Publications by authors named "François Philippon"

156 Publications

Low-temperature electrocautery reduces adverse effects from secondary cardiac implantable electronic device procedures: Insights from the WRAP-IT trial.

Heart Rhythm 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland Ohio.

Background: Cardiac device procedures require tissue dissection to free existing device lead(s). Common techniques include blunt dissection, standard electrocautery, and low-temperature electrocautery (PlasmaBlade, Medtronic); however, data on the type of electrosurgical tool used and the development of procedure- or lead-related adverse events are limited.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether standard or low-temperature electrocautery impacts the development of an adverse event.

Methods: We evaluated patients enrolled in WRAP-IT (Worldwide Randomized Antibiotic EnveloPe Infection PrevenTion Trial) undergoing cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) revision, upgrade, or replacement. All adverse events were adjudicated by an independent physician committee. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression modeling.

Results: In total, 5641 patients underwent device revision/upgrade/replacement. Electrocautery was used in 5205 patients (92.3%) (mean age 70.6 ± 12.7 years; 28.8% female), and low-temperature electrocautery was used in 1866 patients (35.9%). Compared to standard electrocautery, low-temperature electrocautery was associated with a 23% reduction in the incidence of a procedure- or lead-related adverse event through 3 years of follow up (hazard ratio [HR] 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-0.91; P = .002). After controlling for the number of active leads, degree of capsulectomy, degree of lead dissection, and renal dysfunction, low-temperature electrocautery was associated with a 32% lower risk of lead-related adverse events (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.52-0.89; P = .004). These effects were consistent across a spectrum of lead-related adverse event types.

Conclusion: This study represents one of the largest assessments of electrocautery use in patients undergoing CIED revision, upgrade, or replacement procedures. Compared to standard electrocautery, low-temperature electrocautery significantly reduces adverse effects from these procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2021.03.033DOI Listing
March 2021

Use of healthcare claims to validate the Prevention of Arrhythmia Device Infection Trial cardiac implantable electronic device infection risk score.

Europace 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of British Columbia, BC, Canada.

Aim: The Prevention of Arrhythmia Device Infection Trial (PADIT) infection risk score, developed based on a large prospectively collected data set, identified five independent predictors of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection. We performed an independent validation of the risk score in a data set extracted from U.S. healthcare claims.

Methods And Results: Retrospective identification of index CIED procedures among patients aged ≥18 years with at least one record of a CIED procedure between January 2011 and September 2014 in a U.S health claims database. PADIT risk factors and major CIED infections (with system removal, invasive procedure without system removal, or infection-attributable death) were identified through diagnosis and procedure codes. The data set was randomized by PADIT score into Data Set A (60%) and Data Set B (40%). A frailty model allowing multiple procedures per patient was fit using Data Set A, with PADIT score as the only predictor, excluding patients with prior CIED infection. A data set of 54 042 index procedures among 51 623 patients with 574 infections was extracted. Among patients with no history of prior CIED infection, a 1 unit increase in the PADIT score was associated with a relative 28% increase in infection risk. Prior CIED infection was associated with significant incremental predictive value (HR 5.66, P < 0.0001) after adjusting for PADIT score. A Harrell's C-statistic for the PADIT score and history of prior CIED infection was 0.76.

Conclusion: The PADIT risk score predicts increased CIED infection risk, identifying higher risk patients that could potentially benefit from targeted interventions to reduce the risk of CIED infection. Prior CIED infection confers incremental predictive value to the PADIT score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab028DOI Listing
March 2021

The effect of centre volume and procedure location on major complications and mortality from transvenous lead extraction: an ESC EHRA EORP European Lead Extraction ConTRolled ELECTRa registry subanalysis.

Europace 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Electrophysiology Division, Lead Extraction Program, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec-Université Laval , 2725 Chemin Ste-Foy, Quebec G1V 4G5, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab038DOI Listing
March 2021

Ambulatory Electrocardiogram Monitoring in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: JACC State-of-the-Art Review.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Mar;77(10):1344-1356

Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada; Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has changed the treatment of patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, the occurrence of conduction disturbances has not decreased significantly over time and remains the main drawback of the procedure. In addition, new-onset atrial fibrillation is the most frequent tachyarrhythmia during the hospitalization period and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, little is known regarding the incidence and clinical impact of arrhythmic events beyond the periprocedural TAVR period. Ambulatory electrocardiogram (AECG) monitoring has recently emerged as a tool to unravel the complex issue of arrhythmic disorders (bradyarrhythmias and tachyarrhythmias) before and after TAVR. To date, the preliminary results from the initial experience using AECG monitoring systems showed the safety, usefulness, and potential clinical implications of this diagnostic tool in TAVR recipients. This review provides an overview of the current status, clinical implications, and future perspectives of AECG monitoring in the TAVR setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.12.062DOI Listing
March 2021

Twiddler Syndrome without Lead Dislodgment Discovered by Remote Monitoring.

Case Rep Cardiol 2021 6;2021:8816524. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Cardiology, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Laval University, Quebec, Canada.

Twiddler syndrome is an uncommon yet dangerous phenomenon usually resulting in lead displacement with loss of capture of cardiac implantable electronic devices. In this case report, we present an interesting case of Twiddler syndrome without lead dislodgment which was detected by an alert triggered by an increase in impedance on remote monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8816524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884166PMC
February 2021

Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Intervention in Patients with Previous Left Valve Surgery.

Can J Cardiol 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Cardiology Department, Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Scarce data exist on patients with previous left valve surgery (PLVS) undergoing transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention (TTVI).

Objectives: This study sought to investigate the procedural and early outcomes in patients with PLVS undergoing TTVI.

Methods: This was a sub-analysis of the multicenter TriValve registry including 462 patients, 82 (18%) with PLVS. Data were analyzed according to the presence of PLVS in the overall cohort and in a propensity score-matched population including 51 and 115 patients with and without PLVS, respectively.

