Publications by authors named "Frédéric Garban"

35 Publications

A crosswalk tabular review on methods and outcomes from randomized clinical trials using pathogen reduced platelets.

Transfusion 2020 06 23;60(6):1267-1277. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15791DOI Listing
June 2020

Influence of alternative donor type on early survival after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia lacking a sibling donor.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 04 29;55(4):749-757. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

CHU (University Hospital) de Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only potentially curative therapy for acute myeloid leukemia. In the absence of an HLA-matched related or unrelated donor (MRD or MUD), the best alternative donor source remains controversial. Umbilical cord blood and haploidentical donors offer a shorter delay from indication to transplantation. This retrospective multicentre study of a French registry compares overall survival in the 18 months following registration in the absence of a MRD between four types of donors. Between 2012 and 2016, 1302 patients were transplanted using MUD (control, n = 803), mismatched MUD (n = 219), umbilical cord blood (n = 153) and haploidentical (n = 127) donors. Multivariate analyses were conducted for overall survival after registration, after transplant, and transplant-related mortality. After adjustment for variables, the type of donor did not influence any of the three end points. Our results confirmed the significant negative impact of longer time between registration and transplant: HR = 1.04 [1.02-1.06] (p < 0.0001). This indicates a positive correlation between better survival and shorter registration-to-transplantation wait time. In the absence of a sibling donor, the alternative stem cell source does not impact early survival in acute myeloid leukemia patients. The minimization of registration-to-transplantation time should be considered when weighing the alternative donor options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0722-yDOI Listing
April 2020

[Transfusion in autologous and allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplant: Guidelines from the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC)].

Bull Cancer 2019 Jan 18;106(1S):S52-S58. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre, CHRU de Lille, hématologie pédiatrique, unité de greffe, avenue Eugène-Avinée, 59037 Lille cedex, France.

The recommendations of the French Health and Drug Safety Authorities (HAS/ANSM-Haute Autorité de santé/Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament) are known, but there are always new developments underway. With regards to CMV suppression, there is the introduction of platelet glycoprotein Ia and the Intercept (Amotosalem+UVA) inactivation method which addresses bacterial risk. The irradiation of platelets is included in the recommendations to ensure HEV-negative plasma post allograft. In terms of blood transfusion safety, these measures as well as the broader spectrum of Ia, particularly for arboviruses, are a real breakthrough. The survey conducted in clinical services and the services providing blood products for transfusion along with a literature review have shown that several improvements need to be made. The first is a reduction of transfusions of concentrated red blood cells with introduction at a threshold of 7g/dL during hospitalization of patients without a fragile clinical status. The second improvement would address transfusion of refractory thrombocytopenia, encouraging an increase in discussion between clinicians and those conducting the transfusion in order to consider different etiologies and to identify appropriate care protocols. Third would be the need for the transmission of information between the transplantation doctors and blood transfusion specialists in order to define an approach to transfusion care adapted to the patient's situation. It is important to inform and educate patients about transfusion protocols post allotransplant or autotransplant. It must be clearly communicated to patients that they should always have on their person their blood group documentation. This is especially true when receiving care for a hemopathy or an autologous transplant. If undergoing an allogeneic transplant, patients should also carry transfusion guidelines post autotransplant or post allotransplant along with the phone numbers for the stem cell transplantation department and the blood transfusion center responsible for their care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2018.08.016DOI Listing
January 2019

Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) in autoimmune disease adult patients in France: analysis of the long-term outcome from the French Society for Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC).

Clin Rheumatol 2019 May 21;38(5):1501-1511. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Université Denis Diderot, Paris, France.

Introduction: The use of autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) in autoimmune disease (AD) patients has increased progressively worldwide. We retrospectively analysed the long-term outcome of AHSCT for AD reported to the French Society for Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC).

Method: All French AD patients (≥ 18 years at transplant) with a first AHSCT between 1997 and 2013 were included. Primary data were derived from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) registry, and additional data were obtained through a specific questionnaire designed for the study. Primary end-point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and non-relapse mortality (NRM).

Results: Ninety-four AD patients were included, of whom 71% suffered from rheumatologic diseases (n = 67, including 56 systemic sclerosis (SSc)), 16% from neurological disease (n = 15, including 14 multiple sclerosis (MS)) and 13% from various other AD (n = 12). After a median (interquartile range, IQR) follow-up of 83 months (38-130), OS at 5 and 10 years were 77% (95% CI 68.5-86.2) and 64% (95% CI 51.7-76.3), and for PFS 51% (95% CI 40.4-61.6) and 44% (95% CI 32.8-55.3), respectively. Overall, NRM was 8.7% (95% CI 4.0-15.5) at day 100, 9.8% (95% CI 4.8-16.9) at 5 years and 13.6% (95% CI 6.9-22.5) at 10 years.

Conclusions: This first SFGM-TC retrospective report shows long-term benefit of AHSCT in AD patients with acceptable toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-019-04435-2DOI Listing
May 2019

Dyserythropoiesis evaluated by the RED score and hepcidin:ferritin ratio predicts response to erythropoietin in lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

Haematologica 2019 03 4;104(3):497-504. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Hematology, CHU Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble.

