Publications by authors named "Fränzel J B van Duijnhoven"

124 Publications

Association of Habitual Preoperative Dietary Fiber Intake With Complications After Colorectal Cancer Surgery.

JAMA Surg 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Importance: Postoperative complications are associated with increased morbidity and mortality among patients with colorectal cancer. As a modifiable factor associated with gut health, dietary fiber intake is of interest with regard to the risk of complications after surgery for colorectal cancer.

Objective: To examine the association between preoperative dietary fiber intake and risk of complications after surgery for colorectal cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study used data from the Colorectal Longitudinal, Observational Study on Nutritional and Lifestyle Factors (COLON) study, which recruited adult patients with colorectal cancer at any stage at diagnosis from 11 hospitals in the Netherlands between August 2010 and December 2017. The present study included patients with stage I to IV colorectal cancer who underwent elective abdominal surgery. Data were analyzed between December 2019 and September 2020.

Exposures: Habitual dietary fiber intake was assessed at diagnosis using a 204-item food frequency questionnaire.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Any complications, surgical complications, and anastomotic leakage occurring during the 30 days after surgery for colorectal cancer. The association between fiber intake and risk of postoperative complications was assessed using logistic regression analyses. Additional analyses stratified by sex, tumor location, and fiber source were performed.

Results: Among the 1399 patients included in the analysis, the median age at inclusion was 66 years (interquartile range, 61-72 years) and 896 (64%) were men. Any complications occurred in 397 patients (28%), and surgical complications occurred in 235 patients (17%). Of 1237 patients with an anastomosis, 67 (5%) experienced anastomotic leakage. Higher dietary fiber intake (per 10 g per day) was associated with a lower risk of any complications (odds ratio [OR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62-0.92) and surgical complications (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60-0.97), whereas no association with anastomotic leakage was found (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.66-1.43). Among women, higher dietary intake was associated with any complications (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.94), whereas there was no association among men (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63-1.01). Fiber intake from vegetables (per 1 g per day) was inversely associated with any (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99) and surgical (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78-0.97) complications.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cohort study, higher habitual dietary fiber intake before surgery was associated with a lower risk of postoperative complications among patients with colorectal cancer. The findings suggest that improving preoperative dietary fiber intake may be considered in future prehabilitation programs for patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2021.2311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209565PMC
June 2021

Increases in adipose tissue and muscle function are longitudinally associated with better quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors.

Sci Rep 2021 06 14;11(1):12440. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Epidemiology, GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University, P.O. BOX 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors need evidence-based guidelines pertaining to post-treatment body composition, which could benefit health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We aimed to describe the course of several body composition measures, and to assess longitudinal associations of these measures with HRQoL, fatigue and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). In a prospective cohort among stage I-III CRC survivors (n = 459), five repeated home visits from diagnosis up to 24 months post-treatment were executed. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and fat percentage were assessed as measures of adiposity, and muscle arm circumference and handgrip strength as measures of muscle mass and function. We applied linear mixed-models to describe changes in body composition over time and to analyze overall longitudinal associations. Of included participants, 44% was overweight and 31% was obese at diagnosis. All body composition measures followed similar trends, decreasing from diagnosis to 6 weeks and then increasing up to 24 months post-treatment. In confounder-adjusted mixed models, increases in adipose tissue and muscle function were longitudinally associated with better HRQoL and less fatigue, regardless of pre-treatment body composition. With regards to improving HRQoL, decreasing fatigue and CIPN, clinical practice should also focus on restoring body tissues after CRC treatment.Trial registration: NTR7099.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91709-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203762PMC
June 2021

The Association Between Modifiable Lifestyle Factors and Postoperative Complications of Elective Surgery in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

Dis Colon Rectum 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Department of Surgery, Maasziekenhuis Pantein, Beugen Department of Geriatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Research has demonstrated a possible relation between patients' preoperative lifestyle and postoperative complications.

Objective: To assess associations between modifiable preoperative lifestyle factors and postoperative complications in patients undergoing elective surgery for colorectal cancer.

Design: Retrospective study of a prospectively maintained database.

Setting: At diagnosis, data on smoking habits, alcohol consumption, BMI and physical activity were collected using questionnaires. Postoperative data were gathered from the nationwide database of the Dutch ColoRectal Audit.

Patients: Patients (n=1564) from eleven Dutch hospitals with newly diagnosed stage I-IV colorectal cancer included in a prospective observational cohort study (COLON) between 2010 and 2018, were included.

Main Outcome Measures: Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify which preoperative lifestyle factors were associated with postoperative complications.

Results: Postoperative complications occurred in 28.5%, resulting in a substantially prolonged hospital stay (12 vs. 5 days, p<0.001). Independently associated with higher postoperative complication rates were ASA Classification II (OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.05-2.04, p=0.03) and III-IV (OR 3.17; 95% CI 1.96-5.12, p<0.001), current smoking (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.02-2.56, p=0.04) and rectal tumors (OR 1.81; 95%CI 1.28-2.55, p=0.001). BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity did not show an association with postoperative complications. However, in a subgroup analysis of 200 ASA III-IV patients, preoperative high physical activity was associated with fewer postoperative complications (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.03-0.87, p=0.04).

Limitations: Compared to most studied colorectal cancer populations, this study describes a relatively healthy study population with 87.2% of the included patients classified as ASA I-II.