Results: Patients with PLVS were younger (72±10 vs. 78±9 years, p <0.01) and more frequently women (67.1% vs 53.2%, p = 0.02). Similar rates of procedural success (PLVS: 80.5%, no-PLVS: 82.1%, p=0.73), and 30-day mortality (PLVS:2.4%, no-PLVS:3.4% , p=0.99 ) were observed. After matching, there were no significant differences in both all-cause rehospitalization (PLVS: 21.1%, non-PLVS: 26.5%, p=0.60) and all-cause mortality (PLVS: 9.8%, non-PLVS: 6.7%, p=0.58). At last follow-up (median time 5.7 [1.4-11.9] months after the procedure), most patients (81.8%) in the PLVS group were in NYHA class I-II (p= 0.12 vs. no-PLVS group), and TR grade was ≤2 in 82.6% of patients (p= 0.096 vs. no-PVLS group).

Conclusions: In patients with PLVS, TTVI was associated with high rates of procedural success and low early mortality. However, about one third of patients required rehospitalization or died at midterm follow-up. These results would support TTVI as a reasonable alternative to redo-surgery in patients with PLVS, and suggest the importance of earlier treatment in order to improve clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2021.02.010DOI Listing
February 2021

Canadian Registry of Electronic Device Outcomes: remote monitoring outcomes in the Abbott battery performance alert-a multicentre cohort.

Europace 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, QEII Health Sciences Center, Halifax Infirmary Site, 796 Summer Street, Room 2501D, Halifax NS B3H 3A7, Canada.

Aims: Cardiac implantable electronic devices with device advisories have the potential of device malfunction. Remote monitoring (RM) of devices has been suggested to allow the identification of abnormal device performance and permit early intervention. We sought to describe the outcomes of patients with and without RM in devices subject to the Abbott Premature Battery Depletion (PBD) advisory with data from a Canadian registry.

Methods And Results: Patients with an Abbott device subject to the PBD advisory from nine implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implanting centres in Canada were included in the registry. The use of RM was identified from baseline and follow-up data in the registry. The primary outcome was detection of PBD and all-cause mortality. A total of 2666 patients were identified with a device subject to the advisory. In all, 1687 patients (63.2%) had RM at baseline. There were 487 deaths during follow-up. At a mean follow-up of 5.7 ± 0.7 years, mortality was higher in those without a remote monitor compared with RM at baseline (24.7% vs. 14.5%; P < 0.001). Pre-mature battery depletion was identified in 36 patients (2.1%) with RM vs. 7 (0.7%) without RM (P = 0.004). Time to battery replacement was significantly reduced in patients on RM (median 5 vs. 13 days, P = 0.001).

Conclusion: The use of RM in patients with ICD and cardiac resynchronization therapy under advisory improved detection of PBD, time to device replacement, and was associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality. The factors influencing the association with mortality are unknown and deserve further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab025DOI Listing
February 2021

Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Intervention in Patients With Right Ventricular Dysfunction or Pulmonary Hypertension: Insights From the TriValve Registry.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Feb 5;14(2):e009685. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Cardiology Department, Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Canada (G.M.-C., F. Philippon, R.P., J.R.-C.).

Background: Scarce data exist on patients with right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) or pulmonary hypertension (PH) undergoing transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention. This study aimed to determine the early and midterm outcomes and the factors associated with mortality in this group of patients.

Methods: This subanalysis of the multicenter TriValve (Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Therapies) registry included 300 patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation with RVD (n=244), PH (n=127), or both (n=71) undergoing transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention. RVD was defined as a tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion <17 mm, and PH as an estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure ≥50 mm Hg.

Results: Mean age of the patients was 77±9 years (54% women). Procedural success was 80.7%, and 9 patients (3%) died during the hospitalization. At a median follow-up of 6 (interquartile range, 2-12) months, 54 patients (18%) died, and the independent associated factors were higher gamma-glutamyl transferase values at baseline (hazard ratio, 1.02 for each increase of 10 u/L [95% CI, 1.002-1.04]), poorer renal function defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 mL/min (hazard ratio, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.22-4.33]), and the lack of procedural success (hazard ratio, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.17-3.81]). The grade of RVD and the amount of PH at baseline were not found to be predictors of mortality. Most patients alive at follow-up improved their functional class (New York Heart Association I-II in 66% versus 7% at baseline, <0.001).

Conclusions: In patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation and RVD/PH, transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention was associated with high procedural success and a relatively low in-hospital mortality, along with significant improvements in functional status. However, about 1 out of 5 patients died after a median follow-up of 6 months, with hepatic congestion, renal dysfunction, and the lack of procedural success determining an increased risk. These results may improve the clinical evaluation of transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention candidates and would suggest a closer follow-up in those at increased risk. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03416166.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.120.009685DOI Listing
February 2021

Remote-only monitoring for patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices: a before-and-after pilot study.

CMAJ Open 2021 Jan-Mar;9(1):E53-E61. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

QEII Health Sciences Centre, Dalhousie University (Sapp, AbdelWahab, Parkash), Halifax, NS; Department of Cardiac Sciences (Gillis, Raj), University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta.; Institut universitaire de cardiologie and pneumologie de Quebec (Nault, Philippon), Université Laval, Québec, Que.; University of Ottawa Heart Institute (Nery, Wells), Ottawa, Ont.; Hamilton Health Sciences (Healey), McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont.; CK Hui Heart Centre (Lockwood), Edmonton, Alta.; Vancouver Island Health Authority (Sterns), Victoria, BC; East Carolina University (Sears), Greenville, NC; London Health Sciences Centre (Yee, Tang), University of Western Ontario, London, Ont.

Background: Outcomes for patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices are better when follow-up incorporates remote monitoring technology in addition to in-clinic visits. For patients with implantable devices, we sought to determine the feasibility, safety and associated health care utilization of remote-only follow-up, along with its effects on patients' quality of life and costs.

