Publications by authors named "Frédéric Bukiet"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Calcium Silicate-Based Root Canal Sealers: A Narrative Review and Clinical Perspectives.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 15;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, 13005 France; Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, ISM, Inst Movement Sci, 13288 Marseille, France.

Over the last two decades, calcium silicate-based materials have grown in popularity. As root canal sealers, these formulations have been extensively investigated and compared with conventional sealers, such as zinc oxide-eugenol and epoxy resin-based sealers, in in vitro studies that showed their promising properties, especially their biocompatibility, antimicrobial properties, and certain bioactivity. However, the consequence of their higher solubility is a matter of debate and still needs to be clarified, because it may affect their long-term sealing ability. Unlike conventional sealers, those sealers are hydraulic, and their setting is conditioned by the presence of humidity. Current evidence reveals that the properties of calcium silicate-based sealers vary depending on their formulation. To date, only a few short-term investigations addressed the clinical outcome of calcium silicate-based root canal sealers. Their use has been showed to be mainly based on practitioners' clinical habits rather than manufacturers' recommendations or available evidence. However, their particular behavior implies modifications of the clinical protocol used for conventional sealers. This narrative review aimed to discuss the properties of calcium silicate-based sealers and their clinical implications, and to propose rational indications for these sealers based on the current knowledge.
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July 2021

Microscopic and chemical evaluation of the filling quality of five obturation techniques in oval-shaped root canals.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Jun 26;25(6):3757-3765. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Endodontics and Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Strasbourg, 67000, Strasbourg, France.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the filling quality of five obturation techniques in oval-shaped root canals.

Materials And Methods: A total of 212 mandibular first molars with one distal oval canal were selected. Distal canals, shaped with WaveOne Gold Primary, were randomly divided in five groups (n = 40) for obturation: continuous wave condensation, GuttaCore, Thermafil, single cone with AH plus, and single cone with BioRoot RCS. The proportions of gutta-percha-filled areas (GPFA), sealer-filled areas (SFA), void areas (VA), and the sealer/gutta tags into dentinal tubules at 4 mm and 2 mm from the apex were analyzed by an optical numeric microscope, SEM, and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). Data were then compared by Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA on ranks (α = 0.05).

Results: At 4 mm, a statistically significant higher GPFA and lower SFA were observed in the GuttaCore and Thermafil groups compared with the 3 other groups. A statistically significant lower VA was observed in the continuous wave condensation, GuttaCore, and Thermafil groups than in the two single-cone groups. At 2 mm, there were a statistically significant higher GPFA and lower SFA and VA in GuttaCore and Thermafil groups than in the 3 other groups. At the two levels investigated, the presence of gutta-percha tags was clearly demonstrated for GuttaCore and Thermafil groups; no tags were observed in the 3 other groups.

Conclusions: Obturation quality was overall improved in GuttaCore and Thermafil groups.

Clinical Relevance: Carrier-based techniques may significantly improve the filling quality compared to continuous wave condensation and single-cone technique. The single-cone technique might have inherent limitations especially in oval root canals regardless of the sealer used.
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June 2021

In Vitro Evaluation of Different Irrigation Protocols on Intracanal Smear Layer Removal in Teeth with or without Pre-Endodontic Proximal Wall Restoration.

J Clin Med 2020 Oct 16;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire, Université de Strasbourg, 8 rue Sainte Elisabeth, 67000 Strasbourg, France.

To investigate the influence of pre-endodontic coronal wall restoration on smear layer removal during different root canal irrigation strategies, single-root premolars were prepared with a mesio-occlusal cavity. Half were left untreated (G1), while the mesial walls of the remaining half were reconstructed using a resin composite (G2). The specimens were divided into control (ctrl) groups, which used the conventional needle irrigation method, and four experimental subgroups according to irrigation strategy: Sonic activation using the Endoactivator, sonic activation using the EQ-S, mechanical activation using the XP-Endo finisher, and ultrasonic activation using the EndoUltra. Smear layer removal was assessed through SEM and the results were statistically analyzed. At the coronal and middle thirds, no significant difference ( > 0.05) was detected for G1 and G2, except for the control subgroups (G1ctrl vs G2 ctrl) at the middle third. At the apical third, the smear layer removal was significantly greater for G2 than G1. In G1, both at the middle and apical level, EQ-S and EndoUltra showed greater smear layer removal ( < 0.05) compared to the others G1 subgroups. In G2, at the apical level, the EQ-S and EndoUltra were the most effective in smear layer removal. Pre-endodontic coronal wall restoration may improve the smear layer removal during root canal irrigation.
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October 2020

Canal Transportation and Centring Ability of Reciproc and Reciproc Blue With or Without Use of Glide Path Instruments: A CBCT Study.