Conclusions: Modifiable lifestyle factors such as current smoking and physical activity are associated with postoperative complications after colorectal cancer surgery. Current smoking is associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications in the overall study population, while preoperative high physical activity is only associated with a reduced risk of postoperative complications in ASA III-IV patients. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B632 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000001976DOI Listing
June 2021

Identification of Lifestyle Behaviors Associated with Recurrence and Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients Using Random Survival Forests.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 18;13(10). Epub 2021 May 18.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University & Research, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Current lifestyle recommendations for cancer survivors are the same as those for the general public to decrease their risk of cancer. However, it is unclear which lifestyle behaviors are most important for prognosis. We aimed to identify which lifestyle behaviors were most important regarding colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence and all-cause mortality with a data-driven method. The study consisted of 1180 newly diagnosed stage I-III CRC patients from a prospective cohort study. Lifestyle behaviors included in the current recommendations, as well as additional lifestyle behaviors related to diet, physical activity, adiposity, alcohol use, and smoking were assessed six months after diagnosis. These behaviors were simultaneously analyzed as potential predictors of recurrence or all-cause mortality with Random Survival Forests (RSFs). We observed 148 recurrences during 2.6-year median follow-up and 152 deaths during 4.8-year median follow-up. Higher intakes of sugary drinks were associated with increased recurrence risk. For all-cause mortality, fruit and vegetable, liquid fat and oil, and animal protein intake were identified as the most important lifestyle behaviors. These behaviors showed non-linear associations with all-cause mortality. Our exploratory RSF findings give new ideas on potential associations between certain lifestyle behaviors and CRC prognosis that still need to be confirmed in other cohorts of CRC survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8157840PMC
May 2021

Longitudinal Associations of Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity with Quality of Life in Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Epidemiology, GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Department of Surgery, GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, the Netherlands Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Viecuri Medical Center, Venlo, the Netherlands Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, Zuyderland Medical Centre, Sittard-Geleen, the Netherlands Department of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Tilburg University, Tilburg, the Netherlands.

Introduction: Given the growing population of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors, identifying ways to enhance health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and alleviate complaints of fatigue and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is essential.

Purpose: We aimed to assess longitudinal associations of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) independently, as well as their joint association, with HRQoL, fatigue and CIPN in CRC survivors.

Methods: In a prospective cohort among stage I-III CRC survivors (n = 396), five repeated home visits from diagnosis up to 24 months post-treatment were executed. SB was measured using tri-axial accelerometers, and MVPA, HRQoL, fatigue and CIPN were measured by validated questionnaires. We applied confounder-adjusted linear mixed-models to analyse longitudinal associations from 6 weeks until 24 months post-treatment.

Results: Average time in prolonged SB (accumulated in bouts of duration ≥30 minutes) was 5.3 (SD: 2.7) hours·day-1 and approximately 82% of survivors were classified as sufficiently active (≥150 minutes·week-1 of MVPA) at 6 weeks post-treatment. Decreases in SB and increases in MVPA were independently associated with better HRQoL and less fatigue over time. No associations were found for CIPN complaints. A synergistic interaction was observed between prolonged SB and MVPA in affecting functioning scales. Relative to CRC survivors with low prolonged SB and high MVPA, survivors with high prolonged SB and low MVPA reported a stronger decrease in physical functioning and role functioning over time than expected based on the independent associations of prolonged SB and MVPA.

Conclusion: Our longitudinal results show that less SB and more MVPA are beneficial for CRC survivors' HRQoL and fatigue levels. Our findings regarding interaction underscore that joint recommendations to avoid prolonged sitting and accumulate MVPA is important.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002703DOI Listing
May 2021

Levels of Inflammation Markers Are Associated with the Risk of Recurrence and All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Colorectal Cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 06 26;30(6):1089-1099. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Background: We investigated whether preoperative and postoperative levels of inflammation markers, which have mechanistically been linked to colorectal cancer progression, were associated with recurrence and all-cause mortality in patients with colorectal cancer.

Methods: Data of two prospective cohort studies were used. For the current analysis, patients with stage I to III colorectal cancer were considered. Data on inflammation [IL6, IL8, IL10, TNFα, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and a combined inflammatory -score] were available for 747 patients before surgery and for 614 patients after surgery. The associations between inflammation marker levels and colorectal cancer recurrence and all-cause mortality were examined using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models, considering patient characteristics and clinical and lifestyle factors.

Results: Higher preoperative and postoperative hsCRP levels were associated with a higher risk of recurrence [HR (95% CI), 1.15 (1.02-1.30) and 1.34 (1.16-1.55)] and all-cause mortality [HR (95% CI) 1.13 (1.01-1.28) and 1.15 (0.98-1.35)]. A doubling in IL8 levels (preoperative levels HR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.00-1.53 and postoperative levels HR = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.23-2.12) and a higher combined inflammatory -score (preoperative HR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.03-1.89 and postoperative HR = 1.56; 95% CI, 1.06-2.28) were associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality, but not recurrence. No associations between IL6, IL10, and TNFα and recurrence or all-cause mortality were observed.

Conclusions: Preoperative and postoperative levels of specific inflammation markers were associated with recurrence and/or all-cause mortality.

Impact: The complex role of inflammation in cancer recurrence merits further elucidation by investigating local inflammation at the tumor site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1752DOI Listing
June 2021

Genetically predicted circulating concentrations of micronutrients and risk of colorectal cancer among individuals of European descent: a Mendelian randomization study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 06;113(6):1490-1502

Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: The literature on associations of circulating concentrations of minerals and vitamins with risk of colorectal cancer is limited and inconsistent. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support the efficacy of dietary modification or nutrient supplementation for colorectal cancer prevention is also limited.

Objectives: To complement observational and RCT findings, we investigated associations of genetically predicted concentrations of 11 micronutrients (β-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and zinc) with colorectal cancer risk using Mendelian randomization (MR).

Methods: Two-sample MR was conducted using 58,221 individuals with colorectal cancer and 67,694 controls from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry. Inverse variance-weighted MR analyses were performed with sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of potential violations of MR assumptions.

