Publications by authors named "Fouad Sayah"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

20-Hydroxyecdysone protects wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) against lead stress.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2016 Jan 19;98:64-71. Epub 2015 Nov 19.

Université Hassan I, Faculté Polydisciplinaire de Khouribga, BP 145, Khouribga, Morocco.

20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) is the most abundant phytoecdysteroid (PE) produced by plants, where it represents a protective molecule against insect attack. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of 20E on the growth, metabolic enzymes and antioxidant systems of wheat seedlings under lead stress induced by Pb(NO3)2 (3 mM). Pre-treatment concentrations (0, 1, 3 and 5 μM) of 20E were applied for two days, then wheat seedlings were transferred for 5 days to a treatment solution containing lead nitrate. When plants were grown without pre-treatment, germination and growth were impaired, while signs of oxidative stress were observed. 20E pre-treatment (3 or 5 μM) was able to efficiently protect seedlings from Pb toxicity by reducing Pb uptake and Pb-induced oxidative stress, as well by enhancing Pb excretion. Thus, 20E pre-treatment maintains normal germination, elongation, biomass, and metabolism in spite of the presence of Pb. Our results show that 20E protects oxidative balance and enhances the anti-oxidative systems, and more specifically the ascorbate-glutathione system. To our knowledge, this study shows for the first time that 20E treatment induces metabolic changes that allow the plants to resist heavy metal stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2015.11.006DOI Listing
January 2016

Dietary effects of harmine, a β-carboline alkaloid, on development, energy reserves and α-amylase activity of Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2012 Jan 15;19(1):73-80. Epub 2010 Dec 15.

Centre des Etudes Environnementales Méditerranéennes, Université Abdelmalek Essaadi, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, BP: 416, Tangier, Morocco.

The physiological and developmental effects of harmine, a β-carboline alkaloid, on the insect pest Plodia interpunctella have been analyzed. When added at the larval diet, harmine induced a strong reduction of larvae weight, cannibalism between larvae, in addition to significant mortality. On the other hand, it caused a remarkable development disruption, manifested by both delay and reduction of pupation and adult emergence. Using spectrophotometric assays, we have shown that harmine ingestion provoked a severe reduction in protein, glycogen and lipid contents. Beside, when larvae fed harmine, the activity of the digestive enzyme α-amylase was strongly reduced. In conclusion, our experiments clearly show the susceptibility of P. interpunctella to harmine ingestion revealing the potent bioinsecticidal effect of harmine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2010.12.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3730934PMC
January 2012

Lead phytotoxicity on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination and seedlings growth.

C R Biol 2011 Feb 12;334(2):118-26. Epub 2011 Jan 12.

Équipe de recherche biotechnologies et génie des biomolécules, PER - centre des études environnementales méditerranéennes, faculté des sciences et techniques, université Abdelmalek Essaadi, Tangier, Morocco.

Lead (Pb) is an environmental pollutant extremely toxic to plants and other living organisms including humans. To assess Pb phytotoxicity, experiments focusing on germination of wheat seeds were germinated in a solution containing Pb (NO(3))(2) (0.05; 0.1; 0.5; 1g/L) during 6 days. Lead accumulation in seedlings was positively correlated with the external concentrations, and negatively correlated with morphological parameters of plant growth. Lead increased lipid peroxidation, enhanced soluble protein concentrations and induced a significant accumulation of proline in roots. Esterase activity was enhanced in the presence of lead, whereas α-amylase activity was significantly inhibited. Antioxidant enzymes activities, such as, ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase were generally significantly increased in the presence of lead in a dose-dependent manner. The present results thus provide a model system to screen for natural compounds able to counteract the deleterious effects of lead.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crvi.2010.12.006DOI Listing
February 2011

The use of enzymatic biomarkers in two marine invertebrates Nereis diversicolor and Patella vulgata for the biomonitoring of Tangier's bay (Morocco).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2009 Feb 10;72(2):394-9. Epub 2008 Sep 10.

Pôle d'Excellence Régional, Centre des Etudes Environnementales Méditerranéennes, Laboratoire de Biologie Appliquée & Sciences de l'Environnement, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Abdelmalek Essaâdi, Tangier, Morocco.

The fast increase of anthropogenic activities has led to a continual influx of xenobiotics into the marine ecosystems. Quantifying biochemical parameters in marine invertebrates makes possible the evaluation of pollutants' damaging effect. In fact, to examine the health state of Tangier's bay, we focused on the study of catalase, esterase, acetylcholinesterase and alpha-amylase activities as biomarkers in two species of marine invertebrates Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Nereidae) and Patella vulgata (Mollusca, Prosobranchia), collected from different sites along the Mediterranean coastline of Tangier. Our results showed that these biochemical parameters are disturbed following the level of decreasing environmental quality, and for this reason they are promising in the biomonitoring studies of the Moroccan marine environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2008.07.016DOI Listing
February 2009

Ecdysteroids in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.): biosynthesis, transport and regulation of levels.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2008 Oct 13;46(10):844-54. Epub 2008 Jun 13.

UPMC, Univ. Paris 06, Laboratoire de Biochimie Structurale et Fonctionnelle des Protéines, CNRS FRE 2852, Case Courrier 29, 7 Quai Saint Bernard, Paris Cedex 05, France.

