Publications by authors named "Fréderic Blond"

8 Publications

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A Splice Variant in Gene Leads to Lactate Transport Deficit in Human iPS Cell-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

Cells 2021 01 18;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Institut de la Vision, CNRS, INSERM, Sorbonne Université, 17 rue Moreau, F-75012 Paris, France.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a blinding disease for which most of the patients remain untreatable. Since the disease affects the macula at the center of the retina, a structure specific to the primate lineage, rodent models to study the pathophysiology of AMD and to develop therapies are very limited. Consequently, our understanding relies mostly on genetic studies highlighting risk alleles at many loci. We are studying the possible implication of a metabolic imbalance associated with risk alleles within the gene that encodes for a retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-specific lactate transporter MCT3 and its consequences for vision. As a first approach, we report here the deficit in transepithelial lactate transport of a rare allele identified during a genome-wide association study. We produced induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the unique patient in our cohort that carries two copies of this allele. After in vitro differentiation of the iPSCs into RPE cells and their characterization, we demonstrate that the rare allele results in the retention of intron 2 of the gene leading to the absence of MCT3 protein. We show using a biochemical assay that these cells have a deficit in transepithelial lactate transport.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10010179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831140PMC
January 2021

The 10q26 Risk Haplotype of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Aggravates Subretinal Inflammation by Impairing Monocyte Elimination.

Immunity 2020 08;53(2):429-441.e8

Sorbonne Université, INSERM, CNRS, Institut de la Vision, 17 rue Moreau, F-75012 Paris, France. Electronic address:

A minor haplotype of the 10q26 locus conveys the strongest genetic risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying this susceptibility. We found that monocytes from homozygous carriers of the 10q26 AMD-risk haplotype expressed high amounts of the serine peptidase HTRA1, and HTRA1 located to mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) in eyes of non-carriers with AMD. HTRA1 induced the persistence of monocytes in the subretinal space and exacerbated pathogenic inflammation by hydrolyzing thrombospondin 1 (TSP1), which separated the two CD47-binding sites within TSP1 that are necessary for efficient CD47 activation. This HTRA1-induced inhibition of CD47 signaling induced the expression of pro-inflammatory osteopontin (OPN). OPN expression increased in early monocyte-derived macrophages in 10q26 risk carriers. In models of subretinal inflammation and AMD, OPN deletion or pharmacological inhibition reversed HTRA1-induced pathogenic MP persistence. Our findings argue for the therapeutic potential of CD47 agonists and OPN inhibitors for the treatment of AMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.07.021DOI Listing
August 2020

Functional Genomics of the Retina to Elucidate its Construction and Deconstruction.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Oct 4;20(19). Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Department of Genetics, Sorbonne Université, INSERM, CNRS, Institut de la Vision, 17 rue Moreau, F-75012 Paris, France.

The retina is the light sensitive part of the eye and nervous tissue that have been used extensively to characterize the function of the central nervous system. The retina has a central position both in fundamental biology and in the physiopathology of neurodegenerative diseases. We address the contribution of functional genomics to the understanding of retinal biology by reviewing key events in their historical perspective as an introduction to major findings that were obtained through the study of the retina using genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. We illustrate our purpose by showing that most of the genes of interest for retinal development and those involved in inherited retinal degenerations have a restricted expression to the retina and most particularly to photoreceptors cells. We show that the exponential growth of data generated by functional genomics is a future challenge not only in terms of storage but also in terms of accessibility to the scientific community of retinal biologists in the future. Finally, we emphasize on novel perspectives that emerge from the development of redox-proteomics, the new frontier in retinal biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6801968PMC
October 2019

Otx2-Genetically Modified Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Rescue Photoreceptors after Transplantation.

Mol Ther 2018 01 8;26(1):219-237. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

INSERM, U968, Paris 75012, France; Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06 UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, Paris 75012, France; CNRS, UMR_7210, Paris 75012, France. Electronic address:

Inherited retinal degenerations are blinding diseases characterized by the loss of photoreceptors. Their extreme genetic heterogeneity complicates treatment by gene therapy. This has motivated broader strategies for transplantation of healthy retinal pigmented epithelium to protect photoreceptors independently of the gene causing the disease. The limited clinical benefit for visual function reported up to now is mainly due to dedifferentiation of the transplanted cells that undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We have studied this mechanism in vitro and revealed the role of the homeogene OTX2 in preventing dedifferentiation through the regulation of target genes. We have overexpressed OTX2 in retinal pigmented epithelial cells before their transplantation in the eye of a model of retinitis pigmentosa carrying a mutation in Mertk, a gene specifically expressed by retinal pigmented epithelial cells. OTX2 increases significantly the protection of photoreceptors as seen by histological and functional analyses. We observed that the beneficial effect of OTX2 is non-cell autonomous, and it is at least partly mediated by unidentified trophic factors. Transplantation of OTX2-genetically modified cells may be medically effective for other retinal diseases involving the retinal pigmented epithelium as age-related macular degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2017.09.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5762984PMC
January 2018

Identification of an Alternative Splicing Product of the Otx2 Gene Expressed in the Neural Retina and Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells.

PLoS One 2016 17;11(3):e0150758. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

INSERM, U968, Paris, F-75012, France.