Eur Endod J 2020 14;5(2):118-122. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon.

Objective: The objective of this ex vivo study was to evaluate canal transportation and centring ability of Reciproc and Reciproc blue systems in curved root canals with or without prior use of PathFile rotary system (PF) using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT).

Methods: One hundred and twenty curved root canals from maxillary and mandibular premolars were selected. Canals were divided randomly into 4 groups (n=30): Reciproc 25 (R25), (PF+R25), Reciproc Blue 25 (RB25), (PF+RB 25). Specimens were scanned before and after root canal preparation. Using CBCT, root canal transportation and centring ability was assessed by measuring the shortest distance from the edge of uninstrumented canal to the periphery of the root (mesial and distal) before and after preparation. Data were analysed using a one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test. The p value was set at 0.05.

Results: Less transportation and better centring ability occurred when PF was used before R25 or RB25 (P<0.0001). There was no significant difference between R25 and RB25 groups.

Conclusion: Using PF before R25 and RB25 resulted in less root canal transportation and better centring ability. The specific thermo-mechanical treatment of RB25 did not provide better results when compared to R25.
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May 2020

Influence of Negotiation, Glide Path, and Preflaring Procedures on Root Canal Shaping-Terminology, Basic Concepts, and a Systematic Review.

J Endod 2020 Jun 22;46(6):707-729. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Negotiation, glide path, and preflaring are essential steps in root canal shaping procedures. This report aimed to discuss the terminology, basic concepts, and clinical considerations of negotiation, glide path, and preflaring procedures and the influence of these steps on root canal shaping.

Methods: This systematic review was undertaken following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The protocol has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (number CRD42019127021). A comprehensive literature search was performed by 2 independent reviewers using a selected search strategy in 2 electronic databases (PubMed and Scopus) until January 28, 2019. A further search was performed manually in endodontic journals. Studies investigating or comparing at least 1 shaping property resulting from root canal instrumentation with a glide path or preflaring in human extracted teeth or clinical studies were included.

Results: The literature shows that the definition of glide path and preflaring procedures remains controversial, which requires an elaboration in the American Association of Endodontists' Glossary of Endodontic Terms. After the removal of irrelevant and duplicated articles, 98 articles were included. The impact of glide path preparation and preflaring on working length determination, apical file size determination, canal transportation, separation of endodontic files, shaping time, dentinal microcrack formation, and extrusion of debris was discussed. Because of heterogeneity among the included studies, quantitative synthesis was not performed for most of the parameters.

Conclusions: An evidence-based guideline is needed to define and correlate the basic concepts and current applications of each step of contemporary advancements in root canal instruments. Glide path preparation reduces the risk of debris extrusion, has no influence on the incidence of dentinal crack formation, and improves the preservation of the original canal anatomy. The creation of a glide path may have no impact on Reciproc files (VDW, Munich, Germany) in reaching the full working length. Preflaring increases the accuracy of working length determination. Further randomized clinical trials are required to evaluate the effect of a glide path and preflaring on root canal treatment outcomes.
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June 2020

A cross-sectional analysis of patient care pathways and profiles in a dental emergency department.

Int Dent J 2020 Feb 29;70(1):21-28. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

UFR Odontologie de Marseille, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

Introduction: Hospital dental emergency (DE) departments are assumed to improve access to emergency care. Patients use these facilities at night and during weekends, mainly because private care is not available at these times. However, motivation for using hospital care during office hours remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and care pathways of patients consulting a DE department during office hours and to identify the profiles of DE department users.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in the DE department of La Timone Hospital (Marseille, France). Structured interviews were conducted with 150 patients. The interview guide explored sociodemographic data, dental care behaviour, characteristics of the emergency visit, care pathway and follow-up. Descriptive statistics and a multiple correspondence analysis were used for statistical analysis of the data collected.

