Publications by authors named "François Fenaille"

114 Publications

Normal transferrin patterns in congenital disorders of glycosylation with Golgi homeostasis disruption: apolipoprotein C-III at the rescue!

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Aug 20;519:285-290. Epub 2021 May 20.

AP-HP, Biochimie Métabolique et Cellulaire, Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard, Paris, France; INSERM UMR1193, Mécanismes cellulaires et moléculaires de l'adaptation au stress et cancérogenèse, Université Paris-Sud, Châtenay-Malabry, France. Electronic address:

We identified three cases of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) with Golgi homeostasis disruption, one ATP6V0A2-CDG and two COG4-CDG, with normal transferrin screening analyses. Patient 1 (P1) presented at birth with cutis laxa. Patient 2 (P2) and patient 3 (P3) are adult siblings and presented with severe symptoms evocative of inborn errors of metabolism. Targeted gene sequencing in P1 revealed pathogenic ATP6V0A2 variants, shared by her affected older brother. In P2 and P3, whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous COG4 variant of unknown significance. In all affected individuals, transferrin analysis was normal. Mass-spectrometry based serum N-glycome analysis and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) of haptoglobin and of mucin core 1 O-glycosylated apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) were performed. All results of second-line N-glycosylation analyses were initially normal. However, apoC-III 2-DE revealed characteristic "apoC-III" pattern in P1 and specific "apoC-III" patterns in P2 and P3. In P2 and P3, this allowed reclassifying the variant as likely pathogenic according to ACMG guidelines. These cases highlight the existence of normal transferrin patterns in CDG with Golgi homeostasis disruption, putting the clinicians at risk of misdiagnosing patients. Furthermore, they show the potential of apoC-III 2-DE in diagnosing this type of CDG, with highly specific patterns in COG-CDG.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2021.05.016DOI Listing
August 2021

A mutation in SLC37A4 causes a dominantly inherited congenital disorder of glycosylation characterized by liver dysfunction.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 Jun 7;108(6):1040-1052. Epub 2021 May 7.

Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

SLC37A4 encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized multitransmembrane protein required for transporting glucose-6-phosphate (Glc-6P) into the ER. Once transported into the ER, Glc-6P is subsequently hydrolyzed by tissue-specific phosphatases to glucose and inorganic phosphate during times of glucose depletion. Pathogenic variants in SLC37A4 cause an established recessive disorder known as glycogen storage disorder 1b characterized by liver and kidney dysfunction with neutropenia. We report seven individuals who presented with liver dysfunction multifactorial coagulation deficiency and cardiac issues and were heterozygous for the same variant, c.1267C>T (p.Arg423), in SLC37A4; the affected individuals were from four unrelated families. Serum samples from affected individuals showed profound accumulation of both high mannose and hybrid type N-glycans, while N-glycans in fibroblasts and undifferentiated iPSC were normal. Due to the liver-specific nature of this disorder, we generated a CRISPR base-edited hepatoma cell line harboring the c.1267C>T (p.Arg423) variant. These cells replicated the secreted abnormalities seen in serum N-glycosylation, and a portion of the mutant protein appears to relocate to a distinct, non-Golgi compartment, possibly ER exit sites. These cells also show a gene dosage-dependent alteration in the Golgi morphology and reduced intraluminal pH that may account for the altered glycosylation. In summary, we identify a recurrent mutation in SLC37A4 that causes a dominantly inherited congenital disorder of glycosylation characterized by coagulopathy and liver dysfunction with abnormal serum N-glycans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.04.013DOI Listing
June 2021

First Direct Evidence of Interpartner Hydride/Deuteride Exchanges for Stored Sodiated Arginine/Fructose-6-phosphate Complex Anions within Salt-Solvated Structures.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2021 Jun 30;32(6):1424-1440. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Sorbonne Université, Faculté des Sciences et de l'Ingénierie, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire (IPCM), F-75005 Paris, France.

Mass spectrometric investigations of noncovalent binding between low molecular weight compounds revealed the existence of gas-phase (GP) noncovalent complex (NCC) ions involving zwitterionic structures. ESI MS is used to prove the formation of stable sodiated NCC anions between fructose (F6P) and arginine (R) moieties. Theoretical calculations indicate a folded solvated salt (i.e., sodiated carboxylate interacting with phosphate) rather than a charge-solvated form. Under standard CID conditions, [(F6P+R-H+Na)-H] competitively forms two major product ions (PIs) through partner splitting [(R-H+Na) loss] and charge-induced cross-ring cleavage while preserving the noncovalent interactions (noncovalent product ions (NCPIs)). MS/MS experiments combined with in-solution proton/deuteron exchanges (HDXs) demonstrated an unexpected labeling of PIs, i.e., a correlated D-enrichment/D-depletion. An increase in activation time up to 3000 ms favors such processes when limited to two H/D exchanges. These results are rationalized by interpartner hydride/deuteride exchanges (⟨HDX⟩) through stepwise isomerization/dissociation of sodiated NCC-d11 anions. In addition, the D-enrichment/D-depletion discrepancy is further explained by back HDX with residual water in LTQ (selective for the isotopologue NCPIs as shown by PI relaxation experiments). Each isotopologue leads to only one back HDX unlike multiple HDXs generally observed in GP. This behavior shows that NCPIs are zwitterions with charges solvated by a single water molecule, thus generating a back HDX through a relay mechanism, which quenches the charges and prevents further back HDX. By estimating back HDX impact on D-depletion, the interpartner ⟨HDX⟩ complementarity was thus illustrated. This is the first description of interpartner ⟨HDX⟩ and selective back HDX validating salt-solvated structures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jasms.1c00040DOI Listing
June 2021

Small Mass but Strong Information: Diagnostic Ions Provide Crucial Clues to Correctly Identify Histone Lysine Modifications.

