev Biol 2005 Dec 10;288(2):448-60. Epub 2005 Nov 10.

UMR INRA/ENVA/CNRS Biologie du Développement et de la Reproduction, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex, France.

Embryonic and extra-embryonic lineages are separated at the blastocyst stage in the mouse at the onset of implantation but well ahead of implantation in most mammals. To provide information on the development of the trophoblast lineage in late-implanting bovine embryos, we combined the use of molecular markers defining embryonic and extra-embryonic lineages in the mouse with a transcriptomic approach dedicated to the early steps of the elongation process, a characteristic feature of blastocyst development in ruminants. In this study, we present molecular evidence for differences between the cow and the mouse in the programming of trophoblast differentiation. This different programming encompasses: (i) the expression of epiblast specifying genes (Oct-4, Nanog) in bovine trophoblast cells at the onset of elongation, (ii) the transcription of proliferation markers in early elongating blastocysts, (iii) the early detection of trophoblast-specific transcripts related to extra-embryonic tissue's differentiation (Hand1, Ets2, IFN-tau) and (iv) the identification of a new transcript (c12) which displays a reciprocal pattern to that of Oct-4 and Nanog genes in the embryonic cells and for which no equivalent has thus far been found in the mouse. Altogether, these results tended to show that early elongation is a critical transition in bovine trophoblast development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.09.043DOI Listing
December 2005

Comparative analysis of a BAC contig of porcine chromosome 13q31-q32 and human chromosome 3q21-q22.

BMC Genomics 2005 Sep 21;6:133. Epub 2005 Sep 21.

Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Heidestraat 19, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.

Background: The gene(s) encoding the ETEC F4ab/ac receptors, involved in neonatal diarrhoea in pigs (a disease not yet described in humans), is located close to the TF locus on Sscr13. In order to reveal and characterize possible candidate genes encoding these receptors, a porcine physical map of the TF region is indispensable.

Results: A contig of 33 BAC clones, covering approximately 1.35 Mb surrounding the TF locus on Sscr13q31-q32, was built by chromosome walking. A total of 22,552 bp from the BAC contig were sequenced and compared with database sequences to identify genes, ESTs and repeat sequences, and to anchor the contig to the syntenic region of the human genome sequence (Hsap3q21-q22). The contig was further annotated based on this human/porcine comparative map, and was also anchored to the Sanger porcine framework map and the integrated map of Sscr13 by RH mapping.

Conclusion: The annotated contig, containing 10 genes and 2 ESTs, showed a complete conservation of linkage (gene order and orientation) with the human genome sequence, based on 46 anchor points. This underlines the importance of the human/porcine comparative map for the identification of porcine genes associated with genetic defects and economically important traits, and for assembly of the porcine genome sequence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-6-133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1249572PMC
September 2005

Hypoxia-activated genes from early placenta are elevated in preeclampsia, but not in Intra-Uterine Growth Retardation.

BMC Genomics 2005 Aug 29;6:111. Epub 2005 Aug 29.

Génétique et Epigénétique des Pathologies Placentaires, GEPP, U709 INSERM-Université René Descartes, Institut Alfred Jost, Pavillon Baudelocque, Hôpital Cochin, 75014, Paris, France.

Background: As a first step to explore the possible relationships existing between the effects of low oxygen pressure in the first trimester placenta and placental pathologies developing from mid-gestation, two subtracted libraries totaling 2304 cDNA clones were constructed. For achieving this, two reciprocal suppressive/subtractive hybridization procedures (SSH) were applied to early (11 weeks) human placental villi after incubation either in normoxic or in hypoxic conditions. The clones from both libraries (1440 hypoxia-specific and 864 normoxia-specific) were spotted on nylon macroarrays. Complex cDNAs probes prepared from placental villi (either from early pregnancy, after hypoxic or normoxic culture conditions, or near term for controls or pathological placentas) were hybridized to the membranes.