Many plant species produce phytoecdysteroids (PEs: i.e. analogues of insect steroid hormones). There is increasing evidence that PEs are used as a chemical defence by plants against non-adapted insects and nematodes. PEs are good candidates for the development of an environmentally safe approach to crop protection. Most crop species do not accumulate PEs. However, many arguments support the idea that most, if not all, plant species have the genetic ability to produce PEs, but the biosynthetic pathway is not active. A better understanding of the PE biosynthetic pathway and its regulation is consequently necessary. Spinach is one of the very few crop plants which produce large amounts of PEs, of which 20-hydroxyecdysone is the major component. Labeling experiments with radiolabeled precursor (mevalonic acid), putative ecdysteroid intermediates and 20-hydroxyecdysone itself have allowed investigation of PE biosynthesis and transport during spinach development. Biosynthesis takes place in older leaf sets ("sources"), but not in the young developing ones, which in contrast accumulate (acting as "sinks") the PEs produced by the older leaves. PEs are thus continuously redistributed within the developing plant, as its leaf set number increases. The biosynthetic pathway has been analyzed using excised leaves and various labeled precursors, and a preferential sequence of the last steps has been established. Although they do not produce PEs, apical leaf sets are nevertheless able to perform several putative terminal steps of PE biosynthesis. The regulatory mechanisms of PE synthesis appear to involve a direct negative feedback of 20-hydroxyecdysone (the major PE in spinach) on its own synthesis; thus, a sustained synthesis in older leaves requires that they can export the PE they produce.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2008.06.002DOI Listing
October 2008

Diversity of detoxification pathways of ingested ecdysteroids among phytophagous insects.

Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2007 Jun;65(2):65-73

Université Abdelmalek Essaadi, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, CEEM-Laboratoire de Biologie Appliquée et Sciences de l'Environnement, Tangier, Morocco.

The metabolic pathways of ingested ecdysteroids have been investigated in three insect species, the aphid Myzus persicae and two Lepidoptera, Plodia interpunctella and Ostrinia nubilalis. M. persicae produces mainly a 22-glucoside conjugate, whereas P. interpunctella eliminates a mixture of 20E and its 3-oxo and 3-epi derivatives, both in free form and as conjugates with various fatty acids. O. nubilalis only produces fatty acyl ester conjugates. These data point out the great diversity of detoxification mechanisms used by phytophagous insects in order to overcome the potential harmful effects of ecdysteroids present in their food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arch.20191DOI Listing
June 2007

Genotypic correlation between six common beta-thalassemia mutations and the XmnI polymorphism in the Moroccan population.

Hemoglobin 2007 ;31(2):141-9

Laboratoire de Biologie Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Tanger, Maroc.

beta-Thalassemia (thal) is the most common recessive inherited disorder in Mediterranean populations. It is estimated that the frequency of this disease in the Moroccan population is between 1.5 and 3.0%. Severe forms of homozygous thalassemia cases require expensive and technically demanding curative (bone marrow transplantation) or palliative (chronic transfusion/chelation) therapies. The -158 (C-->T) polymorphism of the (G)gamma-globin gene (XmnI polymorphism) is known to ameliorate the severity of the disease because of it strong association with an increased production of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F). Among the many known mutations in Morocco, six are common [codon 39 (C-->T), frameshift codon (FSC) 8 (-AA), IVS-II-745 (CG), FSC 6 (-A), -29 (A-->G) and IVS-I-1 (G-->A)]. In this study, we have investigated, in 82 Moroccan beta-thalassemic chromosomes, the correlation between the six common mutations and the XmnI polymorphism using the Fisher exact test. The XmnI polymorphism was divided into two categories, (XmnI [+] and XmnI [-]) and the six common Moroccan mutations into two groups (group I with FSC 8 and group II without FSC 8). Correlation was carried out between the XmnI [+] category and the six common mutations individually that showed that 68% of chromosomes in the XmnI [+] category had the FSC 8 (-AA) mutation. The results reported here show that there is a positive correlation between the XmnI polymorphism and FSC 8 mutation in linkage with haplotype IV [- + - + + - +] (p <10(-5)). In conclusion, molecular determination of genetic markers in early childhood will help to identify candidates for pharmacological Hb F switching by hydroxyurea (HU). In the Moroccan population, a good response to HU treatment should be suspected in cases with the -158 (C-->T) polymorphism in linkage with haplotype IV and internal beta-globin gene framework 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03630260701285050DOI Listing
July 2007

Ultrastructural changes in the corpus allatum after azadirachtin and 20-hydroxyecdysone treatment in adult females of Labidura riparia (Dermaptera).

Authors:
Fouad Sayah

Tissue Cell 2002 Apr;34(2):53-62

Laboratory of Applied Biology, Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology of Tangier, PO Box 416, Tangier, Morocco.

In previous reports, we have shown that the injection of azadirachtin (AZA) as well as 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into vitellogenic females of Labidura riparia induces inhibition of vitellogenin synthesis and ovarian development. Juvenile hormone (JH) treatment rescues vitellogenin synthesis and ovarian growth (Sayah et al., 1995, 1996). In this work, we have studied ultrastructural changes of corpus allatum (CA) after injection of 200, 400, and 600 ng of 20E or 1, 3, and 5 microg of AZA. CA cells exhibit signs of inactivity in both AZA and females treated with 20E at doses of 3 microg and 400 ng, respectively. Conspicuous cytological effects consisting of multivesicular bodies with dense contents, abnormally large intercellular spaces comprising myelinic structures, and rare smooth endoplasmic reticula occurred in cytoplasm of CA glandular cells in both experimental females. However, the CA ultrastructure of females injected with 20E differs from CA cells of females injected with AZA in having a cytoplasm containing numerous electron-lucent intracellular areas and marked glycogen zones. They also differ in having abundant microtubules and well-developed junctional membranes. At a dose of 600 ng of 20E or 5 microg of AZA, the intensity of the cytotoxic effects is more apparent. CA cells display pycnotic nuclei, spherical mitochondria, large multivesicular bodies, and vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These results are discussed and compared with observations made on other insect species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0040-8166(02)00002-2DOI Listing
April 2002
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