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents are generally the first line of treatment of anemia in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. We prospectively investigated the predictive value of somatic mutations, and biomarkers of ineffective erythropoiesis including the flow cytometry RED score, serum growth-differentiation factor-15, and hepcidin levels. Inclusion criteria were no prior treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, low- or intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndrome according to the International Prognostic Scoring System, and a hemoglobin level <10 g/dL. Patients could be red blood cell transfusion-dependent or not and were given epoetin zeta 40 000 IU/week. Serum erythropoietin level, iron parameters, hepcidin, flow cytometry Ogata and RED scores, and growth-differentiation factor-15 levels were determined at baseline, and molecular analysis by next-generation sequencing was also conducted. Erythroid response (defined according to the International Working Group 2006 criteria) was assessed at week 12. Seventy patients, with a median age of 78 years, were included in the study. There were 22 patients with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, 19 with refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia, 14 with refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts, four with refractory anemia with excess blasts-1, six with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, two with del5q-and three with unclassifiable myelodysplastic syndrome. According to the revised International Prognostic Scoring System, 13 had very low risk, 47 had low risk, nine intermediate risk and one had high-risk disease. Twenty patients were transfusion dependent. Forty-eight percent had an erythroid response and the median duration of the response was 26 months. At baseline, non-responders had significantly higher RED scores and lower hepcidin:ferritin ratios. In multivariate analysis, only a RED score >4 (=0.05) and a hepcidin:ferritin ratio <9 (=0.02) were statistically significantly associated with worse erythroid response. The median response duration was shorter in patients with growth-differentiation factor-15 >2000 pg/mL and a hepcidin:ferritin ratio <9 (=0.0008 and =0.01, respectively). In multivariate analysis, both variables were associated with shorter response duration. Erythroid response to epoetin zeta was similar to that obtained with other erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and was correlated with higher baseline hepcidin:ferritin ratio and lower RED score. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.203158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395339PMC
March 2019

Comparison of the Hemostatic Efficacy of Pathogen-Reduced Platelets vs Untreated Platelets in Patients With Thrombocytopenia and Malignant Hematologic Diseases: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2018 Apr;4(4):468-475

University Grenoble Alpes, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Techniques de l'Ingénierie Médicale et de la Complexité-Institut Mathématiques Appliquées de Grenoble 38000, Grenoble, France.

Importance: Pathogen reduction of platelet concentrates may reduce transfusion-transmitted infections but is associated with qualitative impairment, which could have clinical significance with regard to platelet hemostatic capacity.

Objective: To compare the effectiveness of platelets in additive solution treated with amotosalen-UV-A vs untreated platelets in plasma or in additive solution in patients with thrombocytopenia and hematologic malignancies.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Evaluation of the Efficacy of Platelets Treated With Pathogen Reduction Process (EFFIPAP) study was a randomized, noninferiority, 3-arm clinical trial performed from May 16, 2013, through January 21, 2016, at 13 French tertiary university hospitals. Clinical signs of bleeding were assessed daily until the end of aplasia, transfer to another department, need for a specific platelet product, or 30 days after enrollment. Consecutive adult patients with bone marrow aplasia, expected hospital stay of more than 10 days, and expected need of platelet transfusions were included.

Interventions: At least 1 transfusion of platelets in additive solution with amotosalen-UV-A treatment, in plasma, or in additive solution.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The proportion of patients with grade 2 or higher bleeding as defined by World Health Organization criteria.

Results: Among 790 evaluable patients (mean [SD] age, 55 [13.4] years; 458 men [58.0%]), the primary end point was observed in 126 receiving pathogen-reduced platelets in additive solution (47.9%; 95% CI, 41.9%-54.0%), 114 receiving platelets in plasma (43.5%; 95% CI, 37.5%-49.5%), and 120 receiving platelets in additive solution (45.3%; 95% CI, 39.3%-51.3%). With a per-protocol population with a prespecified margin of 12.5%, noninferiority was not achieved when pathogen-reduced platelets in additive solution were compared with platelets in plasma (4.4%; 95% CI, -4.1% to 12.9%) but was achieved when the pathogen-reduced platelets were compared with platelets in additive solution (2.6%; 95% CI, -5.9% to 11.1%). The proportion of patients with grade 3 or 4 bleeding was not different among treatment arms.

Conclusions And Relevance: Although the hemostatic efficacy of pathogen-reduced platelets in thrombopenic patients with hematologic malignancies was noninferior to platelets in additive solution, such noninferiority was not achieved when comparing pathogen-reduced platelets with platelets in plasma.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01789762.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2017.5123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5885167PMC
April 2018

[Non eligibility criteria for hematopoietic stem cell donors: Guidelines from the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC)].

Bull Cancer 2017 Dec 22;104(12S):S76-S83. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Aix-Marseille université, département de biologie du cancer, département d'oncohematologie, institut Paoli-Calmettes, centre de thérapie cellulaire, centre de lutte contre le cancer, unité de transplantation et de thérapie cellulaire, Inserm CBT-1409, 232, boulevard Sainte-Marguerite, 13273 Marseille cedex 9, France.

The evolution of HLA typing and transplantation techniques makes it easier to identify a donor for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. This activity, strongly regulated by regulatory or normative texts, implies in addition biological, medical, para-medical and sometimes psychological evaluations. The benefit/risk discussion is complicated because it must take into account the benefit/risk ratio for the recipient, and the donor risk. No Evidence-Based Medicine data is available and serious events are very rare situations. Biovigilance declarations and their analysis are of fundamental importance. Certain obvious and definite contraindications could be detected very early in the process. It is important to assess whether a risk factor or pathology contributes to increasing the risk associated with collection. In case of recipient risk, the situation should be discussed with the patient team. These recommendations focus on adult peripheral blood HSC donors. They refer to donor information, confidentiality of exchanges, the impact of moral or material pressures, declarations of biovigilance, collegiality and traceability of difficult decisions, desirable experience and training for doctors in charge, use of expert advice informed by an explicit exchange on the possible risks, parsimony of therapeutic interventions and minimization of risks for the donor. We also recommend creation, availability and use by the community of tools and documents (registries, questionnaires, synthetic recommendations, feedback, and collegial qualification meetings) useful for practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2017.06.022DOI Listing
December 2017

Targeted release of transcription factors for human cell reprogramming by ZEBRA cell-penetrating peptide.