Methods: This multicentre before-and-after pilot study involved patients with new or existing pacemakers or implantable cardioverter defibrillators. The "before" phase of the study spanned the period October 2015 to February 2017; the "after" phase spanned the period October 2016 to February 2018. The exposure was remote-only follow-up in combination with Remote View, a service that facilitates access to device data, allowing device settings to be viewed remotely to facilitate remote programming. Outcomes at 12 months were feasibility (adherence to remote monitoring), safety (rate of adverse events) and health care utilization (remote and in-clinic appointments). We also assessed quality of life, using 3 validated scales, and costs, taking into account both health care system and patient costs.

Results: A total of 176 patients were enrolled. Adherence (defined as at least 1 successful remote transmission during follow-up) was 87% over a mean follow-up of 11.7 (standard deviation 2.2) months. There was a reduction in in-clinic visits at specialized sites among patients with both implantable defibrillators (26 v. 5, < 0.001, = 48) and pacemakers (42 v. 10, < 0.001, = 51). There was no significant change in visits to community sites for patients with defibrillators (13 v. 17, = 0.3, = 48). The composite rate of death, stroke, cardiovascular hospitalization and device-related hospitalization was 7% ( = 164). No adverse events were linked to the intervention. There was no change in quality-of-life scales between baseline and 12 months. Health care costs were reduced by 31% for patients with defibrillators and by 44% for those with pacemakers.

Interpretation: This pilot study showed the feasibility of remote-only follow-up, with no increase in adverse clinical outcomes and no effect on quality of life, but with reductions in costs and health care utilization. These results support progression to a larger-scale study of whether superior effectiveness and reduced cost can be achieved, with preservation of safety, through use of remote-only follow-up.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT02585817.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.9778/cmajo.20200041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843075PMC
January 2021

Transcatheter Interventions for Tricuspid Valve Disease: What to Do and Who to Do it On.

Can J Cardiol 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Tricuspid valve disease, and particularly the management of severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR), has gained momentum in recent years. Although it is well known that this frequent condition is associated with poor clinical outcomes, these patients have been classically managed medically, leading to end-stage right ventricular heart failure. Moreover, late referral to surgery has contributed to a high rate of periprocedural complications and in-hospital surgical mortality. Thus, the development of a less-invasive catheter-based therapy would be of high clinical relevance in this context. Several transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention (TTVI) devices have been developed in recent years. The particular characteristics of the tricuspid valve (large non-calcific annulus, presence of chief surrounding structures such as the conduction system or the right coronary artery) make multimodality imaging (e.g. transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomographic) key in the preprocedural assessment of TTVI. According to their mechanism of action and therapeutic target, TTVI includes transcatheter repair either with coaptation or annuloplasty systems, caval valve devices, and transcatheter tricuspid valve replacement. The initial TTVI experience showed that most procedures were well-tolerated, with high procedural success and low in-hospital and early mortality. Also, most TTVI recipients improved their functional status and recent data suggested improved outcomes compared to medical management. However, the rate of significant residual TR following transcatheter TV repair remains high and very scarce data exist on longer term (beyond 6-12 months) outcomes. The present review provides an overview regarding the framework of chronic TR and TTVI therapeutic options, describing the updated current evidence in this challenging field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.12.029DOI Listing
January 2021

SCN5A-C683R exhibits combined gain-of-function and loss-of-function properties related to adrenaline-triggered ventricular arrhythmia.

Exp Physiol 2021 Mar 5;106(3):683-699. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

IUCPQ-UL Research Center, Laval University, Québec, QC, Canada.

New Findings: What is the role of SCN5A-C683R? SCN5A-C683R is a novel variant associated with an uncommon phenotype of adrenaline-triggered ventricular arrhythmia in the absence of a distinct ECG phenotype. What is the main finding and its importance? Functional studies demonstrated that Na 1.5/C683R results in a mixed electrophysiological phenotype with gain-of-function (GOF) and loss-of-function (LOF) properties compared with Na 1.5/wild type. Gain-of-function properties are characterized by a significant increase of the maximal current density and a hyperpolarizing shift of the steady-state activation. The LOF effect of Na 1.5/C683R is characterized by increased closed-state inactivation. Electrophysiological properties and clinical manifestation of SCN5A-C683R are different from long-QT-3 or Brugada syndrome and might represent a distinct inherited arrhythmia syndrome.

Abstract: Mutations of SCN5Ahave been identified as the genetic substrate of various inherited arrhythmia syndromes, including long-QT-3 and Brugada syndrome. We recently identified a novel SCN5A variant (C683R) in two genetically unrelated families. The index patients of both families experienced adrenaline-triggered ventricular arrhythmia with cardiac arrest but did not show a specific ECG phenotype, raising the hypothesis that SCN5A-C683R might be a susceptibility variant and the genetic substrate of distinct inherited arrhythmia. We conducted functional cellular studies to characterize the electrophysiological properties of Na 1.5/C683R in order to explore the potential pathogenicity of this novel variant. The C683R variant was engineered by site-directed mutagenesis. Na 1.5/wild type (WT) and Na 1.5/C683R were expressed in tsA201 cells. Electrophysiological characterization of C683R was performed using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Adrenergic stimulation was mimicked by exposure to the protein kinase A activator 8-CPT-cAMP. The impact of β-blockers was tested by exposing Na 1.5/WT and Na 1.5/C683R currents to propranolol and nadolol. C683R resulted in a co-association of gain-of-function and loss-of-function properties of Na 1.5. Gain-of-function properties were characterized by a significant increase of the maximal Na 1.5 current density compared with Na 1.5/WT (861 ± 309 vs. 627 ± 489 pA/pF; P < 0.05, n ≥ 9) that was potentiated in Na 1.5/C683R with 8-CPT-cAMP stimulation (869 ± 287 vs. 607 ± 320 pA/pF; P < 0.05, n ≥ 12). C683R also resulted in a significant hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage of steady-state activation (-65.4 ± 3.0 vs. -57.2 ± 4.8 mV; P < 0.001), resulting in an increased window current compared with WT. The loss-of-function effect of Na 1.5/C683R was characterized by significantly increased closed-state inactivation compared with Na 1.5/WT (P < 0.05). C683R is a novel SCN5A variant resulting in a co-association of gain-of-function and loss-of-function properties of the cardiac sodium channel Na 1.5. The phenotype is characterized by adrenaline-triggered ventricular arrhythmias. Electrophysiological properties and clinical manifestations are different from long-QT-3 or Brugada syndrome and might represent a distinct inherited arrhythmia syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP089088DOI Listing
March 2021

Canadian Registry of Electronic Device Outcomes (CREDO): The Abbott ICD Premature Battery Depletion Advisory, a Multicentre Cohort Study.