Proteomes 2021 Apr 23;9(2). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Studying the Dynamics of Proteins (EDyP), University Grenoble Alpes, CEA, Inserm, IRIG-BGE, 38000 Grenoble, France.

(1) Background: The proteomic analysis of histones constitutes a delicate task due to the combination of two factors: slight variations in the amino acid sequences of variants and the multiplicity of post-translational modifications (PTMs), particularly those occurring on lysine residues. (2) Methods: To dissect the relationship between both aspects, we carefully evaluated PTM identification on lysine 27 from histone H3 (H3K27) and the artefactual chemical modifications that may lead to erroneous PTM determination. H3K27 is a particularly interesting example because it can bear a range of PTMs and it sits nearby residues 29 and 31 that vary between H3 sequence variants. We discuss how the retention times, neutral losses and immonium/diagnostic ions observed in the MS/MS spectra of peptides bearing modified lysines detectable in the low-mass region might help validate the identification of modified sequences. (3) Results: Diagnostic ions carry key information, thereby avoiding potential mis-identifications due to either isobaric PTM combinations or isobaric amino acid-PTM combinations. This also includes cases where chemical formylation or acetylation of peptide N-termini artefactually occurs during sample processing or simply in the timeframe of LC-MS/MS analysis. Finally, in the very subtle case of positional isomers possibly corresponding to a given mass of lysine modification, the immonium and diagnostic ions may allow the identification of the in vivo structure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/proteomes9020018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167651PMC
April 2021

Mitochondrial metabolism supports resistance to IDH mutant inhibitors in acute myeloid leukemia.

J Exp Med 2021 May;218(5)

Institut de Recherche en Cancérologie de Montpellier, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherché Médicale, Université de Montpellier, Institut Régional du Cancer Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Mutations in IDH induce epigenetic and transcriptional reprogramming, differentiation bias, and susceptibility to mitochondrial inhibitors in cancer cells. Here, we first show that cell lines, PDXs, and patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring an IDH mutation displayed an enhanced mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Along with an increase in TCA cycle intermediates, this AML-specific metabolic behavior mechanistically occurred through the increase in electron transport chain complex I activity, mitochondrial respiration, and methylation-driven CEBPα-induced fatty acid β-oxidation of IDH1 mutant cells. While IDH1 mutant inhibitor reduced 2-HG oncometabolite and CEBPα methylation, it failed to reverse FAO and OxPHOS. These mitochondrial activities were maintained through the inhibition of Akt and enhanced activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 PGC1α upon IDH1 mutant inhibitor. Accordingly, OxPHOS inhibitors improved anti-AML efficacy of IDH mutant inhibitors in vivo. This work provides a scientific rationale for combinatory mitochondrial-targeted therapies to treat IDH mutant AML patients, especially those unresponsive to or relapsing from IDH mutant inhibitors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20200924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995203PMC
May 2021

Quantitative Determination of Enterotoxins Types A to I and Variants in Dairy Food Products by Multiplex Immuno-LC-MS/MS.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Mar 17;69(8):2603-2610. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Département Médicaments et Technologies pour la Santé (DMTS), SPI, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, INRAE, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are responsible for frequent food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. Specific identification of SEs is crucial for confirmation of food poisoning, tracking of the incriminated foods or food ingredients, and removal from the food chain. Here, we report on a new food testing protocol addressing the challenge of low abundance of SEs in contaminated food and high sequence heterogeneity. Multiplex ability of targeted high-resolution mass spectrometry was succesfully applied to the simultaneous and quantitative determination of the eight most frequent SEs including sequence variants. In this aim, between three and eight proteotypic peptides of each SE were selected by carefully considering amino acid variations within each type, and sequence homology between types. Quantification of trace levels of SEs directly in food samples was reached by immunoaffinity enrichment and optimized analytical conditions. The assay was validated in dairy food products with a lower limit of quantification down to 0.1 ng/g (in milk), and quantification of SEs was successfully demonstrated in real-life samples collected during staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. Importantly, the ability of the method to detect diverse sequence variants was also illustrated. By enabling for the first time the simultaneous quantification of the eight most frequent SEs, the new mass spectrometry-based assay would facilitate the laboratory confirmation of positive samples in situation of food poisoning outbreaks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c07545DOI Listing
March 2021

The effect of acute moderate-intensity exercise on the serum and fecal metabolomes and the gut microbiota of cross-country endurance athletes.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 11;11(1):3558. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

MAS Microbiota Research Group, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, 28670, Villaviciosa de Odón, Madrid, Spain.

Physical exercise can produce changes in the microbiota, conferring health benefits through mechanisms that are not fully understood. We sought to determine the changes driven by exercise on the gut microbiota and on the serum and fecal metabolome using 16S rRNA gene analysis and untargeted metabolomics. A total of 85 serum and 12 fecal metabolites and six bacterial taxa (Romboutsia, Escherichia coli TOP498, Ruminococcaceae UCG-005, Blautia, Ruminiclostridium 9 and Clostridium phoceensis) were modified following a controlled acute exercise session. Among the bacterial taxa, Ruminiclostridium 9 was the most influenced by fecal and serum metabolites, as revealed by linear multivariate regression analysis. Exercise significantly increased the fecal ammonia content. Functional analysis revealed that alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism and the arginine and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis pathways were the most relevant modified pathways in serum, whereas the phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis pathway was the most relevant pathway modified in feces. Correlation analysis between fecal and serum metabolites suggested an exchange of metabolites between both compartments. Thus, the performance of a single exercise bout in cross-country non-professional athletes produces significant changes in the microbiota and in the serum and fecal metabolome, which may have health implications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82947-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878499PMC
February 2021