Int J Pharm 2017 Aug 21;529(1-2):65-74. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, TIMC-IMAG UMR 5525, Grenoble F-38041, France; Etablissement Français du Sang, 29 av du Maquis du Grésivaudan, BP35, 38701 La Tronche, France. Electronic address:

Transcription factors (TFs) are key actors of the control of gene expression and consequently of every major process within cells, ranging from cell fate determination, cell cycle control and response to environment. Their ectopic expression has proven high potential in reprogramming cells for regenerative medicine; ontogenesis studies and cell based modelling. Direct delivery of proteins could represent an alternative to current reprogramming methods using gene transfer but still needs technological improvements. Herein, we set-up an efficient cellular penetration of recombinant TFs fused to the minimal transduction domain (MD) from the ZEBRA protein. We show that ZEBRA MD-fused TFs applied on primary human fibroblasts and cord blood CD34 hematopoietic stem cells route through the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The delivery of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog by MD leads to the activation of mRNA transcripts from genes regulated by these TFs. Moreover, the expression of genes involved in the pluripotency network but not directly bound by these TFs, is also induced. Overall, the repeated application of MD-Oct4, MD-Sox2, MD-Nanog TFs and the post-transcriptional regulator RNA-binding protein MD-Lin28a, triggers the rejuvenation of human fibroblasts and CD34 cells. This study provides powerful tools for cell fate reprogramming without genetic interferences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.06.073DOI Listing
August 2017

Extracorporeal photopheresis for GVHD prophylaxis after reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a prospective multicenter phase 2 study.

Leuk Lymphoma 2018 02 7;59(2):372-380. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

f Blood Bank Center , Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud , Pierre Benite , France.

We performed a prospective multicenter phase 2 study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of prophylactic Extracorporeal Photopheresis (ECP) in adult patients with hematological malignancies early after RIC allo-HSCT on day 21 twice per week during the first two weeks and then once per week for the next four weeks for a total of eight ECP courses. A total of 20 patients were included; 10 were males, median age was 60 years. All patients engrafted, 17 (85%) received the total eight ECP courses. There were no adverse effects related to ECP. Seven patients developed acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), with 15% grade ≥ II cumulative incidence at day 100. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD at 2 years was 22%. The 2 years probability of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 84 and 74%, respectively. This study shows encouraging results with low acute and chronic GVHD incidence and no interference with graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2017.1334120DOI Listing
February 2018

Targeted release of transcription factors for cell reprogramming by a natural micro-syringe.

Int J Pharm 2016 Nov 30;513(1-2):678-687. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

TIMC-TheREx Laboratory UMR 5525, CNRS, Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble F-38041, France; Etablissement Français du Sang, 29 av du Maquis du Grésivaudan, BP35, 38701 La Tronche, France. Electronic address:

Ectopic expression of defined transcription factors (TFs) for cell fate handling has proven high potential interest in reprogramming differentiated cells, in particular for regenerative medicine, ontogenesis study and cell based modelling. Pluripotency or transdifferentiation induction as TF mediated differentiation is commonly produced by transfer of genetic information with safety concerns. The direct delivery of proteins could represent a safer alternative but still needs significant advances to be efficient. We have successfully developed the direct delivery of proteins by an attenuated bacterium with a type 3 secretion system that does not require challenging and laborious steps for production and purification of recombinant molecules. Here we show that this natural micro-syringe is able to inject TFs to primary human fibroblasts and cord blood CD34 hematopoietic stem cells. The signal sequence for vectorization of the TF Oct4 has no effect on DNA binding to its nucleic target. As soon as one hour after injection, vectorized TFs are detectable in the nucleus. The injection process is not associated with toxicity and the bacteria can be completely removed from cell cultures. A three days targeted release of Oct4 or Sox2 embryonic TFs results in the induction of the core pluripotency genes expression in fibroblasts and CD34 hematopoietic stem cells. This micro-syringe vectorization represents a new strategy for TF delivery and has potential applications for cell fate reprogramming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.09.081DOI Listing
November 2016

High CD3+ and CD34+ peripheral blood stem cell grafts content is associated with increased risk of graft-versus-host disease without beneficial effect on disease control after reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation from matched unrelated donors for acute myeloid leukemia - an analysis from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Oncotarget 2016 May;7(19):27255-66

Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Inconsistent results have been reported regarding the influence of graft composition on the incidence of graft versus host disease (GVHD), disease control and survival after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (allo-PBSCT). These discrepancies may be at least in part explained by the differences in disease categories, disease status at transplant, donor type and conditioning. The current retrospective EBMT registry study aimed to analyze the impact of CD3+ and CD34+ cells dose on the outcome of RIC allo-PBSCT in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in first complete remission, allografted from HLA-matched unrelated donors (10 of 10 match). We included 203 adults. In univariate analysis, patients transplanted with the highest CD3+ and CD34+ doses (above the third quartile cut-off point values, >347 x 10^6/kg and >8.25 x 10^6 /kg, respectively) had an increased incidence of grade III-IV acute (a) GVHD (20% vs. 6%, P = .003 and 18% vs. 7%, P = .02, respectively). There was no association between cellular composition of grafts and transplant-related mortality, AML relapse, incidence of chronic GVHD and survival. Neither engraftment itself nor the kinetics of engraftment were affected by the cell dose. In multivariate analysis, CD3+ and CD34+ doses were the only adverse predicting factors for grade III-IV aGVHD (HR = 3.6; 95%CI: 1.45-9.96, P = .006 and 2.65 (1.07-6.57), P = .04, respectively). These results suggest that careful assessing the CD3+ and CD34+ graft content and tailoring the cell dose infused may help in reducing severe acute GVHD risk without negative impact on the other transplantation outcomes.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5053647PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.8463DOI Listing
May 2016

Alemtuzumab for severe steroid-refractory gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 Sep 6;20(9):1451-4. Epub 2014 Jun 6.