CJC Open 2021 Jan 12;3(1):48-53. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, QEII Health Sciences Center, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Background: Premature or rapid battery depletion may compromise the performance and reliability of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), potentially resulting in harm or death to patients. We sought to describe the outcomes and clinical management of devices included in the Abbott ICD Premature Battery Depletion Advisory, using data from a Canadian registry.

Methods: This prospective observational study includes patients with an Abbott device subject to the advisory, from 9 centres in Canada. The incidence and outcomes related to device revision owing to premature battery depletion were identified and adjudicated by a committee.

Results: There were 2678 patients enrolled with a device subject to the advisory. Devices were implanted between 2010 and 2017; follow-up time was 5.7 ± 0.7 years. Device revision occurred in 222 patients (8.3%). Revision for premature battery depletion occurred in 43 patients (1.6%). Devices were revised at physician discretion on notice of the advisory in 16 patients (0.6%), and at patient request in 5 patients (0.2%). A total of 63 (2.4%) devices reached routine end of battery life. A further 95 (3.5%) patients underwent revision for other reasons. There were no reported major complications or adverse events with device revision owing to the advisory. There were no deaths attributed to premature battery depletion.

Conclusions: The rate of premature battery depletion associated with the Abbott ICD Premature Battery Depletion Advisory is low. There were no clinically adverse events identified that were associated with the battery performance of devices under advisory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjco.2020.09.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801196PMC
January 2021

Understanding important factors for arrhythmogenicity associated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation including left bundle branch block: Authors' reply.

Europace 2021 Feb;23(2):323-324

Department of Cardiology, Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, 2725, chemin Sainte-Foy, Quebec City, Quebec G1V 4G5, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa409DOI Listing
February 2021

Post-operative pain following cardiac implantable electronic device implantation: insights from the BRUISE CONTROL trials.

Europace 2020 Dec 28. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Libin Cardiovascular Institute, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Aims : Post-operative pain following cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) insertion is associated with patient dissatisfaction, emotional distress, and emergency department visits. We sought to identify factors associated with post-operative pain and develop a prediction score for post-operative pain.

Methods And Results : All patients from the BRUISE CONTROL-1 and 2 trials were included in this analysis. A validated Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to assess the severity of pain related to CIED implant procedures. Patients were asked to grade the most severe post-operative pain, average post-operative pain, and pain on the day of the first post-operative clinic. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of significant post-operative pain and to develop a pain-prediction score. A total of 1308 patients were included. Multivariable regression analysis found that the presence of post-operative clinically significant haematoma {CSH; P value < 0.001; odds ratio (OR) 3.82 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.37-6.16]}, de novo CIED implantation [P value < 0.001; OR 1.90 (95% CI: 1.47-2.46)], female sex [P value < 0.001; OR 1.61 (95% CI: 1.22-2.12)], younger age [<65 years; P value < 0.001; OR 1.54 (95% CI: 1.14-2.10)], and lower body mass index [<20 kg/m2; P value < 0.05; OR 2.05 (95% CI: 0.98-4.28)] demonstrated strong and independent associations with increased post-operative pain. An 11-point post-operative pain prediction score was developed using the data.

Conclusion : Our study has identified multiple predictors of post-operative pain after CIED insertion. We have developed a prediction score for post-operative pain that can be used to identify individuals at risk of experiencing significant post-operative pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa349DOI Listing
December 2020

Overcoming the transcatheter aortic valve replacement Achilles heel: conduction abnormalities-a systematic review.

Ann Cardiothorac Surg 2020 Nov;9(6):429-441

Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been shown to be a good alternative to surgery for treating severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) across the whole range of surgical risk patients. Whereas most periprocedural TAVR complications have significantly decreased over time, conduction disturbances remain high. Approaches to decrease this shortcoming are under continuous investigation.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review focusing on modifiable factors impacting post-TAVR conduction disturbances, such as balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV), type of new-generation transcatheter valve and implantation depth (ID). Search strategies were based on the best available evidence from each study. Primary endpoints were post-TAVR need of permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) and new onset left bundle branch block (NOLBBB).

Results: Data from 35 studies with a total of 29,982 patients were analyzed. BAV did not negatively impact PPI rates after TAVR. In propensity-matched and randomized trials, the Evolut R valve was associated with higher rates of PPI compared to the Sapien 3 valve (25% 19.2% in propensity-matched studies; 22.9% 19% in a randomized trial). The Acurate Neo valve was associated with the lowest PPI rate in observational studies (10.4%), but a PPI rate similar to Sapien 3 was reported in a randomized trial (10% 9%). The Portico valve system was associated with a higher PPI risk (PPI rate of 21.9% and 27.7% in propensity-matched and randomized studies, respectively). ID and its relation with the membranous septum (MS) length predicted post-TAVR conduction disturbances, particularly with Evolut R and Sapien 3 valves.

Conclusions: Pre-TAVR BAV did not increase the risk of conduction disturbances post-TAVR. Among the new-generation transcatheter valve systems, Sapien 3 and Acurate Neo valves were associated with the lowest PPI rates followed by the Evolut and Portico valves. A deeper valve implantation and a shorter MS length determined an increased risk of conduction disturbances post-TAVR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/acs-2020-av-40DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724069PMC
November 2020

COVID-19-Myocarditis and Return to Play: Reflections and Recommendations From a Canadian Working Group.