Ricin Antibodies' Neutralizing Capacity against Different Ricin Isoforms and Cultivars.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 01 29;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Paris-Saclay University, CEA, INRAE, Medicines and Healthcare Technologies Department (DMTS), SPI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Ricin, a highly toxic protein from , is considered a potential biowarfare agent. Despite the many data available, no specific treatment has yet been approved. Due to their ability to provide immediate protection, antibodies (Abs) are an approach of choice. However, their high specificity might compromise their capacity to protect against the different ricin isoforms (D and E) found in the different cultivars. In previous work, we have shown the neutralizing potential of different Abs (43RCA-G1 (anti ricin A-chain) and RB34 and RB37 (anti ricin B-chain)) against ricin D. In this study, we evaluated their protective capacity against both ricin isoforms. We show that: (i) RB34 and RB37 recognize exclusively ricin D, whereas 43RCA-G1 recognizes both isoforms, (ii) their neutralizing capacity in vitro varies depending on the cultivar, and (iii) there is a synergistic effect when combining RB34 and 43RCA-G1. This effect is also demonstrated in vivo in a mouse model of intranasal intoxication with ricin D/E (1:1), where approximately 60% and 40% of mice treated 0 and 6 h after intoxication, respectively, are protected. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating the effectiveness of the Abs against different ricin isoforms to identify the treatment with the broadest spectrum neutralizing effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911099PMC
January 2021

The Adipose Microenvironment Dysregulates the Mammary Myoepithelial Cells and Could Participate to the Progression of Breast Cancer.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 11;8:571948. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Université Clermont Auvergne, INRAE, UNH, ECREIN, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Overweight and obesity are now recognized as established risk factors for this pathology in postmenopausal women. These conditions are also believed to be responsible for higher recurrence and mortality rates. Reciprocal interactions have been described between adipose and cancer cells. An adipose microenvironment favors a greater proliferation of cancer cells, their invasion and even resistance to anti-cancer treatments. In addition, the chronic low-grade inflammation observed in obese individuals is believed to amplify these processes. Among the cell types present in the breast, myoepithelial cells (MECs), located at the interface of the epithelial cells and the stroma, are considered "tumor suppressor" cells. During the transition from ductal carcinoma to invasive cancer, disorganization or even the disappearance of MECs is observed, thereby enhancing the ability of the cancer cells to migrate. As the adipose microenvironment is now considered as a central actor in the progression of breast cancer, our objective was to evaluate if it could be involved in MEC functional modifications, leading to the transition of to invasive carcinoma, particularly in obese patients. Through a co-culture model, we investigated the impact of human adipose stem cells from women of normal weight and obese women, differentiated or not into mature adipocytes, on the functionality of the MECs by measuring changes in viability, apoptosis, gene, and miRNA expressions. We found that adipose cells (precursors and differentiated adipocytes) could decrease the viability of the MECs, regardless of the original BMI. The adipose cells could also disrupt the expression of the genes involved in the maintenance of the extracellular matrix and to amplify the expression of leptin and inflammatory markers. miR-122-5p and miR-132-3p could also be considered as targets for adipose cells. The metabolite analyses revealed specific profiles that may be involved in the growth of neoplastic cells. All of these perturbations could thus be responsible for the loss of tumor suppressor status of MECs and promote the transition from to invasive carcinoma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.571948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7829501PMC
January 2021

Quantitative Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Virus in Nasopharyngeal Swabs Stored in Transport Medium by a Straightforward LC-MS/MS Assay Targeting Nucleocapsid, Membrane, and Spike Proteins.

J Proteome Res 2021 02 26;20(2):1434-1443. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, INRAE, Département Médicaments et Technologies pour la Santé (DMTS), SPI, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France.

Alternative methods to RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 detection are investigated to provide complementary data on viral proteins, increase the number of tests performed, or identify false positive/negative results. Here, we have developed a simple mass spectrometry assay for SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal swab samples using common laboratory reagents. The method employs high sensitivity and selectivity targeted mass spectrometry detection, monitoring nine constitutive peptides representative of the three main viral proteins and a straightforward pellet digestion protocol for convenient routine applications. Absolute quantification of N, M, and S proteins was achieved by addition of isotope-labeled versions of best peptides. Limit of detection, recovery, precision, and linearity were thoroughly evaluated in four representative viral transport media (VTM) containing distinct total protein content. The protocol was sensitive in all swab media with limit of detection determined at 2 × 10 pfu/mL, corresponding to as low as 30 pfu injected into the LC-MS/MS system. When tested on VTM-stored nasopharyngeal swab samples from positive and control patients, sensitivity was similar to or better than rapid immunoassay dipsticks, revealing a corresponding RT-PCR detection threshold at Ct ∼ 24. The study represents the first thorough evaluation of sensitivity and robustness of targeted mass spectrometry in nasal swabs, constituting a promising SARS-CoV-2 antigen assay for the first-line diagnosis of COVID-19 and compatible with the constraints of clinical settings. The raw files generated in this study can be found on PASSEL (Peptide Atlas) under data set identifier PASS01646.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.0c00887DOI Listing
February 2021

Metabotypes of Correlate with Antibiotic Resistance, Virulence and Clinical Outcome in Cystic Fibrosis Chronic Infections.

Metabolites 2021 Jan 21;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Département de Biochimie, Faculté de médecine de Grenoble, CNRS, CHU Grenoble Alpes, University Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble INP*, TIMC-IMAG, 38000 Grenoble, France.

() is one of the most critical antibiotic resistant bacteria in the world and is the most prevalent pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF), causing chronic lung infections that are considered one of the major causes of mortality in CF patients. Although several studies have contributed to understanding within-host adaptive evolution at a genomic level, it is still difficult to establish direct relationships between the observed mutations, expression of clinically relevant phenotypes, and clinical outcomes. Here, we performed a comparative untargeted LC/HRMS-based metabolomics analysis of sequential isolates from chronically infected CF patients to obtain a functional view of adaptation. Metabolic profiles were integrated with expression of bacterial phenotypes and clinical measurements following multiscale analysis methods. Our results highlighted significant associations between "metabotypes", expression of antibiotic resistance and virulence phenotypes, and frequency of clinical exacerbations, thus identifying promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets for difficult-to-treat infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11020063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7909822PMC
January 2021

Development and Evaluation of an Immuno-MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Approach for Quantification of the Abrin Toxin in Complex Food Matrices.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 01 13;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 13.