Results: Three hundred and fifty nine clones presenting a hybridization signal above the background were sequenced and shown to correspond to 276 different genes. Nine of these genes are mitochondrial, while 267 are nuclear. Specific expression profiles characteristic of preeclampsia (PE) could be identified, as well as profiles specific of Intra-Uterine Growth Retardation (IUGR). Focusing on the chromosomal distribution of the fraction of genes that responded in at least one hybridization experiment, we could observe a highly significant chromosomal clustering of 54 genes into 8 chromosomal regions, four of which containing imprinted genes. Comparative mapping data indicate that these imprinted clusters are maintained in synteny in mice, and apparently in cattle and pigs, suggesting that the maintenance of such syntenies is requested for achieving a normal placental physiology in eutherian mammals.

Conclusion: We could demonstrate that genes induced in PE were also genes highly expressed under hypoxic conditions (P = 5 x 10(-5)), which was not the case for isolated IUGR. Highly expressed placental genes may be in syntenies conserved interspecifically, suggesting that the maintenance of such clusters is requested for achieving a normal placental physiology in eutherian mammals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-6-111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1236921PMC
August 2005

Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal pigs. VII. Characterization of the preimmune kappa light chain repertoire.

J Immunol 2004 Dec;173(11):6794-805

Department of Microbiology and Interdisciplinary Immunology Program, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

Combinatorial diversity is highly restricted in the preimmune porcine H chain repertoire compared with that in humans and mice. This raised the question of whether similar restriction characterized the preimmune L chain repertoire. In this study we present evidence that >90% of all expressed Vkappa genes in the porcine preimmune repertoire belong to three subfamilies of Vkappa genes that share 87% sequence similarity with human IGKV2. This porcine Vkappa family also shares sequence similarity with some, but not all, Vkappa genes from sheep. Hybridization with sperm DNA and sequence analyses of polynucleotides from overlapping bacterial artificial chromosome clones suggest swine possess approximately 60 IGVK2 genes. The latter method also revealed that certain IGKV2 subfamilies are not expressed in the preimmune repertoire. Six members of an IGVK1 family were also expressed as part of the preimmune repertoire, and these shared 87% sequence similarity with human IGVK1. Five Jkappa segments, complete with recombination signal sequences and separated by approximately 300 nt, were identified approximately 3 kb upstream of a single Ckappa. Surprisingly, Jkappa2 accounted for >90% of all framework region 4 sequences in the preimmune repertoire. These findings show that swine use approximately 10 IGVK2 genes from three of six subfamilies and preferentially one Jkappa segment to generate their preimmune kappa repertoire. These studies, like those of porcine Ig constant regions and MHC genes, also indicate unexpected high sequence similarity with their human counterparts despite differences in phylogeny and the mechanism of repertoire diversification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.173.11.6794DOI Listing
December 2004

The first-generation whole-genome radiation hybrid map in the horse identifies conserved segments in human and mouse genomes.

Genome Res 2003 Apr;13(4):742-51

Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA.

A first-generation radiation hybrid (RH) map of the equine (Equus caballus) genome was assembled using 92 horse x hamster hybrid cell lines and 730 equine markers. The map is the first comprehensive framework map of the horse that (1) incorporates type I as well as type II markers, (2) integrates synteny, cytogenetic, and meiotic maps into a consensus map, and (3) provides the most detailed genome-wide information to date on the organization and comparative status of the equine genome. The 730 loci (258 type I and 472 type II) included in the final map are clustered in 101 RH groups distributed over all equine autosomes and the X chromosome. The overall marker retention frequency in the panel is approximately 21%, and the possibility of adding any new marker to the map is approximately 90%. On average, the mapped markers are distributed every 19 cR (4 Mb) of the equine genome--a significant improvement in resolution over previous maps. With 69 new FISH assignments, a total of 253 cytogenetically mapped loci physically anchor the RH map to various chromosomal segments. Synteny assignments of 39 gene loci complemented the RH mapping of 27 genes. The results added 12 new loci to the horse gene map. Lastly, comparison of the assembly of 447 equine genes (256 linearly ordered RH-mapped and additional 191 FISH-mapped) with the location of draft sequences of their human and mouse orthologs provides the most extensive horse-human and horse-mouse comparative map to date. We expect that the foundation established through this map will significantly facilitate rapid targeted expansion of the horse gene map and consequently, mapping and positional cloning of genes governing traits significant to the equine industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.917503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC430160PMC
April 2003

Expression profiles and chromosomal localization of genes controlling meiosis and follicular development in the sheep ovary.