Results: The main motivation for seeking care was pain (76%), and 59.3% of the patients attended the DE department as a first intention. The main reasons for coming to the hospital were trust in hospital practitioners (42%) and convenience of care accessibility (40.1%). Two contrasting profiles of patients were identified: young patients with a low income (regular users of DE departments, seeking acute pain relief); and elderly patients (infrequent users of DE departments, seeking follow-up care).

Conclusion: This study highlighted that hospitals can be a primary pathway to DE care even though private care may be available. However, serious limitations regarding the continuity of care in the hospital exist, regardless of patient profile.
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February 2020

An international survey on the use of calcium silicate-based sealers in non-surgical endodontic treatment.

Clin Oral Investig 2020 Jan 18;24(1):417-424. Epub 2019 May 18.

Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, ISM, Inst Movement Sci, Marseille, France; APHM, Hôpital Timone, Service d'Odontologie, Marseille, France.

Objectives: To gain insight on the current clinical usage of bioceramic root canal sealers (BRCS) by general dental practitioners (GDPs) and endodontic practitioners (EPs) and to determine if BRCS clinical application is in accordance with the best available evidence.

Material And Methods: An online questionnaire of 18 questions addressing BRCS was proposed to 2335 dentists via a web-based educational forum. Participants were asked about socio-demographic data, clinical practice with BRCS, and their motivation for using BRCS. Statistical analysis (chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test) was applied, as appropriate, to assess the association between the variable categories (p value < 0.05).

Results: The response rate was 28.91%. Among respondents, 94.8% knew BRCS (EPs more than GDPs, p < 0.05) and 51.70% were using BRCS. The primary reason for using BRCS was their belief of its improved properties (87.7%). Among BRCS users, single-cone technique (SCT) was the most employed obturation method (63.3%) which was more applied by GDPs (p < 0.05); EPs utilized more of the thermoplasticized obturation techniques (p < 0.05). A proportion of 38.4% of BRCS users indicated the usage of SCT with BRCS regardless of the root canal anatomy (GDPs more than EPs p < 0.05) and 55.6% considered that BRCS may influence their ability to re-establish apical patency during retreatment (GDPs more than EPs p < 0.05).

Conclusions: This study highlights wide variation in the clinical use of BRCS which is not in accordance with the current literature.

Clinical Relevance: This inconsistency among EPs and GDPs on BRCS clinical application requires further clarifications to better standardize their use and improve their future evaluation.
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January 2020

Dental students' attitudes towards management of pain and anxiety during a dental emergency: educational issues.

Int Dent J 2017 Dec 30;67(6):384-390. Epub 2017 Jul 30.

UFR Odontologie de Marseille, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

Introduction: High levels of patients' pain and anxiety characterise dental emergencies. The main objective of this study was to examine the self-reported attitudes of dental students towards these parameters in emergency conditions. A secondary objective was to determine if individual parameters (gender, personal experience of dental pain, personal dental anxiety and year of study) might affect their attitudes.

Methods: One-hundred and eighty-seven undergraduate dental students with clinical practice completed a multiple-choice self-administered questionnaire online. The aforesaid individual parameters were collected and the students were asked to rate the frequency of their behaviour towards items representing good management of patients' pain and anxiety. The chi-square test of independence, Fisher's exact test and multiple logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis.

Results: Oral assessment of anxiety before treatment was scarce and was significantly associated with the students having personally experienced dental pain (P = 0.007). Pre-, intra- and postoperative pain appeared to be managed unequally by the students. Male students were significantly less likely to inform patients about postoperative pain (P = 0.014). More clinical experience was associated with less systematic consideration for intra-operative pain (P < 0.05). Being dentally anxious showed no significant association with higher frequencies of behaviours towards patients' pain and anxiety.

Conclusions: These findings highlight the need for educational improvement regarding pain and anxiety in emergency conditions, especially concerning the assessment methods and continuity in the control of pain. Emergency dental care appears to be a very suitable field for contextual learning.
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December 2017

Sodium Hypochlorite Accident: A Systematic Review.

J Endod 2017 Jan;43(1):16-24

UFR Odontologie de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Université, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, Marseille, France; Giboc, ISM UMR 7287 CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

Introduction: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) extrusion beyond the apex, also known as "a hypochlorite accident," is a well-known complication that seldom occurs during root canal therapy. These "accidents" have been the subject of several case reports published over the years. Until now, no publication has addressed the global synthesis of the general and clinical data related to NaOCl extrusion. The main purpose of this article was to conduct a systematic review of previously published case reports to identify, synthesize, and present a critical analysis of the available data. A second purpose was to propose a standardized presentation of reporting data concerning NaOCl extrusions to refine and develop guidelines that should be used in further case report series.