Results: Nominally significant associations were noted for genetically predicted iron concentration and higher risk of colon cancer [ORs per SD (ORSD): 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17; P value = 0.05] and similarly for proximal colon cancer, and for vitamin B-12 concentration and higher risk of colorectal cancer (ORSD: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21; P value = 0.01) and similarly for colon cancer. A nominally significant association was also noted for genetically predicted selenium concentration and lower risk of colon cancer (ORSD: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.00; P value = 0.05) and similarly for distal colon cancer. These associations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Nominally significant inverse associations were observed for zinc and risk of colorectal and distal colon cancers, but sensitivity analyses could not be performed. None of these findings survived correction for multiple testing. Genetically predicted concentrations of β-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin B-6 were not associated with disease risk.

Conclusions: These results suggest possible causal associations of circulating iron and vitamin B-12 (positively) and selenium (inversely) with risk of colon cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168352PMC
June 2021

Lifestyle after colorectal cancer diagnosis in relation to recurrence and all-cause mortality.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 06;113(6):1447-1457

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: An unhealthy lifestyle is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but it is unclear whether overall lifestyle after a CRC diagnosis is associated with risks of recurrence and mortality.

Objectives: To examine associations between postdiagnosis lifestyle and changes in lifestyle after a CRC diagnosis with risks of CRC recurrence and all-cause mortality.

Methods: The study population included 1425 newly diagnosed, stage I-III CRC patients from 2 prospective cohort studies enrolled between 2010 and 2016. Lifestyle, including BMI, physical activity, diet, and alcohol intake, was assessed at diagnosis and at 6 months postdiagnosis. We assigned lifestyle scores based on concordance with 2 sets of cancer prevention guidelines-from the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) and the American Cancer Society (ACS)-and national disease prevention guidelines. Higher scores indicate healthier lifestyles. We computed adjusted HRs and 95% CIs using Cox regression.

Results: We observed 164 recurrences during a 2.8-year median follow-up and 171 deaths during a 4.4-year median follow-up. No associations were observed for CRC recurrence. A lifestyle more consistent with the ACS recommendations was associated with a lower all-cause mortality risk (HR per +1 SD, 0.85; 95% CI: 0.73-0.995). The same tendency was observed for higher WCRF/AICR (HR, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.78-1.08) and national (HR, 0.90; 95% CI: 0.77-1.05) lifestyle scores, although these associations were statistically nonsignificant. Generally, no statistically significant associations were observed for BMI, physical activity, diet, or alcohol. Improving one's lifestyle after diagnosis (+1 SD) was associated with a lower all-cause mortality risk for the ACS (HR, 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67-0.96) and national (HR, 0.84; 95% CI: 0.70-0.999) scores, yet was statistically nonsignificant for the WCRF/AICR score (HR, 0.94; 95% CI: 0.78-1.13).

Conclusions: A healthy lifestyle after CRC diagnosis and improvements therein were not associated with the risk of CRC recurrence, but were associated with a decreased all-cause mortality risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168353PMC
June 2021

Targeted Plasma Metabolic Profiles and Risk of Recurrence in Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer Patients: Results from an International Cohort Consortium.

Metabolites 2021 Feb 24;11(3). Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Huntsman Cancer Institute Salt Lake City, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.

The identification of patients at high-risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence remains an unmet clinical need. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of metabolites with risk of recurrence in stage II/III CRC patients. A targeted metabolomics assay (128 metabolites measured) was performed on pre-surgery collected EDTA plasma samples from n = 440 newly diagnosed stage II/III CRC patients. Patients have been recruited from four prospective cohort studies as part of an international consortium: Metabolomic profiles throughout the continuum of CRC (MetaboCCC). Cox proportional hazard models were computed to investigate associations of metabolites with recurrence, adjusted for age, sex, tumor stage, tumor site, body mass index, and cohort; false discovery rate (FDR) was used to account for multiple testing. Sixty-nine patients (15%) had a recurrence after a median follow-up time of 20 months. We identified 13 metabolites that were nominally associated with a reduced risk of recurrence. None of the associations were statistically significant after controlling for multiple testing. Pathway topology analyses did not reveal statistically significant associations between recurrence and alterations in metabolic pathways (e.g., sphingolipid metabolism = 0.04; p = 1.00). To conclude, we did not observe statistically significant associations between metabolites and CRC recurrence using a well-established metabolomics assay. The observed results require follow-up in larger studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11030129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996362PMC
February 2021

Circulating B-vitamin biomarkers and B-vitamin supplement use in relation to quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer: results from the FOCUS consortium.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 06;113(6):1468-1481

Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: B vitamins have been associated with the risk and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC), given their central roles in nucleotide synthesis and methylation, yet their association with quality of life in established CRC is unclear.

Objectives: To investigate whether quality of life 6 months postdiagnosis is associated with: 1) circulating concentrations of B vitamins and related biomarkers 6 months postdiagnosis; 2) changes in these concentrations between diagnosis and 6 months postdiagnosis; 3) B-vitamin supplement use 6 months postdiagnosis; and 4) changes in B-vitamin supplement use between diagnosis and 6 months postdiagnosis.

Methods: We included 1676 newly diagnosed stage I-III CRC patients from 3 prospective European cohorts. Circulating concentrations of 9 biomarkers related to the B vitamins folate, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and cobalamin were measured at diagnosis and 6 months postdiagnosis. Information on dietary supplement use was collected at both time points. Health-related quality of life (global quality of life, functioning scales, and fatigue) was assessed by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 6 months postdiagnosis. Confounder-adjusted linear regression analyses were performed, adjusted for multiple testing.

Results: Higher pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) was cross-sectionally associated with better physical, role, and social functioning, as well as reduced fatigue, 6 months postdiagnosis. Associations were observed for a doubling in the hydroxykynurenine ratio [3-hydroxykynurenine: (kynurenic acid + xanthurenic acid + 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid + anthranilic acid); an inverse marker of vitamin B6] and both reduced global quality of life (β = -3.62; 95% CI: -5.88, -1.36) and worse physical functioning (β = -5.01; 95% CI: -7.09, -2.94). Dose-response relations were observed for PLP and quality of life. No associations were observed for changes in biomarker concentrations between diagnosis and 6 months. Participants who stopped using B-vitamin supplements after diagnosis reported higher fatigue than nonusers.