CEA, INRAE, Département Médicaments et Technologies pour la Santé (DMTS), Université Paris Saclay, SPI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

The toxin abrin found in the seeds of has attracted much attention regarding criminal and terroristic misuse over the past decade. Progress in analytical methods for a rapid and unambiguous identification of low abrin concentrations in complex matrices is essential. Here, we report on the development and evaluation of a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry approach for the fast, sensitive and robust abrin isolectin identification, differentiation and quantification in complex food matrices. The method combines immunoaffinity-enrichment with specific abrin antibodies, accelerated trypsin digestion and the subsequent MALDI-TOF analysis of abrin peptides using labeled peptides for quantification purposes. Following the optimization of the workflow, common and isoform-specific peptides were detected resulting in a ~38% sequence coverage of abrin when testing ng-amounts of the toxin. The lower limit of detection was established at 40 ng/mL in milk and apple juice. Isotope-labeled versions of abundant peptides with high ionization efficiency were added. The quantitative evaluation demonstrated an assay variability at or below 22% with a linear range up to 800 ng/mL. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry allows for a simple and fast (<5 min) analysis of abrin peptides, without a time-consuming peptide chromatographic separation, thus constituting a relevant alternative to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13010052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828309PMC
January 2021

Glutathione conjugates of the mercapturic acid pathway and guanine adduct as biomarkers of exposure to CEES, a sulfur mustard analog.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Feb 7;413(5):1337-1351. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, CNRS, IRIG, SyMMES, 38000, Grenoble, France.

Sulfur mustard (SM), a chemical warfare agent, is a strong alkylating compound that readily reacts with numerous biomolecules. The goal of the present work was to define and validate new biomarkers of exposure to SM that could be easily accessible in urine or plasma. Because investigations using SM are prohibited by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, we worked with 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM. We developed an ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) approach to the conjugate of CEES to glutathione and two of its metabolites: the cysteine and the N-acetylcysteine conjugates. The N7-guanine adduct of CEES (N7Gua-CEES) was also targeted. After synthesizing the specific biomarkers, a solid-phase extraction protocol and a UHPLC-MS/MS method with isotopic dilution were optimized. We were able to quantify N7Gua-CEES in the DNA of HaCaT keratinocytes and of explants of human skin exposed to CEES. N7Gua-CEES was also detected in the culture medium of these two models, together with the glutathione and the cysteine conjugates. In contrast, the N-acetylcysteine conjugate was not detected. The method was then applied to plasma from mice cutaneously exposed to CEES. All four markers could be detected. Our present results thus validate both the analytical technique and the biological relevance of new, easily quantifiable biomarkers of exposure to CEES. Because CEES behaves very similar to SM, the results are promising for application to this toxic of interest.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-020-03096-4DOI Listing
February 2021

Assessing the role of amino acids in systemic inflammation and organ failure in patients with ACLF.

J Hepatol 2021 May 1;74(5):1117-1131. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

EF Clif, EASL-CLIF Consortium and Grifols Chair, Barcelona, Spain.

Background & Aims: Systemic inflammation and organ failure(s) are the hallmarks of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), yet their pathogenesis remains uncertain. Herein, we aimed to assess the role of amino acids in these processes in patients with ACLF.

Methods: The blood metabolomic database of the CANONIC study (comprising 137 metabolites, with 43% related to amino acids) - obtained in 181 patients with ACLF and 650 with acute decompensation without ACLF (AD) - was reanalyzed with a focus on amino acids, in particular 9 modules of co-regulated metabolites. We also compared blood metabolite levels between ACLF and AD.

Results: The main findings in ACLF were: i) Metabolite modules were increased in parallel with increased levels of markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. ii) Seventy percent of proteinogenic amino acids were present and most were increased. iii) A metabolic network, comprising the amino acids aspartate, glutamate, the serine-glycine one-carbon metabolism (folate cycle), and methionine cycle, was activated, suggesting increased purine and pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. iv) Cystathionine, L-cystine, glutamate and pyroglutamate, which are involved in the transsulfuration pathway (a methionine cycle branch) were increased, consistent with increased synthesis of the antioxidant glutathione. v) Intermediates of the catabolism of 5 out of the 6 ketogenic amino acids were increased. vi) The levels of spermidine (a polyamine inducer of autophagy with anti-inflammatory effects) were decreased.

Conclusions: In ACLF, blood amino acids fueled protein and nucleotide synthesis required for the intense systemic inflammatory response. Ketogenic amino acids were extensively catabolized to produce energy substrates in peripheral organs, an effect that was insufficient because organs failed. Finally, the decrease in spermidine levels may cause a defect in autophagy contributing to the proinflammatory phenotype in ACLF.