Biol Reprod 2003 Mar;68(3):985-95

Unité Biologie du développement et Biotechnologies, INRA, 78350 Jouy en Josas, France.

In female sheep fetuses, two of the most crucial stages of ovarian development are prophase of meiosis I and follicle formation. In the present study, sheep ovaries collected on Days 25, 38, 49, 56, 67, 75, 94, and 120 of gestation, at birth, and in adulthood were tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the expression of 14 genes known to be involved in the ovarian differentiation in diverse organisms. The aim of this study was to determine 1) the expression pattern of six genes involved in germ cell development or meiosis (DMC1, SPO11, MSH4, MSH5, DAZL, and Boule) and five ovary-derived factors (OVOL1, SIAH2, DIAPH2, FOXL2, and FGF9), 2) the onset of gene expression for several members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway involved in follicular development (GDF9, BMP15, BMPR-IB), and 3) the chromosomal localization of seven of these genes in the sheep genome. The RT-PCR analysis revealed that the two germline-specific genes, DAZL and Boule, were expressed between 49 and 94 days postcoitum (dpc) with a similar pattern to typical meiosis genes (DMC1, MSH4, and MSH5), suggesting their possible participation in prophase of meiosis I. GDF9 and OVOL1 gene transcription started at 56 dpc and extended until birth, while BMP15 presented a more restricted window of expression between 94 dpc and birth, corresponding to the formation of first growing follicles. The homologous ovine genes for SPO11, DMC1, MSH5, DAZL, FGF9, DIAPH2, and SIAH2 were located on OAR 13q21-22, 3q35, 20q22, 19q13, 10q15, Xq44, and 1q41-42, respectively. In sheep, quantitative trait loci affecting female reproductive capacities are currently being detected. The ontology and precise mapping of ovarian genes will be useful to identify potential candidate genes that might underlie these effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.102.008557DOI Listing
March 2003

Molecular characterization of the equine testis-specific protein 1 (TPX1) and acidic epididymal glycoprotein 2 (AEG2) genes encoding members of the cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family.

Gene 2002 Oct;299(1-2):101-9

Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bünteweg 17p, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

The cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family consists of three members called acidic epididymal glycoprotein 1 (AEG1), AEG2, and testis-specific protein 1 (TPX1), which share 16 conserved cysteine residues at their C-termini. The CRISP proteins are primarily expressed in different sections of the male genital tract and are thought to mediate cell-cell interactions of male germ cells with other cells during sperm maturation or during fertilization. Therefore, their genes are of interest as candidate genes for inherited male fertility dysfunctions and as putative quantitative trait loci for male fertility traits. In this report, the cloning and DNA sequence of 137 kb of horse genomic DNA from equine chromosome 20q22 containing the closely linked equine TPX1 and AEG2 genes are described. The equine TPX1 gene consists of ten exons spanning 18 kb while the AEG2 gene consists of eight exons that are spread over 24 kb. The expression of these two genes was investigated in several tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blotting. Comparative genome analysis between horse, human, and mouse indicates that all three CRISP genes are clustered on one chromosomal location, which shows conserved synteny between these species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1119(02)01018-1DOI Listing
October 2002

Molecular characterization of genomic activities at the onset of zygotic transcription in mammals.

Biol Reprod 2002 Dec;67(6):1907-18

Laboratoire de Biologie du Développement et Biotechnologie, INRA, 78352 Jouy en Josas Cedex, France.

In rabbit embryos, zygotic transcripts are required for the development of the embryo only from the 8- to 16-cell stage onward, more than 44 h after fertilization (i.e., zygotic gene activation; ZGA). In order to characterize the first zygotic transcripts expressed in this species we used a suppression subtractive hybridization approach to isolate RNA that was present after the major transcriptional activation (morula stage), but absent at the 1-cell stage as maternal transcripts. One hundred fourteen differentially expressed inserts were selected and sequenced. A statistical analysis of expression patterns throughout the preimplantation period of development shows that genes transcribed from ZGA onward follow different patterns of expression. Considering their early post-ZGA behavior, we describe at least two main patterns: a gradual increase from ZGA onward, and a sharp increase in expression at ZGA followed by a marked decrease at the morula stage. Our data show that both ZGA and some early post-ZGA events are involved in the establishment of specific patterns of embryonic gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod67.6.1907DOI Listing
December 2002

Cytogenetic localization of 136 genes in the horse: comparative mapping with the human genome.