Conclusions: Higher vitamin B6 status was associated with better quality of life, yet limited associations were observed for the use of B-vitamin supplements. Vitamin B6 needs further study to clarify its role in relation to quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168355PMC
June 2021

Genetic architectures of proximal and distal colorectal cancer are partly distinct.

Gut 2021 Jul 25;70(7):1325-1334. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology - IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical for improving precision prevention, including individualized screening recommendations and the discovery of novel drug targets and repurposable drug candidates for chemoprevention. Known differences in molecular characteristics and environmental risk factors among tumors arising in different locations of the colorectum suggest partly distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The extent to which the contribution of inherited genetic risk factors for CRC differs by anatomical subsite of the primary tumor has not been examined.

Design: To identify new anatomical subsite-specific risk loci, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses including data of 48 214 CRC cases and 64 159 controls of European ancestry. We characterised effect heterogeneity at CRC risk loci using multinomial modelling.

Results: We identified 13 loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10) and that were not reported by previous GWASs for overall CRC risk. Multiple lines of evidence support candidate genes at several of these loci. We detected substantial heterogeneity between anatomical subsites. Just over half (61) of 109 known and new risk variants showed no evidence for heterogeneity. In contrast, 22 variants showed association with distal CRC (including rectal cancer), but no evidence for association or an attenuated association with proximal CRC. For two loci, there was strong evidence for effects confined to proximal colon cancer.

Conclusion: Genetic architectures of proximal and distal CRC are partly distinct. Studies of risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and precision prevention strategies should take into consideration the anatomical subsite of the tumour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223655PMC
July 2021

Diet quality indices and dietary patterns are associated with plasma metabolites in colorectal cancer patients.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Sep 5;60(6):3171-3184. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Emerging evidence suggests that diet is linked to survival in colorectal cancer patients, although underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary exposures are associated with metabolite concentrations in colorectal cancer patients.

Methods: Concentrations of 134 metabolites of the Biocrates Absolute p180 kit were quantified in plasma samples collected at diagnosis from 195 stage I-IV colorectal cancer patients. Food frequency questionnaires were used to calculate adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) dietary recommendations and the Dutch Healthy Diet (DHD15) index as well as to construct dietary patterns using Principal Component Analysis. Multivariable linear regression models were used to determine associations between dietary exposures and metabolite concentrations. All models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, analytical batch, cancer stage, and multiple testing using false discovery rate.

Results: Participants had a mean (SD) age of 66 (9) years, were mostly men (60%), and mostly diagnosed with stage II and III cancer. For the dietary pattern analyses, Western, Carnivore, and Prudent patterns were identified. Better adherence to the WCRF dietary recommendations was associated with lower concentrations of ten phosphatidylcholines. Higher intake of the Carnivore pattern was associated with higher concentrations of two phosphatidylcholines. The DHD15-index, Western pattern, or Prudent pattern were not associated with metabolite concentrations.

Conclusion: In the current study, the WCRF dietary score and the Carnivore pattern are associated with phosphatidylcholines. Future research should elucidate the potential relevance of phosphatidylcholine metabolism in the colorectal cancer continuum.

Clinical Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03191110.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02488-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8354955PMC
September 2021

Sufficient 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels 2 Years after Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis are Associated with a Lower Risk of All-cause Mortality.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 04 2;30(4):765-773. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Background: Whether changes in 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels after colorectal cancer diagnosis influence clinical outcomes is unclear. We investigated the association of trajectories of 25(OH)D levels with recurrence and all-cause mortality.

Methods: In total, 679 patients were included in our data analyses. Trajectories of 25(OH)D levels were defined on the basis of vitamin D status at diagnosis, at 6 months, and 2 years after diagnosis. Observed trajectories of 25(OH)D levels were consistent deficient levels (20%), consistent sufficient levels (39%), increasing levels (20%), and a temporary drop in levels (13%). Associations of trajectories of 25(OH)D with recurrence and all-cause mortality were assessed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models.

Results: During a follow-up time of 2.2 years for recurrence and 3.5 years for all-cause mortality, 31 and 65 events occurred, respectively. No statistically significant associations were observed for vitamin D trajectories and the risk of recurrence. Patients who were consistently sufficient compared with patients who were consistently deficient had a lower risk of all-cause mortality [HR 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.21-0.73]. The risk of all-cause mortality seems lower in patients with increasing levels or a temporary drop in levels (HR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.27-1.10 and HR 0.40 95% CI, 0.17-0.93) relative to patients with consistent deficient levels.

Conclusions: Patients with colorectal cancer following a trajectory characterized by sufficient levels of 25(OH)D 2 years after diagnosis all appeared to have a lower risk of all-cause mortality compared with patients having consistent deficient levels.

Impact: Further studies should investigate how trajectories of 25(OH)D levels are associated with colorectal cancer recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1388DOI Listing
April 2021

Associations of Height With the Risks of Colorectal and Endometrial Cancer in Persons With Lynch Syndrome.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 02;190(2):230-238

People with Lynch syndrome (LS), who carry a pathogenic mutation in a DNA mismatch repair gene, have increased risks of colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC). A high reported variability in cancer risk suggests the existence of factors that modify cancer risk for persons with LS. We aimed to investigate the associations between height and CRC and EC risk for persons with LS using data from 2 large studies. Information on 1,115 men and 1,553 women with LS from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (1998-2007) and the GEOLynch Cohort Study (2006-2017) was harmonized. We used weighted Cox proportional hazards regression models with age on the time axis to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for each 5-cm increment in self-reported height. CRC was diagnosed in 947 persons during 65,369 person-years of observation, and 171 women were diagnosed with EC during 39,227 person-years. Height was not associated with CRC for either men (per 5-cm increment, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91, 1.11) or women (per 5-cm increment, HR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.11), nor was height associated with EC (per 5-cm increment, HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.24). Hence, we observed no evidence for an association of height with either CRC or EC among persons with LS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8210745PMC
February 2021

The association between the adapted dietary inflammatory index and colorectal cancer recurrence and all-cause mortality.