Lay Summary: Systemic inflammation and organ failures are hallmarks of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Herein, we aimed to characterize the role of amino acids in these processes. The blood metabolome of patients with acutely decompensated cirrhosis, and particularly those with ACLF, reveals evidence of intense skeletal muscle catabolism. Importantly, amino acids (along with glucose), are used for intense anabolic, energy-consuming metabolism in patients with ACLF, presumably to support de novo nucleotide and protein synthesis in the activated innate immune system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.11.035DOI Listing
May 2021

Evaluation of erythropoietin biosimilars Epotin™, Hemax® and Jimaixin™ by electrophoretic methods used for doping control analysis and specific N-glycan analysis revealed structural differences from original epoetin alfa drug Eprex®.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Feb 5;194:113750. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Analyses Department, Agence Française de Lutte contre le Dopage (AFLD), Châtenay-Malabry, France. Electronic address:

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rEPO) biosimilars are copies of epoetin drugs developed after the first patents ended. However differences in the process of production can result in small structural differences when compared to the reference product. Differences in N-glycosylation profiles are of particular importance for rEPOs, because they can drastically impact the half-life in circulation and activity. Changes of structure can also impact electrophoretic profiles that are used to reveal the presence of a rEPO in a doping control sample. In this study three not well characterized biosimilars were evaluated (Jimaixin™ authorized in China, and Hemax® and Epotin™ authorized in Algeria). As these products could be used for doping, first their EPO profiles were determined using the antidoping methods (electrophoretic separation by the charge (isolectric focusing, IEF-PAGE) or the molecular weight (SDS-PAGE) and specific EPO immunodetection). Compared to the original epoetin alfa Eprex®, it revealed more basic isoforms for Epotin™ and Jimaixin™ after IEF-PAGE and a slightly lower molecular weight after SDS-PAGE in particular for Hemax®. To better understand the reason for these differences, EPO specific N-glycans were evaluated using two complementary approaches: MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with fluorescence detection. All three biosimilars presented a significant decrease in the major glycan forms of Eprex® along with an increase in less complex forms. Jimaixin™ and Epotin™ presented also a lower amount of fully sialylated forms. HILIC method also showed that O-acetylation level of sialic acid residues might vary from one rEPO to the other.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113750DOI Listing
February 2021

Investigation of space charge effects and ion trapping capacity on direct introduction ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry workflows for metabolomics.

J Mass Spectrom 2020 Oct;55(10):e4613

Sorbonne Université, Faculté des Sciences et Ingénierie, IPCM, UMR 8232, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris Cedex 05, 75252, France.

Ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry, in the absence of chromatography, is finding its place for direct analyses of highly complex mixtures, such as those encountered during untargeted metabolomics screening. Advances, however, have been tempered by difficulties such as uneven signal suppression experienced during electrospray ionization. Moreover, ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometers that use Orbitrap and ICR analyzers both suffer from limited ion trapping capacities, owing principally to space-charge effects. This study has evaluated and contrasted the above two types of Fourier transform mass spectrometers for their abilities to detect and identify by accurate mass measurement, small molecule metabolites present in complex mixtures. For these direct introduction studies, the Orbitrap Fusion showed a major advantage in terms of speed of analysis, enabling detection of 218 of 440 molecules (<2 ppm error, 500 000 resolution at m/z 200) present in a complex mixture in 5 min. This approach is the most viable for high-throughput workflows, such as those used in investigations involving very large cohorts of metabolomics samples. From the same mixture, 183 unique molecules were observed by FT-ICR in the broadband mode, but this number was raised to 235 when "selected ion monitoring-stitching" (SIM-stitching) was employed (<0.1 ppm error, 7 T magnet with dynamic harmonization cell, 1.8 million resolution at m/z 200, both cases). SIM-stitching FT-ICR thus offered the most complete detection, which may be of paramount importance in situations where it is essential to obtain the most complete metabolic profile possible. This added completeness, however, came at the cost of a more lengthy analysis time (120 min including manual treatment). Compared to the data presented here, future automation of processing, plus the use of absorption mode detection, segmented ion detection (stepwise detection of smaller width m/z sections), and higher magnetic field strengths, can substantially reduce FT-ICR acquisition times.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jms.4613DOI Listing
October 2020

Prevention of Allergy to a Major Cow's Milk Allergen by Breastfeeding in Mice Depends on Maternal Immune Status and Oral Exposure During Lactation.

Front Immunol 2020 21;11:1545. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Chair of Human Lactology, School of Molecular Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.

The high incidence of food allergy in childhood points to the need of elucidating early life factors dictating allergy susceptibility. Here, we aim to address in a mouse model how the exposure to a major cow's milk allergen through breastmilk of mothers with different immune status influences food allergy outcome in offspring. BALB/cJ future dams were either kept naïve, or sensitized through the oral route using cholera toxin ("orally sensitized") or through the i.p. route using alum ("i.p. sensitized"), or rendered fully tolerant (oral gavage without any adjuvant) to bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG). After mating with naïve males and delivery, mothers were orally exposed or not to BLG during the whole lactation. Then, eight groups of lactating mothers were considered: naïve, i.p. sensitized, orally sensitized, or tolerant, each exposed or not during lactation. In order to specifically address breastmilk effects on their allergy susceptibility, pups from naïve-synchronized mothers were cross-fostered by the different groups of treated dams and lactating mothers at delivery. In some experiments, mothers kept their own pups to address a possible effect. BLG antigen, BLG-specific antibodies, and BLG-immune complexes were measured in breastmilk from the different lactating mother groups. Allergic sensitization was monitored in 5-weeks old female offspring ( = 7-8/group of lactating mothers) by determining BLG-specific antibodies in plasma and splenocytes cytokine secretion after i.p. injections of BLG/alum. Allergic reaction to oral BLG challenge was evaluated by measuring mMCP1 in plasma. Offspring was protected from one allergic i.p. sensitization when nursed by i.p. sensitized mothers, independently of BLG exposure during lactation. Orally sensitized dams conferred protection in offspring solely when exposed to BLG during lactation, while naïve mothers did not provide any protection upon BLG exposure. The levels of protection correlated with the levels of BLG-specific antibodies and BLG-immune complex in breastmilk. There was a trend for decreased sensitization in offspring breastfed by tolerant and exposed mothers, which was not associated with transfer of specific antibodies through breastmilk. Protection provided by nursing by treated/exposed mothers was not persistent after a boost i.p. injection of the progeny and then did not protect them from an allergic reaction induced at this time point. No additional effects were evidenced. Our study demonstrates the strong potential of breastmilk to modulate immune response to a major cow's milk allergen in the progeny. It highlights the importance of maternal immune status and of her consumption of the allergen during lactation in dictating the outcomes in offspring. This opens perspectives where modulating maternal immune status might increase the chance of cow's milk allergy prevention in breastfed children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7396486PMC
April 2021

Gout and pseudo-gout-related crystals promote GLUT1-mediated glycolysis that governs NLRP3 and interleukin-1β activation on macrophages.