Can J Cardiol 2020 Nov 26. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

University of Toronto, Toronto Ontario, Canada.

The COVID-19-related pandemic has resulted in profound health, financial, and societal impacts. Organized sporting events, from recreational to the Olympic level, have been cancelled to both mitigate the spread of COVID-19 and protect athletes and highly active individuals from potential acute and long-term infection-associated harms. COVID-19 infection has been associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality. Myocarditis and late gadolinium enhancement as a result of COVID-19 infection have been confirmed. Correspondingly, myocarditis has been implicated in sudden cardiac death of athletes. A pragmatic approach is required to guide those who care for athletes and highly active persons with COVID-19 infection. Members of the Community and Athletic Cardiovascular Health Network (CATCHNet) and the writing group for the Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Heart Rhythm Society Joint Position Statement on the Cardiovascular Screening of Competitive Athletes recommend that highly active persons with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection refrain from exercise for 7 days after resolution of viral symptoms before gradual return to exercise. We do not recommend routine troponin testing, resting 12-lead electrocardiography, echocardiography, or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging before return to play. However, medical assessment including history and physical examination with consideration of resting electrocardiography and troponin can be considered in the athlete manifesting new active cardiac symptoms or a marked reduction in fitness. If concerning abnormalities are encountered at the initial medical assessment, then referral to a cardiologist who cares for athletes is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.11.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688421PMC
November 2020

Ventricular Arrhythmia in Septal and Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: The French-Canadian Experience.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2020 22;7:548564. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Division of Cardiology, Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Department, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et Pneumologie de Québec (IUCPQ-UL), Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada.

Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (aHCM) is thought to have a more benign clinical course compared to septal HCM (sHCM), but most data have been derived from Asian cohorts. Comparative data on clinical outcome in Caucasian aHCM cohorts are scarce, and the results are conflicting. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and outcome of aHCM in French-Canadians of Caucasian descent. We conducted a retrospective, single-center cohort study. The primary endpoint was a composite of documented sustained ventricular arrhythmia (VA), appropriate ICD therapy, arrhythmogenic syncope, cardiac arrest, or all-cause mortality. A total of 301 HCM patients (65% males) were enrolled including 80/301 (27%) with aHCM and 221/301 (73%) with sHCM. Maximal wall thickness was similar in both groups. Left ventricular apical aneurysm was significantly more common in aHCM (10 vs. 0.5%; < 0.001). The proportion of patients with myocardial fibrosis ≥ 15% of the left ventricular mass was similar between aHCM and sHCM (21 vs. 24%; = 0.68). Secondary prevention ICDs were more often implanted in aHCM patients (16 vs. 7%; = 0.02). The primary endpoint occurred in 26% of aHCM and 10.4% of sHCM patients ( = 0.001) and was driven by an increased incidence of sustained VA (10 vs. 2.3%; = 0.01). Multivariate analysis identified apical aneurysm and a phenotype of aHCM as independent predictors of the primary endpoint and the occurrence of sustained ventricular tachycardia. Unexplained syncope and a family history of sudden cardiac death were additional predictors for sustained VA. Apical HCM was associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia even when excluding patients with apical aneurysm. The phenotype of apical HCM is much more common in French-Canadians (27%) of Caucasian descent compared to other Caucasian HCM populations. Apical HCM in French-Canadians is associated with an increased risk for ventricular arrhythmia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2020.548564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7642600PMC
October 2020

Arrhythmic burden in patients with new-onset persistent left bundle branch block after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: 2-year results of the MARE study.

Europace 2021 Feb;23(2):254-263

Department of Cardiology, Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, 2725 Ch Ste-Foy, Quebec City, G1V 4G5, Quebec, Canada.

Aims: We determined the incidence and type of arrhythmias at 2-year follow-up in patients with new-onset persistent left bundle branch block (LBBB) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

Methods And Results: Multicentre prospective study including 103 consecutive patients with new-onset persistent LBBB post-TAVR (SAPIEN XT/3: 53; CoreValve/Evolut R: 50). An implantable cardiac monitor (Reveal XT, Reveal Linq) was implanted before hospital discharge and patients had continuous monitoring for up to 2 years. Arrhythmic events were adjudicated in a central core lab. 1836 new arrhythmic events (tachyarrhythmias: 1655 and bradyarrhythmias: 181) occurred at 2 years. Of these, 283 (15%) occurred beyond 1 year (tachyarrhythmias 212, bradyarrhythmias 71) in 33 (36%) patients, without differences between valve type. Most late (>1 year) arrhythmic events were asymptomatic (94%) and led to a treatment change in 17 (19%) patients. A total of 71 late bradyarrhythmias [high-degree atrioventricular block (HAVB): 3, severe bradycardia: 68] were detected in 17 (21%) patients. At 2 years, 18 (17%) patients had received a permanent pacemaker (PPM) or implantable cardiac-defibrillator. PPM implantation due to HAVB predominated in the early phase post-TAVR, with only 1 HAVB event requiring PPM implantation after 1 year.

Conclusion: Patients with new-onset LBBB post-TAVR exhibited a very high burden of arrhythmic events within the 2 years post-procedure. While new tachyarrhythmic events were homogeneously distributed over time, the vast majority of new HAVB episodes leading to PPM implantation occurred early after the procedure. These results should help to guide the management of this challenging group of patients. (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02153307).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa213DOI Listing
February 2021

Findings of remote monitoring of implantable cardioverter defibrillators during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2020 11 26;43(11):1366-1372. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Cardiology, Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Monitoring of cardiac implantable electronic devices was highly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic considering the high volume of in-person visits for regular follow-up. Recent recommendations highlight the important role of remote monitoring to prevent exposure to the virus. This study compared remote monitoring of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in patients whose in-person annual visit was substituted for a remote monitoring session with patients who were already scheduled for a remote monitoring session.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study of 329 consecutive patients between 20 March and 24 April 2020. Group 1 included 131 patients whose in-person annual visit was substituted for a remote monitoring session. Group 2 included 198 patients who underwent a remote monitoring session as scheduled in their usual device follow-up. The time interval since the last in-person visit was 13.3 ± 3.2 months in group 1 and 5.9 ± 1.7 months in group 2 (P < .01).