Clin Nutr 2021 06 11;40(6):4436-4443. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Background & Aims: The inflammatory potential of the diet has been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC) development and mortality. However, it is unknown whether it is also associated with CRC recurrence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the inflammatory potential of the diet and plasma inflammation markers as well as recurrence and all-cause mortality in CRC patients.

Methods: Data of the Colorectal cancer, Observational, LONgitudinal (COLON) study, a prospective cohort study, was used. Dietary intake, assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, was available for 1478 patients at diagnosis and for 1334 patients six months after diagnosis. Dietary intake data were used to calculate the adapted dietary inflammatory index (ADII). Data about cancer recurrence and all-cause mortality, were assessed through linkage with the Netherlands Cancer Registry and the Municipal Personal Records Database, respectively. The association between the ADII (continuous) and inflammation markers (Interleukin (IL)6, IL8, IL10, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)α, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and a summary inflammatory z-score), measured with a multiplex assay using electrochemiluminiscence detection, was assessed using quantile regression analyses. Restricted cubic splines (RCS) analyses and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to explore the relationship between the ADII and CRC outcomes.

Results: During a median follow-up time of 3.2 years (Interquartile range (IQR) 2.0-4.1) for recurrence and 4.8 years (IQR 3.5-5.9) for all-cause mortality, 228 recurrences and 279 deaths occurred. A more pro-inflammatory diet at diagnosis as well as six months after diagnosis was associated with higher levels of TNFα, hsCRP and the summary inflammatory z-score. Results of RCS showed no relationship between the ADII and CRC outcomes at both time points. Also results of the Cox proportional hazard models showed no associations between the ADII at both time points and recurrence (HR (95%CI) 0.98 (0.94-1.04) & 0.96 (0.91-1.02) or all-cause mortality (HR (95%CI) 1.03 (0.98-1.07) & 1.00 (0.95-1.05)).

Conclusion: Our study did not show an association between the ADII and recurrence and all-cause mortality in CRC patients. Further research should also take into account molecular tumor subtypes, as the effect of the inflammatory potential of the diet on cancer recurrence and mortality is more likely to be present in tumors with an inflammatory signature.

Clinical Trial Registry Numbers And Website: The colon study: NCT03191110; clinical trials.gov.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.01.004DOI Listing
June 2021

Adiposity, metabolites, and colorectal cancer risk: Mendelian randomization study.

BMC Med 2020 12 17;18(1):396. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood.

Methods: We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models.

Results: In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P ≤ 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01855-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745469PMC
December 2020

A Combined Proteomics and Mendelian Randomization Approach to Investigate the Effects of Aspirin-Targeted Proteins on Colorectal Cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 03 14;30(3):564-575. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Nutrition and Metabolism Section, International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon, France.

Background: Evidence for aspirin's chemopreventative properties on colorectal cancer (CRC) is substantial, but its mechanism of action is not well-understood. We combined a proteomic approach with Mendelian randomization (MR) to identify possible new aspirin targets that decrease CRC risk.

Methods: Human colorectal adenoma cells (RG/C2) were treated with aspirin (24 hours) and a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) based proteomics approach identified altered protein expression. Protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) from INTERVAL ( = 3,301) and expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the eQTLGen Consortium ( = 31,684) were used as genetic proxies for protein and mRNA expression levels. Two-sample MR of mRNA/protein expression on CRC risk was performed using eQTL/pQTL data combined with CRC genetic summary data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO) consortia and UK Biobank (55,168 cases and 65,160 controls).

Results: Altered expression was detected for 125/5886 proteins. Of these, aspirin decreased MCM6, RRM2, and ARFIP2 expression, and MR analysis showed that a standard deviation increase in mRNA/protein expression was associated with increased CRC risk (OR: 1.08, 95% CI, 1.03-1.13; OR: 3.33, 95% CI, 2.46-4.50; and OR: 1.15, 95% CI, 1.02-1.29, respectively).

Conclusions: MCM6 and RRM2 are involved in DNA repair whereby reduced expression may lead to increased DNA aberrations and ultimately cancer cell death, whereas ARFIP2 is involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation, indicating a possible role in aspirin's reduction of metastasis.

Impact: Our approach has shown how laboratory experiments and population-based approaches can combine to identify aspirin-targeted proteins possibly affecting CRC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086774PMC
March 2021

Inflammation Is a Mediating Factor in the Association between Lifestyle and Fatigue in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 12 9;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Fatigue is very common among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We examined the association between adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) lifestyle recommendations and fatigue among stage I-III CRC patients, and whether inflammation mediated this association. Data from two prospective cohort studies were used. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was expressed as a score ranging from 0-7, and assessed shortly after diagnosis. Six months post-diagnosis, fatigue was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), and in a subpopulation, the plasma levels of inflammation markers (IL6, IL8, TNFα, and hsCRP) were assessed. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations and fatigue. To test mediation by inflammation, the PROCESS analytic tool developed by Hayes was used. A higher WCRF/AICR adherence score was associated with less fatigue six months after diagnosis ( = 1417, β -2.22, 95%CI -3.65; -0.78). In the population of analysis for the mediation analyses ( = 551), the total association between lifestyle and fatigue was (β -2.17, 95% CI -4.60; 0.25). A statistically significant indirect association via inflammation was observed (β -0.97, 95% CI -1.92; -0.21), explaining 45% of the total association between lifestyle and fatigue (-0.97/-2.17 × 100). Thus, inflammation is probably one of the underlying mechanisms linking lifestyle to fatigue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763620PMC
December 2020

Circulating Folate and Folic Acid Concentrations: Associations With Colorectal Cancer Recurrence and Survival.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2020 Oct 7;4(5):pkaa051. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Surgery, Hospital Group Twente ZGT, Almelo, the Netherlands.