Clinique d'hématologie, CHU de Grenoble, UMR 5525 CNRS-UJF, France.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) still remains the main cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, patients who did not respond to first-line treatment with glucocorticosteroids have a very poor outcome. Some studies suggested that alemtuzumab (a humanized monoclonal antibody against the CD52 antigen) might be effective for treatment of refractory aGVHD. Here we report a single-center experience with alemtuzumab in refractory gastrointestinal aGVHD. From September 2009 to April 2012 at the Grenoble medical university center, 24 patients who had presented a refractory gastrointestinal aGVHD to corticosteroid, or after another immunosuppressive drug, were retrospectively analyzed. Most patients (n = 19) presented stage 4 gastrointestinal aGVHD. Response to treatment (either complete or partial) was observed in 15 patients (62.4%). The overall survival rate at 1 year for all patients was 33.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.9% to 51.9%) and for responders, 53.3% (95% CI, 26.3% to 74.4%). Two patients died from infection, 5 patients from recurrent GVHD, and 1 from an uncontrolled post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.05.031DOI Listing
September 2014

Impact of disease status and stem cell source on the results of reduced intensity conditioning transplant for Hodgkin's lymphoma: a retrospective study from the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC).

Haematologica 2013 Sep 28;98(9):1467-75. Epub 2013 Mar 28.

Service d’Hématologie, Hôpital Universitaire Necker, Université René Descartes, Institut Imagine, Paris, France.

The role of reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation for the treatment of relapsed/refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma remains controversial. We retrospectively analyzed 191 patients who underwent reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation between 1998 and 2008 for relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma and whose data were reported to the French registry. The median follow-up was 36 months. The estimated 3-year overall survival rate, progression-free survival rate, cumulative incidence of relapse and cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality were 63%, 39%, 46%, and 16%, respectively. There was no difference in outcome between patients in complete response and in partial response at the time of transplantation with regards to overall survival (70% versus 74%, no significant difference) and progression-free survival (51% versus 42%, no significant difference). Patients with chemoresistant disease had a shorter overall survival (39% at 3 years; P=0.0003) and progression-free survival (18% at 3 years; P=0.001) than patients in complete remission. The use of umbilical cord blood as the source of stem cells was associated with a poor outcome with an increased risk of death with a hazard ratio of 3.49 (95% confidence interval: 1.26 to 9.63; P=0.016). The use of peripheral blood was associated with a better outcome for patients who where alive 1 year after transplantation with a hazard ratio of 0.38 (95% confidence interval: 0.17 to 0.83; P=0.016). Disease status at transplantation remains the most important risk factor for outcome. Our data suggest that the use of peripheral blood should be preferred whereas umbilical cord blood should be used with caution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2012.080895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3762105PMC
September 2013

Younger donor's age and upfront tandem are two independent prognostic factors for survival in multiple myeloma patients treated by tandem autologous-allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective study from the Société Française de Greffe de Moelle et de Thérapie Cellulaire (SFGM-TC).

Haematologica 2012 Apr 4;97(4):482-90. Epub 2011 Nov 4.

Institut de Cancérologie Gustave Roussy, Département d'Hématologie Clinique, 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif, France.

Background: How tandem autologous-allogeneic stem cell transplantation should be integrated in the treatment of multiple myeloma remains controversial. We examined the long-term outcome of patients with multiple myeloma managed with tandem autologous-allogeneic stem cell transplantation and present a prognostic factor analysis based on the experience of the Société Française de Greffe de Moelle et de Thérapie Cellulaire (SFGM-TC).

Design And Methods: This French, retrospective, registry-based study included 146 patients who had undergone tandem autologous-allogeneic transplantation for multiple myeloma at 20 SFGM-TC centers between 1998 and 2010. The patients included in the study had fully completed the two steps of a planned tandem autologous-allogeneic transplantation. No treatment had to be administered between the autologous and allogeneic parts of the tandem procedure.

Results: Seventy-seven patients (53%) underwent tandem autologous-allogeneic transplantation as part of upfront treatment, i.e. after a single line of treatment not including autologous transplantation. The median follow-up from the allogeneic transplant was 47.5 months (range, 1.2-132 months). At 4 years, the overall survival and event-free survival rates were 48% (95% CI 39-57 %) and 27% (95% CI 19-36), respectively. Eighteen patients (12%) experienced grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease and 43 patients (30%) had chronic graft-versus-host disease. The transplant-related mortality rate at 1 year was 15% (95% CI 10-22). Patients receiving tandem transplantation as upfront treatment had significantly improved event-free survival (36% versus 11%; P=0.005) and overall survival (56% versus 34%; P=0.02). Donor's age ≤ 50 years was associated with improved event-free survival (35% versus 16%; P=0.005) and overall survival (54% versus 41%; P=0.02). In the multivariable analysis, upfront tandem transplantation, donor's age ≤ 50 years and full chimerism were independent prognostic factors for better outcome.

Conclusions: We confirmed the feasibility of tandem autologour-allogeneic transplantation in heavily treated patients with multiple myeloma. We identified younger donor's age and upfront tandem transplantation as two independent prognostic factors for survival which could be further explored in prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2011.049742DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3347657PMC
April 2012

A randomized study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus continuous-infusion doxorubicin in elderly patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the GRAALL-SA1 study.

Haematologica 2011 Feb 22;96(2):245-52. Epub 2010 Oct 22.

Maladies du sang, CHU INSERM U892, 4 rue Larrey, 49000 Angers, France.