Results: In group 1, 15 patients (11.5%) experienced a clinical event compared to 15 patients (7.6%) in group 2 (P = .25). Nineteen patients (14.5%) required a physician intervention in group 1 compared to 19 patients (9.6%) in group 2 (P = .22). Two patients (1.5%) in group 1 and four patients (2.0%) in group 2 required an early in-person follow-up visit during the pandemic (P > .99).

Conclusion: Remote monitoring of ICDs is useful to identify clinical events and allows physicians to treat patients appropriately during the COVID-19 pandemic regardless of the time interval since their last in-person visit. It reduces significantly in-person visit for regular follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pace.14086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675613PMC
November 2020

Rate, Time Course, and Predictors of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Infections: An Analysis From the SIMPLE Trial.

CJC Open 2020 Sep 25;2(5):354-359. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The number of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) infections is increasing due to an increased number of ICD implants, higher-risk patients, and more frequent replacement procedures, which carry a higher risk of infection. Reducing the morbidity, mortality, and cost of ICD-related infections requires an understanding of the current rate of this complication and its predictors.

Methods: The hock ant valuation Trial (SIMPLE) trial randomized 2500 ICD recipients to defibrillation testing or not. Over an average of 3.1 years, patients were seen every 6 months and examined for evidence of ICD infection, which was defined as requiring device removal and/or intravenous antibiotics.

Results: Within 24 months, 21 patients (0.8%) developed infection. Fourteen patients (67%) with infection presented within 30 days, 20 patients by 12 months, and only 1 patient beyond 12 months. Univariate analysis demonstrated that patients with primary electrical disorders (3 patients,  = 0.009) and those with a secondary prevention indication (13 patients,  = 0.0009) were more likely to develop infection. Among the 2.2% of patients who developed an ICD wound hematoma, 10.4% developed an infection. Among the 8.3% of patients requiring an ICD reintervention, 1.9% developed an infection.

Conclusions: This cohort of ICD recipients at high-volume centres have a low risk of device-related infection. However; strategies to reduce wound hematoma and the need for ICD reintervention could further reduce the rate of infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjco.2020.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499364PMC
September 2020

Impact of Massive or Torrential Tricuspid Regurgitation in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Intervention.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 09;13(17):1999-2009

Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical outcome of baseline massive or torrential tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention (TTVI).

Background: The use of TTVI to treat symptomatic severe TR has been increasing rapidly, but little is known regarding the impact of massive or torrential TR beyond severe TR.

Methods: The study population comprised 333 patients with significant symptomatic TR from the TriValve Registry who underwent TTVI. Mid-term outcomes after TTVI were assessed according to the presence of massive or torrential TR, defined as vena contracta width ≥14 mm. Procedural success was defined as patient survival after successful device implantation and delivery system retrieval, with residual TR ≤2+. The primary endpoint comprised survival rate and freedom from rehospitalization for heart failure, survival rate, and rehospitalization at 1 year.

Results: Baseline massive or torrential TR and severe TR were observed in 154 patients (46.2%) and 179 patients (53.8%), respectively. Patients with massive or torrential TR had a higher prevalence of ascites than those with severe TR (27.3% vs. 20.4%, respectively; p = 0.15) and demonstrated a similar procedural success rate (83.2% vs. 77.3%, respectively; p = 0.21). The incidence of peri-procedural adverse events was low, with no significant between-group differences. Freedom from the composite endpoint was significantly lower in patients with massive or torrential TR than in those with severe TR, which was significantly associated with an increased risk for 1-year death of any cause or rehospitalization for heart failure (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.91; 95% confidence interval: 1.10 to 3.34; p = 0.022). Freedom from the composite endpoint was significantly higher in patients with massive or torrential TR when procedural success was achieved (69.9% vs. 54.2%, p = 0.048).

Conclusions: Baseline massive or torrential TR is associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality and rehospitalization for heart failure 1 year after TTVI. Procedural success is related to better outcomes, even in the presence of baseline massive or torrential TR. (International Multisite Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Therapies Registry [TriValve]; NCT03416166).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.05.011DOI Listing
September 2020

Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Intervention: Coaptation Devices.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2020 13;7:139. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada.

Transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention (TTVI) has recently emerged as an alternative for the treatment of severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR). Multiple percutaneous devices have been developed in the last decade with promising early results. Among them, the coaptation devices are designed to reduce TR severity by valve leaflet plication or occupying the regurgitant orifice with a spacer. To date, the MitraClip/TriClip devices (Abbott, Santa Clara, CA, USA), the PASCAL system (Edwards Lifesciencies, Irvine, CA, USA), and the FORMA device (Edwards Lifesciencies, Irvine, CA, USA) have been used as coaptation devices for treating severe TR. The present document aimed to review the clinical evidence on coaptation devices in the field of TTVI, describing its design characteristics, main procedural steps, and early and mid-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2020.00139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7438895PMC
August 2020

Timing and evolution of advanced conduction disturbances in patients with right bundle branch block undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

Europace 2020 10;22(10):1537-1546

Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada.