Methods: A review of clinical cases reporting NaOCl accidents was conducted in June 2016 using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist; it combined an electronic search of the PubMed database and an extensive manual search.

Results: Forty full-text articles corresponding to 52 case reports published between 1974 and 2015 were selected. Four main categories of data were highlighted: general and clinical information, clinical signs and symptoms of NaOCl extrusions, management of NaOCl extrusions, and healing and prognosis. Overall, up to now, clinical cases were reported in a very unsystematic manner, and some relevant information was missing.

Conclusions: A better understanding of the potential causes, management, and prognosis of NaOCl accidents requires a standardization of reported data; this study proposes a template that can fulfill this objective.
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January 2017

Current Assessment of Reciprocation in Endodontic Preparation: A Comprehensive Review-Part I: Historic Perspectives and Current Applications.

J Endod 2015 Nov;41(11):1778-83

Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Introduction: During the evolution of mechanical instrumentation in endodontics, an important role has been played by reciprocating stainless steel files using horizontal rotational, vertical translational, or combined movements. These kinds of systems are still in use mainly as an accessory to help in the first phases of the treatment.

Methods: The literature concerning these systems has been analyzed using selected criteria.

Results: The latest evolution of horizontal rotational reciprocating movement brought to the development of a different kind of movement in which the angles are asymmetrical and that appears to be ideal in conjunction with modern nickel-titanium (NiTi) files with a greater taper. Initially, this movement was limited to particular handpieces available on the market that was used with existing NiTi files to complete root canal instrumentation. Later on, specific files and proprietary motors were introduced into the market. The differences between reciprocating motion used for NiTi and stainless steel files are described and critically analyzed.

Conclusions: A classification of the different mechanical reciprocating motions used is presented, thus enabling an easier understanding of these systems and anticipated future developments.
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November 2015

Current Assessment of Reciprocation in Endodontic Preparation: A Comprehensive Review--Part II: Properties and Effectiveness.

J Endod 2015 Dec 23;41(12):1939-50. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

UFR Odontologie de Marseille, Aix Marseille Université, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, France; Laboratoire Biologie Santé et Nanosciences, Montpellier, France.

Introduction: Many reciprocating file systems (RFs) have recently been introduced. This article reviews the properties, effectiveness, and clinical outcomes of the RFs.

Methods: A PubMed electronic search was conducted by using appropriate key words to identify investigations on RFs. After retrieving the full-text relevant articles, the cross citations were also identified.

Results: This review summarizes the mechanical properties, shaping ability, preservation of the root canal anatomy, shaping time, cleaning effectiveness, microcrack formation, bacterial reduction, extrusion of debris, and removal of root canal filling materials of RFs.

Conclusions: The favorable results of RFs indicate their potential application as viable alternatives to rotary file systems, yet no filing system is able to entirely prepare the dentin of canals, totally eliminate sessile and planktonic microorganisms, or remove the filling material completely from the root canal system.
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December 2015

Do cell phones affect establishing electronic working length?

J Endod 2015 Jun 19;41(6):943-6. Epub 2015 Mar 19.

UFR Odontologie de Marseille, Aix Marseille Université, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, France; Laboratoire Biologie Santé et Nanosciences, UFR Odontologie de Montpellier 1, Montpellier, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Patients often keep their cell phones on and nearby during root canal therapy. Cell phones release electromagnetic interference, which might disturb electronic working length measurements. The purpose of this ex vivo study was to determine the effect of a cell phone (Apple iPhone 5 [Apple, Cupertino, CA] or KP100 [LG, Seoul, Korea]) placed into direct contact with an electronic apex locator (EAL) (Dentaport Root ZX module [J Morita Corp, Tokyo, Japan] or Propex II [Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland]) on working length determination.