Background: Folates, including folic acid, may play a dual role in colorectal cancer development. Folate is suggested to be protective in early carcinogenesis but could accelerate growth of premalignant lesions or micrometastases. Whether circulating concentrations of folate and folic acid, measured around time of diagnosis, are associated with recurrence and survival in colorectal cancer patients is largely unknown.

Methods: Circulating concentrations of folate, folic acid, and folate catabolites p-aminobenzoylglutamate and p-acetamidobenzoylglutamate were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at diagnosis in 2024 stage I-III colorectal cancer patients from European and US patient cohort studies. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess associations between folate, folic acid, and folate catabolites concentrations with recurrence, overall survival, and disease-free survival.

Results: No statistically significant associations were observed between folate, p-aminobenzoylglutamate, and p-acetamidobenzoylglutamate concentrations and recurrence, overall survival, and disease-free survival, with hazard ratios ranging from 0.92 to 1.16. The detection of folic acid in the circulation (yes or no) was not associated with any outcome. However, among patients with detectable folic acid concentrations (n = 296), a higher risk of recurrence was observed for each twofold increase in folic acid (hazard ratio = 1.31, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.58). No statistically significant associations were found between folic acid concentrations and overall and disease-free survival.

Conclusions: Circulating folate and folate catabolite concentrations at colorectal cancer diagnosis were not associated with recurrence and survival. However, caution is warranted for high blood concentrations of folic acid because they may increase the risk of colorectal cancer recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkaa051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7583160PMC
October 2020

Identifying Novel Susceptibility Genes for Colorectal Cancer Risk From a Transcriptome-Wide Association Study of 125,478 Subjects.

Gastroenterology 2021 03 12;160(4):1164-1178.e6. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics and the Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Background And Aims: Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes.

Methods: Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted.

Results: We identified 25 genes associated with CRC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 9.1 × 10, including genes in 4 novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In 9 known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered 9 genes that have not been reported previously, whereas 4 genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P < .01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis.

Conclusions: Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.08.062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7956223PMC
March 2021

Diet quality and colorectal tumor risk in persons with Lynch syndrome.

Cancer Epidemiol 2020 12 15;69:101809. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Persons with Lynch syndrome (LS) have an increased risk of developing colorectal tumors (CRTs). Adherence to diet quality indices associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the general population has not been studied before in LS.

Methods: Dietary habits of 490 participants with LS from a prospective cohort study was collected using a food frequency questionnaire. The Dutch Healthy Diet index 2015 (DHD15-index) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) were used to score food-based diet quality. Diet quality scores were divided into tertiles where a higher tertile reflects a higher diet quality. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the association between the DHD15-index, DASH score and CRT risk.

Results: During a median follow-up time of 53.4 months, 210 participants (42.9%) developed CRTs. The DHD-index and DASH score were not associated with CRT risk; hazard ratios for highest vs. lowest tertile were 1.00 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.67-1.48) and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.74-1.69), respectively. No linear trends across the DHD-index and DASH score tertiles were observed (P-trend = 0.97 and 0.83 respectively).

Conclusion: In contrast to observations in the general population, no evidence for an association between the food-based DHD15-index or DASH score and CRT risk was observed in persons with LS. Further studies are needed investigating the association between diet quality and mechanisms leading to the development of LS-associated tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2020.101809DOI Listing
December 2020

Circulating bilirubin levels and risk of colorectal cancer: serological and Mendelian randomization analyses.

BMC Med 2020 09 3;18(1):229. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Public Health Directorate, Asturias, Spain.

Background: Bilirubin, a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown and purported anti-oxidant, is thought to be cancer preventive. We conducted complementary serological and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate whether alterations in circulating levels of bilirubin are associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We decided a priori to perform analyses separately in men and women based on suggestive evidence that associations may differ by sex.

Methods: In a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), pre-diagnostic unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, the main component of total bilirubin) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples of 1386 CRC cases and their individually matched controls. Additionally, 115 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated (P < 5 × 10) with circulating total bilirubin were instrumented in a 2-sample MR to test for a potential causal effect of bilirubin on CRC risk in 52,775 CRC cases and 45,940 matched controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT) study.

Results: The associations between circulating UCB levels and CRC risk differed by sex (P = 0.008). Among men, higher levels of UCB were positively associated with CRC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.36; per 1-SD increment of log-UCB). In women, an inverse association was observed (OR = 0.86 (0.76-0.97)). In the MR analysis of the main UGT1A1 SNP (rs6431625), genetically predicted higher levels of total bilirubin were associated with a 7% increase in CRC risk in men (OR = 1.07 (1.02-1.12); P = 0.006; per 1-SD increment of total bilirubin), while there was no association in women (OR = 1.01 (0.96-1.06); P = 0.73). Raised bilirubin levels, predicted by instrumental variables excluding rs6431625, were suggestive of an inverse association with CRC in men, but not in women. These differences by sex did not reach formal statistical significance (P ≥ 0.2).

Conclusions: Additional insight into the relationship between circulating bilirubin and CRC is needed in order to conclude on a potential causal role of bilirubin in CRC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01703-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7469292PMC
September 2020

Is a colorectal neoplasm diagnosis a trigger to change dietary and other lifestyle habits for persons with Lynch syndrome? A prospective cohort study.