Mamm Genome 2002 Sep;13(9):524-34

Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Recherches de Jouy, Laboratoire de Génétique biochimique et de Cytogé, Département de Génétique animale, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas Cedex, France.

The aim of this study was to increase the number of type I markers on the horse cytogenetic map and to improve comparison with maps of other species, thus facilitating positional candidate cloning studies. BAC clones from two different sources were FISH mapped: homologous horse BAC clones selected from our newly extended BAC library using consensus primer sequences and heterologous goat BAC clones. We report the localization of 136 genes on the horse cytogenetic map, almost doubling the number of cytogenetically mapped genes with 48 localizations from horse BAC clones and 88 from goat BAC clones. For the first time, genes were mapped to ECA13p, ECA29, and probably ECA30. A total of 284 genes are now FISH mapped on the horse chromosomes. Comparison with the human map defines 113 conserved segments that include new homologous segments not identified by Zoo-FISH on ECA7 and ECA13p.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-001-2137-4DOI Listing
September 2002

Molecular characterization of the equine AEG1 locus.

Gene 2002 Jun;292(1-2):65-72

Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bünteweg 17p, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

Acidic epididymal glycoprotein 1 (AEG1), also called cysteine-rich secretory protein 1 (CRISP1), is a member of the CRISP protein family which is characterized by 16 conserved cysteine residues at the C-terminus. The CRISP proteins are expressed in the male genital tract and are thought to be involved in sperm-egg fusion. Therefore, their genes are of interest as candidate genes for inherited male fertility dysfunctions and as putative quantitative trait loci for male fertility traits. In this report, the cloning and DNA sequence of 90 kb of horse genomic DNA from equine chromosome 20q22 containing the complete equine AEG1 gene are described. The equine AEG1 gene consists of eight exons spanning 31 kb. Analysis of equine AEG1 transcripts did not reveal any evidence for alternative splicing, however three different transcription start sites are used. The first transcription start site is located 20 nt downstream of a TATA box motif. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that AEG1 is expressed in different parts of the epididymis, whereas it is hardly detectable in the testis. The naturally occurring diversity of the equine AEG1 gene in different horse breeds was investigated and several polymorphisms are reported, including one that affects the amino acid sequence. Finally, sequence comparisons revealed that the intronless equine PGK2 gene for the testis-specific phosphoglycerate kinase is located approximately 39 kb downstream of AEG1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1119(02)00673-xDOI Listing
June 2002

Construction of a 5000(rad) whole-genome radiation hybrid panel in the horse and generation of a comprehensive and comparative map for ECA11.

Mamm Genome 2002 Feb;13(2):89-94

Division of Animal Genetics, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Grønnegårdsvej 3, 1870, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

A 5000(rad) whole-genome radiation hybrid (RH) panel was created for the horse. The usefulness of the panel for generating physically ordered maps of individual equine chromosomes was tested by typing 24 markers on horse Chromosome 11 (ECA11). The overall retention of markers on this chromosome was 43.6%. Almost complete retention of two of the typed markers--- CA062 and AHT44---clearly indicated the location of thymidine kinase gene on the short arm of ECA11. Seven of the typed markers were FISH mapped to align the RH and cytogenetic maps. With the RH-MAPPER approach, a physically ordered map comprising four linkage groups and incorporating all the markers was obtained. The study provides the first comprehensive map for a horse chromosome that integrates all available mapping data and adds new information that spans the entire length of the equine chromosome. The map clearly underlines the resolving power and utility of the panel and emphasizes the need to have uniformly distributed cytogenetic markers for appropriate alignment of RH map with the chromosome. A comparative status of the ECA11 map in relation to the corresponding human/mouse chromosome is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-001-2089-8DOI Listing
February 2002