Ann Rheum Dis 2020 11 22;79(11):1506-1514. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Universite de Paris, Paris, France

Objective: Macrophage activation by monosodium urate (MSU) and calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystals mediates an interleukin (IL)-1β-dependent inflammation during gout and pseudo-gout flare, respectively. Since metabolic reprogramming of macrophages goes along with inflammatory responses dependently on stimuli and tissue environment, we aimed to decipher the role of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in the IL-1β-induced microcrystal response.

Methods: Briefly, an in vitro study (metabolomics and real-time extracellular flux analysis) on MSU and CPP crystal-stimulated macrophages was performed to demonstrate the metabolic phenotype of macrophages. Then, the role of aerobic glycolysis in IL-1β production was evaluated, as well in vitro as in vivo using F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging and glucose uptake assay, and molecular approach of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) inhibition.

Results: We observed that MSU and CPP crystals led to a metabolic rewiring toward the aerobic glycolysis pathway explained by an increase in GLUT1 plasma membrane expression and glucose uptake on macrophages. Also, neutrophils isolated from human synovial fluid during gout flare expressed GLUT1 at their plasma membrane more frequently than neutrophils isolated from bloodstream. Both glucose deprivation and treatment with either 2-deoxyglucose or GLUT1 inhibitor suppressed crystal-induced NLRP3 activation and IL-1β production, and microcrystal inflammation in vivo.

Conclusion: In conclusion, we demonstrated that GLUT1-mediated glucose uptake is instrumental during the inflammatory IL-1β response induced by MSU and CPP crystals. These findings open new therapeutic paths to modulate crystal-related inflammation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-217342DOI Listing
November 2020

CDG biochemical screening: Where do we stand?

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2020 10 5;1864(10):129652. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, INRAE, Département Médicaments et Technologies pour la Santé (DMTS), MetaboHUB, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, France. Electronic address:

Background: Glycosylation is one of the most complex post-translational modifications of proteins and lipids, notably requiring many glycosyltransferases, glycosidases and sugar transporters encoded by about 1-2% of all human genes. Deleterious variants in any of them may result in improper protein or lipid glycosylation, thus yielding the so-called 'congenital disorders of glycosylation' or CDG.

Scope Of Review: We first review the current state of knowledge on the common blood and cellular glycoproteins used in the biochemical screening of CDG, as well as the emerging ones for an improved diagnosis. We then provide an overview of the current state-of-the-art methodologies ranging from gel electrophoresis to mass spectrometry to measure improper glycosylation. Finally, we discuss how additional tools such as metabolomics and microfluidics can be added to the current toolbox to better diagnose and delineate CDG.

Major Conclusions: Combining several biochemical indicators and related methods is often required to cope with the large clinical heterogeneity of CDG and establish a definitive diagnosis.

General Significance: This review aims to critically present current available CDG biochemical biomarkers and dedicated methods in the context of highly diverse glycosylation pathways and related inherited diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2020.129652DOI Listing
October 2020

Suspect and non-targeted screening of chemicals of emerging concern for human biomonitoring, environmental health studies and support to risk assessment: From promises to challenges and harmonisation issues.

Environ Int 2020 06 29;139:105545. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Oniris, INRAE, LABERCA, Nantes, France. Electronic address:

Large-scale suspect and non-targeted screening approaches based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) are today available for chemical profiling and holistic characterisation of biological samples. These advanced techniques allow the simultaneous detection of a large number of chemical features, including markers of human chemical exposure. Such markers are of interest for biomonitoring, environmental health studies and support to risk assessment. Furthermore, these screening approaches have the promising capability to detect chemicals of emerging concern (CECs), document the extent of human chemical exposure, generate new research hypotheses and provide early warning support to policy. Whilst of growing importance in the environment and food safety areas, respectively, CECs remain poorly addressed in the field of human biomonitoring. This shortfall is due to several scientific and methodological reasons, including a global lack of harmonisation. In this context, the main aim of this paper is to present an overview of the basic principles, promises and challenges of suspect and non-targeted screening approaches applied to human samples as this specific field introduce major specificities compared to other fields. Focused on liquid chromatography coupled to HRMS-based data acquisition methods, this overview addresses all steps of these new analytical workflows. Beyond this general picture, the main activities carried out on this topic within the particular framework of the European Human Biomonitoring initiative (project HBM4EU, 2017-2021) are described, with an emphasis on harmonisation measures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105545DOI Listing
June 2020

Comparative Evaluation of Data Dependent and Data Independent Acquisition Workflows Implemented on an Orbitrap Fusion for Untargeted Metabolomics.

Metabolites 2020 Apr 18;10(4). Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Département Médicaments et Technologies pour la Santé (DMTS), CEA, INRAE, Université Paris-Saclay, MetaboHUB, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, France.