Aims: This study sought to determine the timing and evolution over time of advanced conduction disturbances (CDs) in patients with baseline right bundle branch block (RBBB) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

Methods And Results: One hundred and ten consecutive patients with pre-existing RBBB were included (out of 1341, 8.2%). All arrhythmias during the hospitalization period were recorded. Follow-up was performed at 30 days, 1 year, and yearly thereafter. Conduction recovery and ventricular pacing percentage (VPP) was evaluated at 30 days in those patients with permanent pacemaker implantation (PPMI). Sixty-one (55.5%) patients suffered advanced CDs [97% complete or high-degree atrioventricular block (CHB/HAVB)], and the vast majority (98%) occurred within the first 3 days post-procedure (intraprocedural: 85%). Fifty-two (47.3%) patients had PPMI (vs. 11.0% in non-RBBB patients, P < 0.001). Ventricular pacing percentage at 1 month was higher in patients with persistent-intraprocedural CHB/HAVB compared to those with transient-intraprocedural or post-procedural CHB/HAVB [99 (interquartile range, IQR 97-100)% vs. 72 (IQR 30-99)%, P = 0.02]. Complete recovery (VPP < 1%) was observed in only one patient (2%) with CHB/HAVB. After hospital discharge, no symptomatic bradyarrhythmias or sudden death occurred within 30 days. Patients with pre-existing RBBB exhibited a higher risk of PPMI at 4-year follow-up (26% vs. 8% in non-RBBB patients, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: In patients with pre-existing RBBB, the vast majority of advanced CDs occurred within the 3 days following TAVR, and most did not recover at 1-month, particularly those with intra-procedural persistent CHB/HAVB. These results should help to determine the hospitalization length and timing of PPMI in RBBB patients undergoing TAVR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa149DOI Listing
October 2020

Subcutaneous Implantable Defibrillators: When it Is Time to Extract.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2020 07;6(7):871-873

Cardiac Surgery Division, Lead Extraction Heart Team, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Laval University, Québec, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2020.04.014DOI Listing
July 2020

Prolonged Continuous Electrocardiographic Monitoring Prior to Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: The PARE Study.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 08 15;13(15):1763-1773. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study sought to determine, using continuous electrocardiographic monitoring (CEM) pre-transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), the incidence and type of unknown pre-existing arrhythmic events (AEs) in TAVR candidates, and to evaluate the occurrence and impact of therapeutic changes secondary to the detection of AEs pre-TAVR.

Background: Scarce data exist on the arrhythmic burden of TAVR candidates (pre-procedure).

Methods: This was a prospective study including 106 patients with severe aortic stenosis and no prior permanent pacemaker screened for TAVR. A prolonged (1 week) CEM was implanted within the 3 months pre-TAVR. Following heart team evaluation, 90 patients underwent elective TAVR.

Results: New AEs were detected by CEM in 51 (48.1%) patients, leading to a treatment change in 14 of 51 (27.5%) patients. Atrial fibrillation or tachycardia was detected in 8 of 79 (10.1%) patients without known atrial fibrillation or tachycardia, and nonsustained ventricular arrhythmias were detected in 31 (29.2%) patients. Significant bradyarrhythmias were observed in 22 (20.8%) patients, leading to treatment change and permanent pacemaker in 8 of 22 (36.4%) and 4 of 22 (18.2%) patients, respectively. The detection of bradyarrhythmias increased up to 30% and 47% among those patients with pre-existing first-degree atrioventricular block and right bundle branch block, respectively. Chronic renal failure, higher valve calcification, and left ventricular dysfunction determined (or tended to determine) an increased risk of AEs pre-TAVR (p = 0.028, 0.052, and 0.069, respectively). New onset AEs post-TAVR occurred in 22.1% of patients, and CEM pre-TAVR allowed early arrhythmia diagnosis in one-third of them.

Conclusions: Prolonged CEM in TAVR candidates allowed identification of previously unknown AEs in nearly one-half of the patients, leading to prompt therapeutic measures (pre-TAVR) in about one-fourth of them. Pre-existing conduction disturbances (particularly right bundle branch block) and chronic renal failure were associated with a higher burden of AEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.03.031DOI Listing
August 2020

Driving Restrictions and Early Arrhythmias in Patients Receiving a Primary-Prevention Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (DREAM-ICD) Study.

Can J Cardiol 2020 Aug 28;36(8):1269-1277. Epub 2020 May 28.

Heart Rhythm Services, Division of Cardiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Current guidelines recommend 4 weeks of private driving restriction after implantation of a primary-prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). These driving restrictions result in significant inconvenience and social implications. Advances in medical treatment and ICD programming have lowered the overall rate of device therapies. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of ICD therapies at 30, 60, and 180 days after implantation.

Methods: Driving Restrictions and Early Arrhythmias in Patients Receiving a Primary-Prevention Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (DREAM-ICD) was a retrospective cohort study conducted at 2 Canadian university centres enrolling patients with new implantation of a primary-prevention ICD. Device programming was standardised according to current guidelines. A total of 803 patients were enrolled.

Results: The cumulative rates of appropriate ICD therapies at 30, 60, and 180 days were 0.12%, 0.50%, and 0.75%, respectively. There was no syncope during the first 6 months. The median duration to the first appropriate ICD therapy was 208 (range 23-1109) days after implantation. The rate of inappropriate ICD therapies at 30 days was only 0.2%. Overall, < 13.6% of all appropriate ICD therapies occurred within the first 6 months after implantation.

Conclusions: The rate of appropriate ICD therapies within the first 30 days after device insertion is extremely low in contemporary primary prevention cohorts with guideline-concordant device programming. There was no increased risk for ventricular arrhythmia early after ICD insertion. The results of DREAM-ICD suggest the need for a revision of the existing driving restrictions for primary-prevention ICD recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.05.029DOI Listing
August 2020

Percutaneous Atriotomy for Levoatrial-to-Coronary Sinus Shunting in Symptomatic Heart Failure: First-in-Human Experience.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 05;13(10):1236-1247

CAPITAL Research Group, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: Our study reports the first-in-human experience of a novel approach for left atrial access via the coronary sinus-the percutaneous atriotomy-which is used for left atrial decompression with a dedicated left atrial (LA)-to-coronary sinus (CS) shunt.

Background: Elevated LA pressures contribute to heart failure symptoms, and targeted therapy with atrial shunt devices for LA decompression is an emerging strategy. Current devices reside in the interatrial septum, with risk for right-to-left shunting and systemic embolization. Moreover, preservation of the interatrial septum is imperative with an increasing number of left-sided transseptal transcatheter interventions.