Methods: Twenty-six human premolars without fractures or carious lesions were used; previously cleaned; and observed under magnification (×15) in order to check for the presence of only 1 apical foramen, the absence of apical resorption, an "open" apex, and accessory canals. The working length measurement was performed with a #15 K-file in the presence of 2.6% sodium hypochlorite under 4 conditions: (1) visually, under the microscope until the file tip reached the canal terminus; (2) electronically, without the cell phone in proximity; (3) electronically, with the cell phone in standby mode placed in physical contact with the EAL; and (4) electronically, with the cell phone activated by a call in the same position. The experimental model for electronic working length determination was a screw top plastic container filled with a saline solution. The measurements were repeated 3 times per canal under each condition. Scores of 1 to 3 categorized the stability of the readings as follows: (1) good stability; (2) unstable reading with minor difficulties determining the working length; and (3) major difficulties or impossible to determine the working length. A 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance (way 1: cell phone type and way 2: EAL model) was performed, and a second repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to seek a difference among the 4 working length determination conditions.

Results: Neither the cell phone type nor the EAL affected the measurements (not significant). The electronic working length measurements gave the same results as the visual examination, and this length was not influenced by direct contact with a cell phone (not significant). It was also possible to determine the electronic working length under all the experimental conditions.

Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that patients can keep their cell phones on during root canal therapy without any adverse effect on electronic working length determination.
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June 2015

Implications of endodontic-related sinus aspergillosis in a patient treated by infliximab: a case report.

J Endod 2015 Jan 4;41(1):125-9. Epub 2014 Nov 4.

UFR Odontologie de Marseille, Aix Marseille Université, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, Marseille, France; Laboratoire Biologie Santé et Nanosciences, UFR Odontologie de Montpellier 1, Montpellier, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Sinus aspergillosis is a potential complication after root canal therapy of antral teeth. Indeed, zinc oxide-eugenol cement overfilling in the sinus may promote fungal infection. Moreover, if sinus aspergillosis triggers chronic sinusitis with aspergilloma, it may also lead to invasive phenomena, especially for immunocompromised patients.

Methods: We reported a sinus aspergillosis case of a patient treated with infliximab (Remicade; Janssen Biologics BV, Leiden, Netherlands). The purpose of this article was to explore the mechanisms of this pathosis, especially the impact of the root canal sealer overextension, which is a contributing factor for fungal infection. The surgical management and the follow-up are also described.

Results: Six months after surgery, the patient showed no clinical signs and presented with a healthy and airy right maxillary sinus on the computed tomography scan.

Conclusions: In conclusion, prevention and screening of aspergillosis of maxillary sinus may be considered before starting an anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy.
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January 2015

Wetting properties and critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite.

J Endod 2012 Nov 28;38(11):1525-9. Epub 2012 Aug 28.

Laboratoire Biologie Santé et Nanosciences, UFR Odontologie de Montpellier 1, Montpellier, France.

Introduction: The purposes of the present study were to (1) assess the effect of the addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite on its wetting properties, contact angle, and surface energy; (2) determine the critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite; and (3) investigate the influence of addition of benzalkonium chloride on the free chlorine level, cytotoxicity, and antiseptic properties of the mixture.

Methods: Solutions of benzalkonium chloride, with concentrations ranging from 0%-1%, were mixed in 2.4% sodium hypochlorite and tested as follows. The wetting properties were investigated by measuring the contact angle of the solutions on a nondehydrated dentin surface by using the static sessile drop method. The pending drop technique was subsequently used to determine the surface energy of the solutions. The critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite was calculated from the data. When 2.4% NaOCl was mixed with benzalkonium chloride at the critical micellar concentration, 3 parameters were tested: free chloride content, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial effects against Enterococcus faecalis.

Results: The contact angle (P < .001) as well as the surface energy (P < .001) significantly decreased with increasing benzalkonium chloride concentrations. The critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite was 0.008%. At this concentration, the addition of benzalkonium chloride had no effect on the free chlorine content, cytotoxicity, or antibacterial efficiency of the mixture.

Conclusions: The addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite at the critical micellar concentration reduced the contact angle by 51.2% and the surface energy by 53.4%, without affecting the free chloride content, cytotoxicity, or antibacterial properties of the mixture.
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November 2012

Contemporary aesthetic care for nonvital teeth: conservative treatment options.

Pract Proced Aesthet Dent 2005 Aug;17(7):467-72; quiz 474

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, University Hospital de Marseille, Marseille, France.