Constant improvements to the Orbitrap mass analyzer, such as acquisition speed, resolution, dynamic range and sensitivity have strengthened its value for the large-scale identification and quantification of metabolites in complex biological matrices. Here, we report the development and optimization of Data Dependent Acquisition (DDA) and Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment ions (SWATH-type) Data Independent Acquisition (DIA) workflows on a high-field Orbitrap Fusion Tribrid instrument for the robust identification and quantification of metabolites in human plasma. By using a set of 47 exogenous and 72 endogenous molecules, we compared the efficiency and complementarity of both approaches. We exploited the versatility of this mass spectrometer to collect meaningful MS/MS spectra at both high- and low-mass resolution and various low-energy collision-induced dissociation conditions under optimized DDA conditions. We also observed that complex and composite DIA-MS/MS spectra can be efficiently exploited to identify metabolites in plasma thanks to a reference tandem spectral library made from authentic standards while also providing a valuable data resource for further identification of unknown metabolites. Finally, we found that adding multi-event MS/MS acquisition did not degrade the ability to use survey MS scans from DDA and DIA workflows for the reliable absolute quantification of metabolites down to 0.05 ng/mL in human plasma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo10040158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240956PMC
April 2020

Development of a Mass Spectrometry Imaging Method for Detecting and Mapping Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles in Rodent Tissues.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2020 May 6;31(5):1025-1036. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

INRAE, Médicaments et Technologies pour la Santé (MTS), Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Graphene-based nanoparticles are continuously being developed for biomedical applications, and their use raises concerns about their environmental and biological impact. In the literature, some imaging techniques based on fluorescence and radioimaging have been used to explore their fate . Here, we report on the use of label-free mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) for graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) analyses in rodent tissues. Thereby, we extend previous work by focusing on practical questions to obtain reliable and meaningful images. Specific radical anionic carbon clusters ranging from C to C were observed for both GO and rGO species, with a base peak at / 72 under negative laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) conditions. Extension to an LDI-MSI method was then performed, thus enabling the efficient detection of GO nanoparticles in lung tissue sections of previously exposed mice. The possibility of quantifying those nanoparticles on tissue sections has also been investigated. Two different ways of building calibration curves (i.e., GO suspensions spotted on tissue sections, or added to lung tissue homogenates) were evaluated and returned similar results, with linear dynamic concentration ranges over at least 2 orders of magnitude. Moreover, intra- and inter-day precision studies have been assessed, with relative standard deviation below 25% for each concentration point of a calibration curve. In conclusion, our study confirms that LDI-MSI is a relevant approach for biodistribution studies of carbon-based nanoparticles, as quantification can be achieved, provided that nanoparticle suspension and manufacturing are carefully controlled.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jasms.9b00070DOI Listing
May 2020

Multi-omic analysis of gametogenesis reveals a novel signature at the promoters and distal enhancers of active genes.

Nucleic Acids Res 2020 05;48(8):4115-4138

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, Inserm, IRIG-BGE, 38000 Grenoble, France.

Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is tightly controlled by the dynamic modification of histones by chemical groups, the diversity of which has largely expanded over the past decade with the discovery of lysine acylations, catalyzed from acyl-coenzymes A. We investigated the dynamics of lysine acetylation and crotonylation on histones H3 and H4 during mouse spermatogenesis. Lysine crotonylation appeared to be of significant abundance compared to acetylation, particularly on Lys27 of histone H3 (H3K27cr) that accumulates in sperm in a cleaved form of H3. We identified the genomic localization of H3K27cr and studied its effects on transcription compared to the classical active mark H3K27ac at promoters and distal enhancers. The presence of both marks was strongly associated with highest gene expression. Assessment of their co-localization with transcription regulators (SLY, SOX30) and chromatin-binding proteins (BRD4, BRDT, BORIS and CTCF) indicated systematic highest binding when both active marks were present and different selective binding when present alone at chromatin. H3K27cr and H3K27ac finally mark the building of some sperm super-enhancers. This integrated analysis of omics data provides an unprecedented level of understanding of gene expression regulation by H3K27cr in comparison to H3K27ac, and reveals both synergistic and specific actions of each histone modification.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7192594PMC
May 2020

Three distinct glycosylation pathways are involved in the decoration of cell wall glycopolymers.

J Biol Chem 2020 04 13;295(16):5519-5532. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork T12 K8AF, Ireland; APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork T12 K8AF, Ireland. Electronic address:

Extracytoplasmic sugar decoration of glycopolymer components of the bacterial cell wall contributes to their structural diversity. Typically, the molecular mechanism that underpins such a decoration process involves a three-component glycosylation system (TGS) represented by an undecaprenyl-phosphate (Und-P) sugar-activating glycosyltransferase (Und-P GT), a flippase, and a polytopic glycosyltransferase (PolM GT) dedicated to attaching sugar residues to a specific glycopolymer. Here, using bioinformatic analyses, CRISPR-assisted recombineering, structural analysis of cell wall-associated polysaccharides (CWPS) through MALDI-TOF MS and methylation analysis, we report on three such systems in the bacterium On the basis of sequence similarities, we first identified three gene pairs, , , and , each encoding an Und-P GT and a PolM GT, as potential TGS component candidates. Our experimental results show that and are involved in Glc side-chain addition on the CWPS components rhamnan and polysaccharide pellicle (PSP), respectively, whereas plays a role in galactosylation of lipoteichoic acid (LTA). We also identified a potential flippase encoded in the genome (_, ) and confirmed that it participates in the glycosylation of the three cell wall glycopolymers rhamnan, PSP, and LTA, thus indicating that its function is shared by the three TGSs. Finally, we observed that glucosylation of both rhamnan and PSP can increase resistance to bacteriophage predation and that LTA galactosylation alters resistance to bacteriocin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA119.010844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7170526PMC
April 2020

Correction: Alexandre-Gouabau et al. "Comprehensive Preterm Breast Milk Metabotype Associated with Optimal Infant Early Growth Pattern", , 2019, , 528.

Nutrients 2020 01 7;12(1). Epub 2020 Jan 7.

INRA, UMR1280, Physiopathologie des Adaptations Nutritionnelles, Institut des maladies de l'appareil digestif (IMAD), Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Ouest (CRNH), F-44093 Nantes, France.