Background: The prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the elderly is poor. The GRAALL-SA1 phase II, randomized trial compared the efficacy and toxicity of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus continuous-infusion doxorubicin in patients 55 years or older with Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Design And Methods: Sixty patients received either continuous-infusion doxorubicin (12 mg/m(2)/day) and continuous-infusion vincristine (0.4 mg/day) on days 1-4 or pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (40 mg/m(2)) and standard vincristine (2 mg) on day 1, accompanied by dexamethasone, followed at day 28 by a second cycle, reinforced by cyclophosphamide. End-points were safety, outcome and prognostic factors.

Results: Myelosuppression was reduced in the pegylated liposomal doxorubicin arm with shorter severe neutropenia (P=0.05), shorter severe thrombocytopenia (P=0.03), and fewer red blood cell transfusions (P=0.04). Grade 3/4 infections and Gram-negative bacteremia were reduced in the pegylated liposomal doxorubicin arm (P=0.04 and P=0.02, respectively). There was a trend towards fewer cardiac events among the patients who received pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (1/29 versus 6/31). The complete remission rate was 82% and, with a median follow-up of 4 years, median event-free survival and overall survival were 9 and 10 months, respectively. Despite the better tolerance of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, no differences in survival were observed between the two arms, due to trends towards more induction refractoriness (17 versus 3%, P=0.10) and a higher cumulative incidence of relapse (52% versus 32% at 2 years, P=0.20) in the pegylated liposomal doxorubicin arm.

Conclusions: With the drug schedules used in this study, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin did not improve the outcome of elderly patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia despite reduced toxicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2010.027862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3031692PMC
February 2011

Immunomonitoring of graft-versus-host minor histocompatibility antigen correlates with graft-versus-host disease and absence of relapse after graft.

Transfusion 2010 Feb 15;50(2):418-28. Epub 2009 Oct 15.

Etablissement Français du Sang Rhône-Alpes, and Immunobiologie et Immunothérapie des Cancers, Centre de Recherche INSERM Albert Bonniot, La Tronche, France.

Background: After HLA-identical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, minor histocompatibility (mH) antigen alloreactivity plays a dominant role in the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft versus leukemia (GVL).

Study Design And Methods: We have analyzed the mH alloreactivity (enzyme-linked immunospot [ELISpot] for interferon-gamma[IFN-gamma] assay) from 24 donor/recipient pairs over a period of 2 years of follow-up and correlated such alloreactivity with the development of GVHD or absence of relapse. Circulating specific T cells anti-mH with multimer HLA-peptides were also studied.

Results: We show by ELISpot IFN-gamma assay that alloreactivity during the first 3 months from donor versus recipient or donor versus mismatched identified mH antigens is associated with acute GVHD and GVL effect. In addition, we demonstrate that the donor-versus-recipient reactivity observed after the third month is highly associated with chronic GVHD and GVL (p = 0.0007). Finally, we show by multimer HLA-peptide assay that mH epitope-specific T cells present after 3 months are statistically related to the GVL effect.

Conclusions: Our results provide a robust method to monitor mH antigen graft-versus-host reaction and suggest that current identified mH have predictive value on GVHD and GVL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1537-2995.2009.02440.xDOI Listing
February 2010

Achievement of at least very good partial response is a simple and robust prognostic factor in patients with multiple myeloma treated with high-dose therapy: long-term analysis of the IFM 99-02 and 99-04 Trials.

J Clin Oncol 2009 Dec 13;27(34):5720-6. Epub 2009 Oct 13.

Centre René Gauducheau Bd Jacques Monod 44850 St Herblain, Nantes, France.

Purpose: The prognostic impact of complete response (CR) achievement in multiple myeloma (MM) has been shown mostly in the context of autologous stem-cell transplantation. Other levels of response have been defined because, even with high-dose therapy, CR is a relatively rare event. The purpose of this study was to analyze the prognostic impact of very good partial response (VGPR) in patients treated with high-dose therapy.

Patients And Methods: All patients were included in the Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome 99-02 and 99-04 trials and treated with vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (VAD) induction therapy followed by double autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). Best post-ASCT response assessment was available for 802 patients.

Results: With a median follow-up of 67 months, median event-free survival (EFS) and 5-year EFS were 42 months and 34%, respectively, for 405 patients who achieved at least VGPR after ASCT versus 32 months and 26% in 288 patients who achieved only partial remission (P = .005). Five-year overall survival (OS) was significantly superior in patients achieving at least VGPR (74% v 61% P = .0017). In multivariate analysis, achievement of less than VGPR was an independent factor predicting shorter EFS and OS. Response to VAD had no impact on EFS and OS. The impact of VGPR achievement on EFS and OS was significant in patients with International Staging System stages 2 to 3 and for patients with poor-risk cytogenetics t(4;14) or del(17p).

Conclusion: In the context of ASCT, achievement of at least VGPR is a simple prognostic factor that has importance in intermediate and high-risk MM and can be informative in more patients than CR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.21.1060DOI Listing
December 2009

Influence of internal and outdoor factors on filamentous fungal flora in hematology wards.

Am J Infect Control 2009 Oct 23;37(8):631-7. Epub 2009 Jul 23.

Parasitologie-Mycologie, Pôle de Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Grenoble, France.

Background: Nosocomial invasive filamentous fungi infections could result from inhalation of filamentous fungi conidia present in hospital environment.

Methods: The environmental fungal flora in 3 different hospital wards with similar air conditioning was prospectively studied during 30 months and compared to internal (presence of agranulocytosis patient, behavioral practices, activity, cleaning work) and outdoor factors (meteorologic data, outdoor fungi). The general preventive measures differed from one unit to another.