Methods: Patients with symptomatic heart failure underwent implantation in a multicenter, international compassionate experience. Clinical, anatomic, and hemodynamic parameters were assessed at baseline and follow-up. The right internal jugular vein enabled CS cannulation, followed by CS-to-LA puncture and balloon dilation of the LA wall, completing the percutaneous atriotomy. The novel shunt device was then deployed between the left atrium and CS, enabling LA decompression.

Results: Percutaneous atriotomy was attempted in 11 patients, with success in 8; of these, all shunt deployments were successful. In follow-up (median 201 days; interquartile range [IQR]: 156 to 260 days) there were no major periprocedural adverse events, New York Heart Association functional class improved to I or II in 87.5%, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was reduced (Δ -9 mm Hg; IQR: -9.5 to -8 mm Hg), and shunting was sustained (Δ Qp/Qs 0.25; IQR: 0.19 to 0.33).

Conclusions: Our study reports the first-in-human experience of a novel approach for left-sided transcatheter cardiac interventions: the percutaneous atriotomy. This approach enabled the placement of a novel LA-to-CS shunt for LA decompression. The procedure is feasible and results in clinical and hemodynamic improvements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.02.022DOI Listing
May 2020

Performance of a novel active fixation quadripolar left ventricular lead for cardiac resynchronization therapy: Attain Stability Quad Clinical Study results.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2020 05 18;31(5):1147-1154. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Division of Cardiology, Vanderbilt University Heart and Vascular Institute, Nashville, Tennessee.

Introduction: The Medtronic Attain Stability Quad lead is a quadripolar left ventricular (LV) lead with an active fixation helix assembly designed to fixate the lead within the coronary sinus and pace nonapical regions of the LV. The primary objective of this study was to determine the safety and effectiveness of this novel active fixation quadripolar LV lead.

Methods: Patients with standard indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) were enrolled. All patients were followed at 3 and 6 months post-implant and every 6 months thereafter until study closure. Pacing capture thresholds (PCTs) were measured at implant and each follow-up and adverse events (AEs) were recorded upon occurrence.

Results: Of the 440 patients who underwent implant procedures, placement of the Attain Stability Quad lead was successful in 426 (96.8%). LV lead-related complications occurred in 10 patients (2.3%), including LV lead dislodgement in three patients (0.7%). The percentage of patients with at least one LV pacing vector with a PCT ≤2.5 V at a 6-month follow-up was 96.3%. The LV lead was successfully fixated to the prespecified pacing location in 97.4% of cases.

Conclusions: This large, multinational study of the Attain Stability Quad lead demonstrated a high rate of implant success with a low complication rate. The active fixation mechanism allowed precise placement of the pacing electrodes at the desired target region with good PCTs and a very low dislodgement rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.14439DOI Listing
May 2020

Can we reduce conduction disturbances following transcatheter aortic valve replacement?

Expert Rev Med Devices 2020 Apr 27;17(4):309-322. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada.

: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been demonstrated to be a good alternative to surgery for treating severe aortic stenosis (AS) across the whole range of surgical risk patients. Whereas most periprocedural TAVR complications have significantly decreased over time, conduction disturbances remain high. Approaches to decrease this shortcoming are under continuous investigation.: Overview of the actual evidence regarding conduction disturbances in the TAVR setting, focusing on modifiable factors. PubMed and Embase databases were used for literature search.: Several factors have been associated with an increased risk of conduction disturbances post-TAVR, and some of them may be modifiable. While some transcatheter valve systems have been associated with higher rates of conduction disturbances, additional randomized data are needed to draw definite conclusions about newer generation transcatheter valve systems. Nowadays, good hemodynamic valve function can be obtained without excessive valve oversizing, which has been associated with an increased risk of conduction disturbances in some studies. Also, contemporary data regarding valve implantation depth and new anatomical landmarks such as membranous septum length have provided valuable insights for procedural planning. Finally, homogenization of the management of conduction abnormalities post-TAVR should be emphasized to allow a better understanding and generalization of available evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17434440.2020.1741349DOI Listing
April 2020

Clinical impact of conduction disturbances in transcatheter aortic valve replacement recipients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Heart J 2020 08;41(29):2771-2781

Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, 2725 chemin Ste-Foy, Quebec City, Quebec G1V4G5, Canada.

Aims: The clinical impact of new-onset persistent left bundle branch block (NOP-LBBB) and permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) on transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) recipients remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate the impact of (i) periprocedural NOP-LBBB and PPI post-TAVR on 1-year all-cause death, cardiac death, and heart failure hospitalization and (ii) NOP-LBBB on the need for PPI at 1-year follow-up.

Methods And Results: We performed a systematic search from PubMed and EMBASE databases for studies reporting raw data on 1-year clinical impact of NOP-LBBB or periprocedural PPI post-TAVR. Data from 30 studies, including 7792 patients (12 studies) and 42 927 patients (21 studies) for the evaluation of the impact of NOP-LBBB and PPI after TAVR were sourced, respectively. NOP-LBBB was associated with an increased risk of all-cause death [risk ratio (RR) 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-1.49; P < 0.001], cardiac death (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.20-1.78; P < 0.001), heart failure hospitalization (RR 1.35, 95% CI 1.05-1.72; P = 0.02), and PPI (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.58-2.27; P < 0.001) at 1-year follow-up. Periprocedural PPI after TAVR was associated with a higher risk of all-cause death (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11-1.25; P < 0.001) and heart failure hospitalization (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.03-1.36; P = 0.02). Permanent pacemaker implantation was not associated with an increased risk of cardiac death (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.67-1.05; P = 0.13).

Conclusion: NOP-LBBB and PPI after TAVR are associated with an increased risk of all-cause death and heart failure hospitalization at 1-year follow-up. Periprocedural NOP-LBBB also increased the risk of cardiac death and PPI within the year following the procedure. Further studies are urgently warranted to enhance preventive measures and optimize the management of conduction disturbances post-TAVR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz924DOI Listing
August 2020