Publications by authors named "Fouad H Al-Dayel"

3 Publications

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Clonal Evolution and Timing of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Oct 12;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide, where ~50% of patients develop metastasis, despite current improved management. Genomic characterisation of metastatic CRC, and elucidating the effects of therapy on the metastatic process, are essential to help guide precision medicine. Multi-region whole-exome sequencing was performed on 191 sampled tumour regions of patient-matched therapy-naïve and treated CRC primary tumours ( = 92 tumour regions) and metastases ( = 99 tumour regions), in 30 patients. Somatic variants were analysed to define the origin, composition, and timing of seeding in the metastatic progression of therapy-naïve and treated metastatic CRC. High concordance, with few genomic differences, was observed between primary CRC and metastases. Most cases supported a late dissemination model, via either monoclonal or polyclonal seeding. Polyclonal seeding appeared more common in therapy-naïve metastases than in treated metastases. Whereby, treatment prompted for the selection of distinct resistant clones, through monoclonal seeding to distant metastatic sites. Overall, this study reinforces the importance of early clinical detection and surgical excision of the CRC tumour, whilst further highlighting the clinical challenges for metastatic CRC with increased intratumour heterogeneity (either due to early dissemination or polyclonal metastatic spread) and the underlying risk of future therapeutic resistance in treated patients.
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October 2020

Colorectal carcinomas from Middle East. Molecular and tissue microarray analysis of genomic instability pathways.

Saudi Med J 2008 Jan;29(1):75-80

Department of Human Cancer Genomic Research, Research Centre, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To evaluate the overall incidence of microsatellite instability (MSI), hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer, and tumor supressor gene (TP53) mutations in Saudi colorectal carcinomas.

Methods: We studied the MSI pathway in Saudi colorectal cancers (CRC) from 179 unselected patients using 2 methods: MSI by polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry detection of mutL homologs 1 and mutS homologs 2 proteins. The TP53 mutations were studied by sequencing exons 5, 6, 7, and 8.

Results: Of the 150 colorectal carcinomas analyzed for MSI, 16% of the tumors showed high level instability (MSI-H), 19.3% had low-level instability (MSI-L) and the remaining 64% tumors were stable. Survival of the MSI-H group was better as compared to the MSI-L or microsatellite stable group (p=0.0217). In the MSI-H group, 48% were familial MSI tumors, which could be attributable to the high incidence of consanguinity in the Saudi population. The TP53 mutations were found in 24% of the cases studied.

Conclusion: A high proportion of familial MSI cases and a lower incidence of TP53 mutations are some of the hallmarks of the Saudi colorectal carcinomas, which need to be explored further.
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January 2008

Congenital acinar dysplasia. Familial cause of a fatal respiratory failure in a neonate.

Saudi Med J 2003 Jan;24(1):88-90

Maternity and Children Hospital, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Pulmonary hypoplasia is a rare cause of pulmonary insufficiency, and has a significant rate of morbidity and mortality among affected infants. In most cases, pulmonary hypoplasia is secondary to underlying abnormalities. These may include space occupying lesions, as in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia; malformation of chest wall resulting in a small thoracic cavity; severe and prolonged oligohydramnios; and neuromuscular disorders, which prevent normal fetal chest expansion. All lead to poor lung development. Primary pulmonary hypoplasia as a result of congenital acinar dysplasia is exceedingly rare and is diagnosed by exclusion of all known etiologies of secondary pulmonary hypoplasia.
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January 2003