Results: The hematology wards with filamentous fungi preventive measures were significantly less contaminated than a conventional ward without specific measures. Internal and outdoor factors influenced the level of fungal flora. However, the influence of internal factors was greater in the conventional ward than in hematology wards. The variation of flora in the hospital environment was seasonal, and the level of this contamination in each ward was influenced by the meteorology. However, outdoor factors more readily explain the variations of fungal load in hematology than in the conventional ward.

Conclusion: This study highlights that specific preventive measures participate significantly in the control of the filamentous fungal flora intensity due to internal factors but not those due to outdoor factors, stressing the importance of high-efficiency particulate air filtration in high-risk units.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2009.03.013DOI Listing
October 2009

Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: results of DNA detection and serological techniques.

Clin Infect Dis 2009 Jan;48(2):e9-e15

Parasitologie-Mycologie, Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Grenoble, France.

Background: The biological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is based on the detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in blood specimens or other samples. Serological testing is used mainly to define the immunity status of the patient before HSCT. The aim of our study was to examine the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serological techniques in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis after HSCT.

Methods: Seventy patients underwent allogeneic HSCT from September 2004 through September 2006. DNA was detected by PCR, and immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: The results of immunoglobulin G detection before allogeneic HSCT were positive in 40 (57.1%) of the patients and negative in 30 (42.9%). After HSCT, 57 patients (81.4%) had test results that were negative for immunoglobulin M and had negative results of DNA detection, without toxoplasmosis infection. Four patients (5.7%) had at least 4 samples with positive PCR results and/or test results positive for immunoglobulin M against T. gondii; toxoplasmosis was then confirmed by clinical symptoms. Nine patients (12.9%) with positive PCR results and 1 or 2 samples with test results negative for immunoglobulin M were considered to have asymptomatic T. gondii infection. Reactivation of latent infection was the cause of toxoplasmosis in 3 of the 4 patients, and toxoplasmosis occurred as a primary infection in 1 patient. The detection of specific anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin M was the only biological evidence of toxoplasmosis in 2 patients, and samples were positive for immunoglobulin M before PCR was performed in 1 patient.

Conclusions: Thus, after HSCT, all patients were at risk for toxoplasmosis; all patients who receive HSCTs should be followed up with biological testing that combines PCR and serological techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/595709DOI Listing
January 2009

Extracorporeal photophoresis increases sensitivity of monocytes from patients with graft-versus-host disease to HLA-DR-mediated cell death.

Transfusion 2008 Jan 27;48(1):169-77. Epub 2007 Sep 27.

INSERM Unité 662, Université Paris Diderot, Faculté de Médecine, Institut Universitaire d'Hématologie, Center Hayem, Paris, France.

Background: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a cause of long-term morbidity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and recent studies indicate that extracorporeal photophoresis (ECP) is useful for treatment of steroid-refractory GVHD although the mechanisms are unclear. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells have a central role in GVHD, and apoptosis of APCs by HLA-DR monoclonal antibody (MoAb) has been documented in vitro and in vivo. Monocytes have been identified as precursors of dendritic cells in vivo and particularly under conditions of inflammation.

Study Design And Methods: This study examined whether ECP altered the survival of peripheral blood monocytes from patients with GVHD, monocyte apoptosis after engagement of HLA-DR antigens with MoAb, and monocyte apoptosis after allointeraction with primary CD4+ T lymphocytes. Samples from patients from two centers were studied.

Results: It is reported here that ECP induced apoptosis of monocytes over a period of at least 48 hours. ECP also clearly increased cell death of monocytes after engagement of HLA-DR antigens with MoAb. In contrast, engagement of HLA-DR by allointeraction failed to induce significant cell death of monocytes, and this was unaltered by ECP treatment.

Conclusion: These data reveal that monocytes from patients with GVHD are sensitive to HLA-DR-mediated apoptosis and that ECP treatment increases sensitivity to both spontaneous and HLA-DR-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, ECP treatment in combination with HLA-DR MoAbs could rapidly deplete monocytes and thereby reduce the contribution of monocyte-derived dendritic cells to GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1537-2995.2007.01502.xDOI Listing
January 2008

Long-term outcomes after reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation for low-grade lymphoma: a survey by the French Society of Bone Marrow Graft Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC).

Haematologica 2007 May;92(5):627-34

Service d'Hématologie Clinique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Pontchaillou, Rennes, France.

Background And Objectives: High-dose chemotherapy with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) has proven to be a successful treatment for low-grade lymphoma (LGL), but is associated with considerable transplant-related mortality (TRM). In an effort to reduce toxic mortality while maintaining the graft-versus-leukemia effect, allogeneic SCT has been combined with a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of patients with LGL treated with RIC allogeneic SCT.

Design And Methods: This retrospective multicenter study included 73 patients with relapsed or refractory LGL allografted after a RIC regimen between 1998 and 2005 whose data were recorded in a French registry.

Results: Patients received a median of three lines of therapy prior to RIC allogeneic SCT. The most widely used conditioning regimens were fludarabine + busulfan + antithymocyte globulin (n=43) and fludarabine + total body irradiation (n=21). Prior to allografting, patients were in complete response (CR; n=21), partial response (PR; n=33) or had chemoresistant disease (n=19). The median follow-up was 37 months (range, 16 to 77 months). In patients in CR, PR and chemoresistant disease, the 3-year overall survival rates were 66%, 64% and 32%, respectively, while the 3-year event-free survival rates were 66%, 52% and 32%, respectively. The 3-year cumulative incidences of TRM were 32%, 28% and 63%, respectively. The incidence of relapse was 9.6%.

Interpretation And Conclusions: Although associated with significant TRM, RIC allogeneic SCT in advanced chemosensitive disease leads to long-term survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.10924DOI Listing
May 2007

Genetic abnormalities and survival in multiple myeloma: the experience of the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome.