To investigate the complexity of alternative splicing in the retina, we sequenced and analyzed a total of 115,706 clones from normalized cDNA libraries from mouse neural retina (66,217) and rat retinal pigmented epithelium (49,489). Based upon clustering the cDNAs and mapping them with their respective genomes, the estimated numbers of genes were 9,134 for the mouse neural retina and 12,050 for the rat retinal pigmented epithelium libraries. This unique collection of retinal of messenger RNAs is maintained and accessible through a web-base server to the whole community of retinal biologists for further functional characterization. The analysis revealed 3,248 and 3,202 alternative splice events for mouse neural retina and rat retinal pigmented epithelium, respectively. We focused on transcription factors involved in vision. Among the six candidates suitable for functional analysis, we selected Otx2S, a novel variant of the Otx2 gene with a deletion within the homeodomain sequence. Otx2S is expressed in both the neural retina and retinal pigmented epithelium, and encodes a protein that is targeted to the nucleus. OTX2S exerts transdominant activity on the tyrosinase promoter when tested in the physiological environment of primary RPE cells. By overexpressing OTX2S in primary RPE cells using an adeno associated viral vector, we identified 10 genes whose expression is positively regulated by OTX2S. We find that OTX2S is able to bind to the chromatin at the promoter of the retinal dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10) gene.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0150758PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4795653PMC
August 2016

A large genome-wide association study of age-related macular degeneration highlights contributions of rare and common variants.

Nat Genet 2016 Feb 21;48(2):134-43. Epub 2015 Dec 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly, with limited therapeutic options. Here we report on a study of >12 million variants, including 163,714 directly genotyped, mostly rare, protein-altering variants. Analyzing 16,144 patients and 17,832 controls, we identify 52 independently associated common and rare variants (P < 5 × 10(-8)) distributed across 34 loci. Although wet and dry AMD subtypes exhibit predominantly shared genetics, we identify the first genetic association signal specific to wet AMD, near MMP9 (difference P value = 4.1 × 10(-10)). Very rare coding variants (frequency <0.1%) in CFH, CFI and TIMP3 suggest causal roles for these genes, as does a splice variant in SLC16A8. Our results support the hypothesis that rare coding variants can pinpoint causal genes within known genetic loci and illustrate that applying the approach systematically to detect new loci requires extremely large sample sizes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4745342PMC
February 2016

Rod-derived cone viability factor promotes cone survival by stimulating aerobic glycolysis.

Cell 2015 May;161(4):817-32

INSERM, U968, 75012 Paris, France; Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, 75012 Paris, France; CNRS, UMR_7210, 75012 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Rod-derived cone viability factor (RdCVF) is an inactive thioredoxin secreted by rod photoreceptors that protects cones from degeneration. Because the secondary loss of cones in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) leads to blindness, the administration of RdCVF is a promising therapy for this untreatable neurodegenerative disease. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying the protective role of RdCVF in RP. We show that RdCVF acts through binding to Basigin-1 (BSG1), a transmembrane protein expressed specifically by photoreceptors. BSG1 binds to the glucose transporter GLUT1, resulting in increased glucose entry into cones. Increased glucose promotes cone survival by stimulation of aerobic glycolysis. Moreover, a missense mutation of RdCVF results in its inability to bind to BSG1, stimulate glucose uptake, and prevent secondary cone death in a model of RP. Our data uncover an entirely novel mechanism of neuroprotection through the stimulation of glucose metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.03.023DOI Listing
May 2015

Molecular signatures classify astrocytic gliomas by IDH1 mutation status.

Int J Cancer 2011 Mar;128(5):1095-103

Division of Molecular Genetics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

To identify novel glioma-associated pathomechanisms and molecular markers, we performed an array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis of 131 diffuse astrocytic gliomas, including 87 primary glioblastomas (pGBIV), 13 secondary glioblastomas (sGBIV), 19 anaplastic astrocytomas (AAIII) and 12 diffuse astrocytomas (AII). All tumors were additionally screened for IDH1 and IDH2 mutations. Expression profiling was performed for 74 tumors (42 pGBIV, 11 sGBIV, 13 AAIII, 8 AII). Unsupervised and supervised bioinformatic analyses revealed distinct genomic and expression profiles separating pGBIV from the other entities. Classifier expression signatures were strongly associated with the IDH1 gene mutation status. Within pGBIV, the rare subtype of IDH1 mutant tumors shared expression profiles with IDH1 mutant sGBIV and was associated with longer overall survival compared with IDH1 wild-type tumors. In patients with IDH1 wild-type pGBIV, PDGFRA gain or amplification as well as 19q gain were associated with patient outcome. Array-CGH analysis additionally revealed homozygous deletions of the FGFR2 gene at 10q26.13 in 2 pGBIV, with reduced FGFR2 mRNA levels being frequent in pGBIV and linked to poor outcome. In conclusion, we report that diffuse astrocytic gliomas can be separated into 2 major molecular groups with distinct genomic and mRNA profiles as well as IDH1 gene mutation status. In addition, our results suggest FGFR2 as a novel glioma-associated candidate tumor suppressor gene on the long arm of chromosome 10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25448DOI Listing
March 2011