Unlabelled: This article presents a series of considerations for the adhesive restoration of the nonvital tooth. Although ensuring the marginal integrity of all elements is critical to the final restoration, the most important parameter in the restoration of an endodontically treated tooth is the evaluation of the loss of substance in volume, architecture, and location. It is also important for the dentist to consider other clinical parameters (eg, the age of the patient, the length of time since trauma, even the occlusal scheme) prior to initiating care for these teeth.

Learning Objectives: This article advocates the clinician's conservation of natural tooth structure when providing care to preserve the root anchorage due to repeated and invasive work that can result in microfractures or loss of tooth. Upon reading this article, the reader should: * Understand the need to preserve tooth structure by performing partial-coverage restorations. * Become more familiar with the indications for resin-bonded restoration for a devital tooth.
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August 2005

One-year clinical evaluation of two resin composites, two polymerization methods, and a resin-modified glass ionomer in non-carious cervical lesions.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2006 Nov 1;7(5):42-53. Epub 2006 Nov 1.

Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of the Mediterranean, Marseille, France.

Aim: The aim of this study was to examine clinically relevant data on four restorative procedures for non-carious cervical lesions using United States Public Health Service (USPHS)-compatible clinical and photographic criteria and to compare different methods of analyzing clinical data.

Methods And Materials: Fourteen patients with at least one or two pairs of non-carious lesions under occlusion and a mean age of 50 were enrolled in this study. A total of 56 restorations (14 with each material) were placed by three experienced, calibrated dental practitioners. Two other experienced and calibrated practitioners, under single-blind conditions, followed up on all restorations for a period of one year. Three materials were randomly placed: a micro-hybrid composite with two polymerization methods (G1 and G2), a flowable micro-hydrid composite (G3), and a resin-modified glass ionomer (G4). Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskall-Wallis test (p<0.05) and a Mann-Whitney U modified test with a corrected significance level.

Results: At the one year evaluation time, there were no restorations with secondary caries and the retention rates in G1 (IntenS with a hard polymerization), G2 (IntenS with a soft polymerization), G3 (Filtek flow), and G4 (Fuji II LC) were 85.7% (two losses), 92.8% (one loss), 100%, and 100%, respectively. The total visual comparison of the results at baseline (15 days later) showed significant differences only with the clinical acceptance criterion: G1 was different from G2, with a soft polymerization device (p<0.05). In terms of surface quality at one year, G1, G2, and G3 exhibited a statistically significant difference from G4, p<0.05. The digital analysis at baseline showed significant differences only with the clinical acceptance criterion: G1=G2 was different from G3=G4, p<0.05. At one year, only the microporosity criterion showed any statistical differences: G1=G2=G3 was different from G4, p<0.05.

Conclusions: The resin-modified glass ionomer was easier to use and had a high retention rate, but it failed in terms of surface quality (visual mode) and porosity (digital mode) criteria compared to the others groups. Overall results showed no difference between groups G1 (hard-polymerized) and G2 (soft-polymerized), and only G1 was affected by the marginal edge (p<0.03) and integrity criteria (p<0.02) at one year.
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November 2006

Evaluation of periapical lesion healing by correction of gray values.

J Endod 2004 Nov;30(11):762-6

Faculté d'Odontologie, Marseille, France.

The purpose of this study was to compare two methods for evaluating periapical healing in humans: the periapical index (PAI) and a gray value correction method. Fifty human teeth with a periapical lesion were endodontically treated. Radiographs, with a special aluminum device, were taken postoperatively, after 3 months and after 6 months. The PAI was recorded at each period of time, and a Kruskall and Wallis test was performed to compare the three groups. After scanning, the size of the lesion and its gray value were recorded. The aluminum device allowed the gray values to be equalized. An analysis of variance followed by a Duncan test was performed to compare the three groups. The teeth that showed no sign of healing according to the PAI were separately analyzed by an analysis of variance and a Duncan test. The PAI (n = 50) showed signs of periapical healing over time (p < 0.01). The analysis of variance, based on gray value evaluation (n = 50), also showed signs of periapical healing over time (p < 0.002). The analysis of variance of teeth with the same PAI over time (n = 15 at 3 months, and n = 5 at 6 months), based on gray value evaluation showed statistically significant differences among the 3 groups (p < 0.02). These results show that the gray level correction method is powerful and may reduce the risks of false negative responses during assessment of treatment results or epidemiological studies.
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November 2004