Blood 2007 Apr 5;109(8):3489-95. Epub 2007 Jan 5.

INSERM Unité 601, Laboratoire d'Hématologie, Institut de Biologie, 9 quai Moncousu, 44093 Nantes, France.

Acquired genomic aberrations have been shown to significantly impact survival in several hematologic malignancies. We analyzed the prognostic value of the most frequent chromosomal changes in a large series of patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic myeloma prospectively enrolled in homogeneous therapeutic trials. All the 1064 patients enrolled in the IFM99 trials conducted by the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome benefited from an interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis performed on purified bone marrow plasma cells. They were systematically screened for the following genomic aberrations: del(13), t(11;14), t(4;14), hyperdiploidy, MYC translocations, and del(17p). Chromosomal changes were observed in 90% of the patients. The del(13), t(11;14), t(4;14), hyperdiploidy, MYC translocations, and del(17p) were present in 48%, 21%, 14%, 39%, 13%, and 11% of the patients, respectively. After a median follow-up of 41 months, univariate statistical analyses revealed that del(13), t(4;14), nonhyperdiploidy, and del(17p) negatively impacted both the event-free survival and the overall survival, whereas t(11;14) and MYC translocations did not influence the prognosis. Multivariate analyses on 513 patients annotated for all the parameters showed that only t(4;14) and del(17p) retained prognostic value for both the event-free and overall survivals. When compared with the currently used International Staging System, this prognostic model compares favorably. In myeloma, the genomic aberrations t(4;14) and del(17p), together with beta2-microglobulin level, are important independent predictors of survival. These findings have implications for the design of risk-adapted treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2006-08-040410DOI Listing
April 2007

Prospective comparison of autologous stem cell transplantation followed by dose-reduced allograft (IFM99-03 trial) with tandem autologous stem cell transplantation (IFM99-04 trial) in high-risk de novo multiple myeloma.

Blood 2006 May 5;107(9):3474-80. Epub 2006 Jan 5.

Hematology Department, University Hospital Hôtel-Dieu, Place Ricordeau, 44093 Nantes cedex 01, France.

The Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome (IFM) initiated 2 trials in 1999 to study patients with high-risk (beta2-microglobulin level greater than 3 mg/L and chromosome 13 deletion at diagnosis) de novo multiple myeloma. In both protocols, the induction regimen consisted of vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (VAD) followed by first autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) prepared by melphalan 200 mg/m(2). Patients with an HLA-identical sibling donor were subsequently treated with dose-reduced allogeneic stem cell transplantation (IFM99-03 trial), and patients without an HLA-identical sibling donor were randomly assigned to undergo second ASCT prepared by melphalan 220 mg/m(2) and 160 mg dexamethasone with or without anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody (IFM99-04 protocol). Two hundred eighty-four patients-65 in the IFM99-03 trial and 219 in the IFM99-04 trial-were prospectively treated and received at least one course of VAD. On an intent-to-treat basis, overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) did not differ significantly in the studies (medians 35 and 25 months in the IFM99-03 trial vs 41 and 30 months in the IFM99-04 trial, respectively). With a median follow-up time of 24 months, the EFS of the 166 patients randomly assigned in the tandem ASCT protocol was similar to the EFS of the 46 patients who underwent the entire IFM99-03 program (median, 35 vs 31.7 months), with a trend for a better OS in patients treated with tandem ASCT (median, 47.2 vs 35 months; P = .07). In patients with high-risk de novo MM, the combination of ASCT followed by dose-reduced allogeneic transplantation was not superior to tandem dose-intensified, melphalan-based ASCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2005-09-3869DOI Listing
May 2006

Inolimomab in steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: retrospective analysis and comparison with other interleukin-2 receptor antibodies.

Transplantation 2005 Sep;80(6):782-8

Unité de transplantation médullaire, Centre Jean Perrin, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Background: The use of monoclonal antibodies against interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R)-alpha chains could be an effective treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Experimental model and clinical studies have reported various results.

Methods: Inolimomab is a murine anti-IL-2R. Eighty-five patients were evaluated retrospectively for the safety and efficacy of inolimomab given for the treatment of steroid-resistant acute GvHD (aGvHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Diseases were immune deficiency, hematological malignancies, or solid tumors. Seventy-six percent of the patients received a myeloablative regimen. The source of HSCT was bone marrow for 45 patients, peripheral blood for 36 patients, and cord blood for 4 patients. Donors were 49 siblings and 36 unrelated. Acute GvHD was diagnosed within a median of 28 days after transplantation (grade II, 26 patients; grade III, 26 patients; grade IV, 33 patients). Inolimomab was administered in the event of steroid-resistant aGvHD with a median dose of 0.468 mg per kg (median period of treatment: 18 days).

Results: Twenty-five complete responses and 29 partial responses (total response rate: 63%) were observed with no side effects. There was no correlation between aGvHD grading and quality of response. Better responses were observed in cutaneous aGvHD. The overall survival probability was 26% (median follow-up: 20 months). Fifty-seven percent of patients died of toxicity related mortality, mostly aGvHD. Response to inolimomab seemed sustained (11% relapse in responders).

Conclusion: Inolimomab is well-tolerated and effective for severe steroid-resistant aGvHD. The optimum regimen remains to be defined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.tp.0000173995.18826.deDOI Listing
September 2005

Tandem autologous stem cell transplantation in high-risk de novo multiple myeloma: final results of the prospective and randomized IFM 99-04 protocol.

Blood 2006 Jan 6;107(1):397-403. Epub 2005 Sep 6.

Hematology Department, University Hospital Hôtel-Dieu, Place Alexis Ricordeau, 44093 Nantes cedex 01, France.