Fam Cancer 2021 04 8;20(2):125-135. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University & Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

A cancer diagnosis is suggested to be associated with changes in dietary and lifestyle habits. Whether this applies to persons with familial cancer, such as Lynch syndrome (LS) is unknown. We investigated whether a colorectal neoplasm (CRN) diagnosis in persons with LS is associated with changes in dietary and lifestyle habits over time. We used data of confirmed LS mutation carriers from the GEOLynch study, a prospective cohort study. Information on dietary intake and lifestyle habits was collected with a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and a general questionnaire administered at baseline (2006-2008) and follow-up (2012-2017). Participants' medical records were used to identify CRN diagnoses. Changes in dietary and lifestyle habits in the CRN and the no-CRN group were compared using multivariable linear regression models for continuous variables and cross-tables with percentage change at follow-up compared with baseline for categorical variables. Of the 324 included participants, 146 developed a CRN (CRN group) between baseline and follow-up, while 178 did not (no-CRN group). Smoking cessation was more often reported in the CRN than in the no-CRN group (41.4% vs. 35.0%). There were no differences in changes of energy intake, alcohol, red meat, processed meat, dairy, fruit, vegetables and dietary fiber consumption, BMI, physical activity and NSAID use. Apart from a potentially higher likelihood of smoking cessation, we found little evidence that a CRN diagnosis is associated with changes in lifestyle habits in persons with LS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10689-020-00201-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064993PMC
April 2021

Genome-wide Modeling of Polygenic Risk Score in Colorectal Cancer Risk.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 09 5;107(3):432-444. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.

Accurate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk prediction models are critical for identifying individuals at low and high risk of developing CRC, as they can then be offered targeted screening and interventions to address their risks of developing disease (if they are in a high-risk group) and avoid unnecessary screening and interventions (if they are in a low-risk group). As it is likely that thousands of genetic variants contribute to CRC risk, it is clinically important to investigate whether these genetic variants can be used jointly for CRC risk prediction. In this paper, we derived and compared different approaches to generating predictive polygenic risk scores (PRS) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) including 55,105 CRC-affected case subjects and 65,079 control subjects of European ancestry. We built the PRS in three ways, using (1) 140 previously identified and validated CRC loci; (2) SNP selection based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) clumping followed by machine-learning approaches; and (3) LDpred, a Bayesian approach for genome-wide risk prediction. We tested the PRS in an independent cohort of 101,987 individuals with 1,699 CRC-affected case subjects. The discriminatory accuracy, calculated by the age- and sex-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), was highest for the LDpred-derived PRS (AUC = 0.654) including nearly 1.2 M genetic variants (the proportion of causal genetic variants for CRC assumed to be 0.003), whereas the PRS of the 140 known variants identified from GWASs had the lowest AUC (AUC = 0.629). Based on the LDpred-derived PRS, we are able to identify 30% of individuals without a family history as having risk for CRC similar to those with a family history of CRC, whereas the PRS based on known GWAS variants identified only top 10% as having a similar relative risk. About 90% of these individuals have no family history and would have been considered average risk under current screening guidelines, but might benefit from earlier screening. The developed PRS offers a way for risk-stratified CRC screening and other targeted interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.07.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477007PMC
September 2020

The association between circulating levels of vitamin D and inflammatory markers in the first 2 years after colorectal cancer diagnosis.

Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2020 27;13:1756284820923922. Epub 2020 May 27.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, may inhibit colorectal cancer (CRC) progression, which has been mechanistically linked to an attenuation of a pro-inflammatory state. The present study investigated the associations between circulating 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and inflammatory markers (IL10, IL8, IL6, TNFα and hsCRP) in the 2 years following CRC diagnosis.

Methods: Circulating 25(OH)D levels and inflammatory markers were assessed at diagnosis, after 6, 12 and 24 months from 798 patients with sporadic CRC participating in two prospective cohort studies. Associations between 25(OH)D levels and individual inflammatory markers as well as a summary inflammatory -score were assessed at each time point by multiple linear regression analyses. To assess the association between 25(OH)D and inflammatory markers over the course of 2 years, linear mixed model regression analyses were conducted.

Results: Higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with lower IL6 levels at diagnosis, at 6 months after diagnosis and over the course of 2 years (β -0.06, 95% CI -0.08 to -0.04). In addition, 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with the summary inflammatory -score at diagnosis and over the course of 2 years (β -0.17, 95% CI -0.25 to -0.08). In addition, a significant inverse association between 25(OH)D levels and IL10 was found over the course of 2 years. Intra-individual analyses showed an inverse association between 25(OH)D and IL10, IL6 and TNFα. No statistically significant associations between 25(OH)D and IL8 and hsCRP levels were observed.

Conclusions: Serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with the summary inflammatory -score and in particular with IL6 in the years following CRC diagnosis. This is of potential clinical relevance as IL6 has an important role in chronic inflammation and is also suggested to stimulate cancer progression. Further observational studies should investigate whether a possible 25(OH)D-associated reduction of inflammatory mediators influences treatment efficacy and CRC recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756284820923922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273344PMC
May 2020

Higher Serum Vitamin D Concentrations Are Longitudinally Associated with Better Global Quality of Life and Less Fatigue in Colorectal Cancer Survivors up to 2 Years after Treatment.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 06 3;29(6):1135-1144. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Epidemiology, GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background: Vitamin D status may be an important determinant of health-related quality of life of colorectal cancer survivors. The current study investigated longitudinal associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations and quality of life in stage I-III colorectal cancer survivors up to 2 years after treatment.

Methods: Patients with colorectal cancer ( = 261) were included upon diagnosis. Home visits (including blood sampling) were performed at diagnosis and at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after treatment. Serum 25OHD concentrations were measured using LC/MS-MS and adjusted for season. Validated questionnaires were used to assess global quality of life and cognitive functioning (EORTC-QLQ-C30), fatigue (EORTC-QLQ-C30 and Checklist Individual Strength, CIS), and depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Statistical analyses were performed using linear mixed models and adjusted for sex, age, time since diagnosis, therapy, comorbidities, physical activity, and body mass index.