The authors wish to make a correction to Section 2 [...].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12010162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019614PMC
January 2020

Top-Down and Bottom-Up Proteomics of Circulating S100A8/S100A9 in Plasma of Septic Shock Patients.

J Proteome Res 2020 02 22;19(2):914-925. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Service de Pharmacologie et Immunoanalyse (SPI), CEA, INRA, Université Paris-Saclay , Gif-sur Yvette F-91191 , France.

Well-characterized prognostic biomarkers and reliable quantitative methods are key in sepsis management. Among damage-associated molecular patterns, S100A8/S100A9 complexes are reported to be markers for injured cells and to improve the prediction of death in septic shock patients. In view of the structural diversity observed for the intracellular forms, insight into circulating complexes and proteoforms is required to establish prognostic biomarkers. Here, we developed top-down and bottom-up proteomics to characterize the association of S100A8 and S100A9 in complexes and major circulating proteoforms. An antibody-free method was developed for absolute quantification of S100A8/S100A9 in a cohort of 49 patients to evaluate the prognostic value on the first day after admission for septic shock. The predominant circulating forms identified by top-down proteomics were S100A8, mono-oxidized S100A8, truncated acetylated S100A9, and S-nitrosylated S100A9. S100A8, truncated acetylated S100A9, and mono-oxidized S100A8 discriminated between survivors and nonsurvivors, along with total S100A8/S100A9 measured by the antibody-free bottom-up method. Overall, new insights into circulating S100A8/S100A9 and confirmation of its prognostic value in septic shock are crucial in qualification of this biomarker. Also, the simple antibody-free assay would support the harmonization of S100A8/S100A9 measurements.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.9b00690DOI Listing
February 2020

Blood metabolomics uncovers inflammation-associated mitochondrial dysfunction as a potential mechanism underlying ACLF.

J Hepatol 2020 04 25;72(4):688-701. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Service de Pharmacologie et Immuno-Analyse (SPI), Laboratoire d'Etude du Métabolisme des Médicaments, CEA, INRA, Université Paris Saclay, MetaboHUB, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Background & Aims: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), which develops in patients with cirrhosis, is characterized by intense systemic inflammation and organ failure(s). Because systemic inflammation is energetically expensive, its metabolic costs may result in organ dysfunction/failure. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the blood metabolome in patients with cirrhosis, with and without ACLF.

Methods: We performed untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry in serum from 650 patients with AD (acute decompensation of cirrhosis, without ACLF), 181 with ACLF, 43 with compensated cirrhosis, and 29 healthy individuals.

Results: Of the 137 annotated metabolites identified, 100 were increased in patients with ACLF of any grade, relative to those with AD, and 38 comprised a distinctive blood metabolite fingerprint for ACLF. Among patients with ACLF, the intensity of the fingerprint increased across ACLF grades, and was similar in patients with kidney failure and in those without, indicating that the fingerprint reflected not only decreased kidney excretion but also altered cell metabolism. The higher the ACLF-associated fingerprint intensity, the higher the plasma levels of inflammatory markers, tumor necrosis factor α, soluble CD206, and soluble CD163. ACLF was characterized by intense proteolysis and lipolysis; amino acid catabolism; extra-mitochondrial glucose metabolism through glycolysis, pentose phosphate, and D-glucuronate pathways; depressed mitochondrial ATP-producing fatty acid β-oxidation; and extra-mitochondrial amino acid metabolism giving rise to metabotoxins.

Conclusions: In ACLF, intense systemic inflammation is associated with blood metabolite accumulation and profound alterations in major metabolic pathways, in particular inhibition of mitochondrial energy production, which may contribute to the development of organ failures.

Lay Summary: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), which develops in patients with cirrhosis, is characterized by intense systemic inflammation and organ failure(s). Because systemic inflammation is energetically expensive, its metabolic costs may result in organ dysfunction/failure. We identified a 38-metabolite blood fingerprint specific for ACLF that revealed mitochondrial dysfunction in peripheral organs. This may contribute to organ failures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2019.11.009DOI Listing
April 2020

High plasma level of S100A8/S100A9 and S100A12 at admission indicates a higher risk of death in septic shock patients.

Sci Rep 2019 10 30;9(1):15660. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Université Paris 7 Cité Sorbonne; UMR INSERM 1160, 110 Avenue de Verdun, Paris, 75010, France.

Biomarkers in sepsis for severity, prediction of outcome or reversibility of organ dysfunction are warranted. Measurements of plasma DAMP levels at admission can reflect the severity of cellular damage in septic shock, which might predict the prognosis and reduce the risk of overtreating patients with costly therapies. We measured plasma levels of two DAMPs, S100A8/S100A9 and S100A12 during the first 24 h of admission of septic shock patients. Forty-nine septic shock patients with a similar SOFA scores were selected from our sepsis database to compare a similar proportion of survivors and non-survivors. Plasma levels of S100A8/S100A9 and S100A12 were compared with healthy volunteers using in-house ELISA. Plasma levels of S100A8/S100A9 and S100A12 (5.71 [2.60-13.63] µg/mL and 0.48 [0.22-1.05] µg/mL) were higher in septic shock patients than in healthy volunteers (1.18 [0.74-1.93] µg/mL and 0.09 [0.02-0.39] µg/mL) (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0030). Levels of S100A8/S100A9 and S100A12 in non-survivors at day 28 (11.70 [2.85-24.36] µg/mL and 0.62 [0.30-1.64] µg/mL) were significantly higher than in survivors (4.59 [2.16-7.47] µg/mL and 0.30 [0.20-0.49] µg/mL) (P = 0.0420 and P = 0.0248) and correlated well (Spearman r = 0.879, P < 0.0001). The high level of plasma calgranulins at admission in septic shock, were higher in non-survivors compared to survivors. These markers could indicate a higher risk of death when SOFA scores are similar and help the stratification of patients for improved care and therapy selection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-52184-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6821805PMC
October 2019