The combination of high levels of beta2-microglobulin (beta2-m) and chromosome 13 deletion allows identification of a high-risk subgroup of patients with de novo multiple myeloma (MM). In this population of patients, we have evaluated the impact of a murine anti-interleukin 6 (anti-IL-6) monoclonal antibody (BE-8) as part of the second conditioning regimen in a multicenter prospective randomized trial of tandem autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Conditioning for the first ASCT was accomplished with melphalan 200 mg/m2 and for the second one with melphalan 220 mg/m2 plus dexamethasone with or without BE-8 infusion. This trial included 219 patients, of whom 166 were randomized, 85 without BE-8 (arm A) and 81 with BE-8 (arm B). The median overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) times of the whole group of patients were 41 and 30 months, respectively. Response rates, OS, and EFS were not different between the 2 arms of the trial. OS at 54 months was 46% in arm A and 51% in arm B (P = .90); median EFS was 35 months in arm A and 31 in arm B (P = .39). In high-risk patients the dose intensity of melphalan at 420 mg/m2 led to encouraging results, but the addition of anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody to the second conditioning regimen did not improve either OS nor EFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2005-06-2573DOI Listing
January 2006

Extracorporeal chemophototherapy for the treatment of graft-versus-host disease: hematologic consequences of short-term, intensive courses.

Haematologica 2005 Aug;90(8):1096-101

Département de Cancérologie et d'Hématologie, CHU de Grenoble BP217, 38043 Grenoble, France.

Background And Objectives: Extracorporeal chemophototherapy (ECP) is considered an immunomodulatory agent useful in both acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Little is known about the best treatment schedule, and there are no data concerning hematologic parameters and cellular compositions of products during the treatment.

Design And Methods: This was a single-center study of 27 patients treated with ECP for corticoresistant GVHD. Treatment was given in a short-term series of six courses over 3 weeks, and in case of response, consolidation treatment was given until complete response or stabilization of lesions.

Results: Nine out of 12 patients with acute GVHD responded to treatment. In patients with chronic GVHD, 13 out of 15 patients responded (11 complete and 2 partial responses). Responses were obtained essentially in skin or gut lesions; ECP was of particular effect in three cases of bronchiolitis obliterans associated with transplantation, with all three patients responding. Hematologic consequences were studied in patients with chronic GVHD: hemoglobin levels increased significantly after treatment and a reduction in red blood cell transfusion requirements was also observed.

Interpretation And Conclusions: ECP is effective in both chronic and acute GVHD, particularly in lung forms. ECP can reduce the duration of immunosuppressive therapy and improve erythroid recovery. ECP product quality, including standardization for the number of mononuclear cells for each patient, needs further investigation.
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August 2005

Acute leukemia during pregnancy: a report on 37 patients and a review of the literature.

Cancer 2005 Jul;104(1):110-7

Service d'Hématologie Clinique, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France.

Background: Acute leukemia (AL) requiring cytotoxic treatment occurring during pregnancy poses a very difficult therapeutic dilemma.

Methods: By means of a mail questionnaire, information on a series of 37 patients with a diagnosis of AL during pregnancy was collected from 13 French centers between December, 1988 and November, 2003.

Results: Thirty-one patients had acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 6 patients had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Nine patients were diagnosed during the first trimester, 10 patients were diagnosed during the second trimester, and 18 patients were diagnosed during the third trimester. Fifteen pregnancies ended with therapeutic or spontaneous abortion. There were 13 normal deliveries, including 1 gemellary pregnancy, and 9 Cesarean sections. Twenty-three healthy babies survived from the 37 pregnancies, of whom 15 babies had been exposed to chemotherapeutic agents. A complete remission was achieved in 34 patients. Eleven women had severe extrahematologic complications during the induction remission course. The median disease-free survival (DFS) was not reached, with a 5-year DFS of 54%. Ten patients developed recurrent disease. Overall, 12 of 37 pregnant women died from leukemia.

Conclusions: Pregnancy does not affect the course of AL. In the first trimester, termination of pregnancy should be discussed because of the potential fetal consequences of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy treatment during the second or third trimester may not require termination of pregnancy, because as remission of AL and delivery of a normal infant are likely to be obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.21137DOI Listing
July 2005

Outcomes for reduced-intensity allogeneic transplantation for multiple myeloma: an analysis of prognostic factors from the Chronic Leukaemia Working Party of the EBMT.

Blood 2005 Jun 24;105(11):4532-9. Epub 2005 Feb 24.

Clinical Haematology, Box 234, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, CB2 2QQ, United Kingdom.

We report the outcome of 229 patients who received an allograft for myeloma with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens from 33 centers within the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). The median age was 52 years and 64% were male. Conditioning regimens were heterogeneous, but most were fludarabine based and T cell depleted with antithymocyte globulin or alemtuzumab. Transplantation-related mortality (TRM) at 1 year was 22%. The 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 41% and 21%, respectively. Adverse OS was associated with chemoresistant disease (relative risk [RR], 2.9), more than 1 prior transplantation (RR, 2.0), and male patients with female donors (RR, 1.45). Adverse PFS was associated with chemoresistance (RR, 2.4) and alemtuzumab (RR, 1.8). TRM was increased with female-to-male donation (RR, 2.5) and transplantation more than 1 year from diagnosis (RR, 2.3). Grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) occurred in 31%. Chronic GvHD was associated with better OS and PFS and were 84% and 46% for limited, 58% and 30% for extensive, and 29% and 12% in its absence suggesting that a graft-versus-myeloma effect is important. While RIC is feasible, heavily pretreated patients and patients with progressive disease do not benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2004-06-2387DOI Listing
June 2005
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