Results: At diagnosis, 45% of patients were vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/L). After treatment, 25OHD concentrations increased on average with 3.1 nmol/L every 6 months. In confounder-adjusted models, 20 nmol/L increments in 25OHD were longitudinally associated with increased global quality of life [β 2.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-4.3] and reduced fatigue (EORTC-QLQ-C30 subscale: β -3.5; 95% CI, -5.3 to -1.8 and CIS: β -2.8; 95% CI, -4.7 to -0.9). Observed associations were present both within and between individuals over time.

Conclusions: Higher concentrations of 25OHD were longitudinally associated with better global quality of life and less fatigue in colorectal cancer survivors.

Impact: This study suggests that higher 25OHD concentrations may be beneficial for colorectal cancer survivors. Future intervention studies are needed to corroborate these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-1522DOI Listing
June 2020

Vitamin D, magnesium, calcium, and their interaction in relation to colorectal cancer recurrence and all-cause mortality.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 05;111(5):1007-1017

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Background: Higher concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] at diagnosis are associated with a lower mortality risk in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. However, magnesium and calcium are important in vitamin D metabolism.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate 25(OH)D3, magnesium, or calcium and their interaction among patients with CRC in relation to recurrence and all-cause mortality.

Methods: The study population included 1169 newly diagnosed stage I-III CRC patients from 2 prospective cohorts. Associations between 25(OH)D3 concentrations, magnesium or calcium intake through diet and/or supplements at diagnosis, and recurrence and all-cause mortality were evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. The interaction between 25(OH)D3 and magnesium or calcium was assessed by investigating 1) joint compared with separate effects, using a single reference category; and 2) the effect estimates of 1 factor across strata of another.

Results: Serum 25(OH)D3, calcium, and magnesium, alone and their interactions, were not associated with recurrence. Serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations seemed to be associated with all-cause mortality. An inverse association between magnesium intake (HRQ3 vs. Q1: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.95 and HRQ4 vs. Q1: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.35, 1.21), but not calcium intake, and all-cause mortality was observed. When investigating the interaction between 25(OH)D3 and magnesium, we observed the lowest risk of all-cause mortality in patients with sufficient vitamin D concentrations (≥50 nmol/L) and a high magnesium intake (median split) (HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.89) compared with patients who were vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/L) and had a low magnesium intake. No interactions between calcium and vitamin D in relation to all-cause mortality were observed.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the presence of an adequate status of 25(OH)D3 in combination with an adequate magnesium intake is essential in lowering the risk of mortality in CRC patients, yet the underlying mechanism should be studied. In addition, diet and lifestyle intervention studies are needed to confirm our findings. The COLON study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03191110. The EnCoRe study was registered at trialregister.nl as NTR7099.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198285PMC
May 2020

Development and internal validation of prediction models for colorectal cancer survivors to estimate the 1-year risk of low health-related quality of life in multiple domains.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2020 03 12;20(1):54. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Epidemiology, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University, P. Debyeplein 1, 6200, MD, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background: Many colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors experience persisting health problems post-treatment that compromise their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Prediction models are useful tools for identifying survivors at risk of low HRQoL in the future and for taking preventive action. Therefore, we developed prediction models for CRC survivors to estimate the 1-year risk of low HRQoL in multiple domains.

Methods: In 1458 CRC survivors, seven HRQoL domains (EORTC QLQ-C30: global QoL; cognitive, emotional, physical, role, social functioning; fatigue) were measured prospectively at study baseline and 1 year later. For each HRQoL domain, scores at 1-year follow-up were dichotomized into low versus normal/high. Separate multivariable logistic prediction models including biopsychosocial predictors measured at baseline were developed for the seven HRQoL domains, and internally validated using bootstrapping.

Results: Average time since diagnosis was 5 years at study baseline. Prediction models included both non-modifiable predictors (age, sex, socio-economic status, time since diagnosis, tumor stage, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, stoma, micturition, chemotherapy-related, stoma-related and gastrointestinal complaints, comorbidities, social inhibition/negative affectivity, and working status) and modifiable predictors (body mass index, physical activity, smoking, meat consumption, anxiety/depression, pain, and baseline fatigue and HRQoL scores). Internally validated models showed good calibration and discrimination (AUCs: 0.83-0.93).

Conclusions: The prediction models performed well for estimating 1-year risk of low HRQoL in seven domains. External validation is needed before models can be applied in practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12911-020-1064-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068880PMC
March 2020

Associations of Abdominal Skeletal Muscle Mass, Fat Mass, and Mortality among Men and Women with Stage I-III Colorectal Cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 05 4;29(5):956-965. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Research & Development, Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation (IKNL), Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: The associations of abdominal skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT, respectively), and mortality among patients with stage I-III colorectal cancer may differ for men and women, but only few studies stratified their data into men and women. We investigated associations of abdominal SMI, VAT, and SAT with overall mortality among men and among women with stage I-III colorectal cancer.

Methods: SMI, VAT, and SAT were assessed from abdominal CT images for 1,998 patients with stage I-III colorectal cancer diagnosed between 2006 and 2015. Restricted cubic splines (RCS) were used to investigate associations of SMI, VAT, and SAT with overall mortality.

Results: Average age of the participants was 67.9 ± 10.6 years and 58% were men. During a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 546 (27%) patients died. Among men, the association of SMI and mortality was statistically significant in a nonlinear way in the RCS analyses, with lower SMI levels associated with higher mortality. SMI was not associated with mortality among women. SAT was associated with mortality in a nonlinear way for men and for women, with lower SAT levels being associated with higher mortality. VAT was not significantly associated with mortality in men or women.

Conclusion: Associations of abdominal skeletal muscle mass with mortality among patients with colorectal cancer were not the same for men and for women.

Impact: This study stresses the importance for more attention on sex-related differences in body composition and cancer outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-1134DOI Listing
May 2020
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