Publications by authors named "Foteini Kousathana"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The association of bullous pemphigoid with dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors: a ten-year prospective observational study.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Feb 11;21(1):23. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Second Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Attikon University Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background: Bullous pemphigoid is the most common bullous chronic autoimmune skin disease. Recent studies have suggested dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors as possible predisposing agents of bullous pemphigoid. The objective of our study was to prospectively estimate the association between gliptins and the development of bullous pemphigoid.

Methods: We conducted a prospective study which included all patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven bullous pemphigoid in the Dermatology Department of our hospital between April 1, 2009 and December 31,2019. The diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid was based on specific clinical, histological and immunological features.

Results: Overall 113 consecutive patients (age 75 ± 13 years, 62 females) with the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid were enrolled. Seventy-six patients (67.3%) suffered from type 2 Diabetes and 52 (46%) were treated with dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors. The most frequent prescribed gliptin was vildagliptin, being administered to 45 cases (39.8% of total patients enrolled, 86.5% of the patients treated with gliptins). Gliptins were withdrawn immediately after the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid, which together with steroid administration led to remission of the rash.

Conclusions: This study revealed that treatment with dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors, especially vildagliptin, is significantly associated with an increased risk of bullous pemphigoid development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00689-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7879621PMC
February 2021

Echocardiography, an Indispensable Tool for the Management of Diabetics, with or without Coronary Artery Disease, in Clinical Practice.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2020 Dec 18;56(12). Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Second Department of Internal Medicine, 'Attikon University Hospital', Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 12462 Athens, Greece.

Diabetes mellitus is a major factor contributing to the development of cardiovascular disease. As morbidity and mortality rates rise dramatically, when target organ damage develops pre-symptomatic assessment is critical for the management of diabetic patients. Echocardiography is a noninvasive and reproducible method that may aid in risk stratification and in evaluation of treatment effects. The aim of this review is to analyze the echocardiographic techniques which can detect early alteration in cardiac function in patients with diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina56120709DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767240PMC
December 2020

Obesity and COVID-19: immune and metabolic derangement as a possible link to adverse clinical outcomes.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 07 27;319(1):E105-E109. Epub 2020 May 27.

Second Department of Internal Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Recent reports have shown a strong association between obesity and the severity of COVID-19 infection, even in the absence of other comorbidities. After infecting the host cells, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may cause a hyperinflammatory reaction through the excessive release of cytokines, a condition known as "cytokine storm," while inducing lymphopenia and a disrupted immune response. Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and immune dysregulation, but the exact mechanisms through which it exacerbates COVID-19 infection are not fully clarified. The production of increased amounts of cytokines such as TNFα, IL-1, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) lead to oxidative stress and defective function of innate and adaptive immunity, whereas the activation of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome seems to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the infection. Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness could favor the recently discovered infection of the endothelium by SARS-CoV-2, whereas alterations in cardiac structure and function and the prothrombotic microenvironment in obesity could provide a link for the increased cardiovascular events in these patients. The successful use of anti-inflammatory agents such as IL-1 and IL-6 blockers in similar hyperinflammatory settings, like that of rheumatoid arthritis, has triggered the discussion of whether such agents could be administrated in selected patients with COVID-19 disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00198.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322508PMC
July 2020

Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists, Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors, and Their Combination on Endothelial Glycocalyx, Arterial Function, and Myocardial Work Index in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus After 12-Month Treatment.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 05 24;9(9):e015716. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

2nd Department of Internal Medicine Research Unit and Diabetes Centre Attikon Hospital Medical School National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Athens Greece.

Background We investigated the effects of insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i), and their combination on vascular and cardiac function of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods and Results A total of 160 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized to insulin (n=40), liraglutide (n=40), empagliflozin (n=40), or their combination (GLP-1RA+SGLT-2i) (n=40) as add-on to metformin. We measured at baseline and 4 and 12 months posttreatment: (a) perfused boundary region of the sublingual arterial microvessels (marker of endothelial glycocalyx thickness), (b) pulse wave velocity (PWV) and central systolic blood pressure, (c) global left ventricular longitudinal, circumferential, and radial strain, (d) myocardial work index (global work index) derived by pressure-myocardial strain loops using speckle tracking imaging. Twelve months posttreatment, all patients improved perfused boundary region, PWV, global longitudinal strain, global circumferential strain, and global radial strain (<0.05). GLP-1RA, SGLT-2i, and their combination showed a greater reduction of perfused boundary region, PWV, and central systolic blood pressure than insulin, despite a similar glycosylated hemoglobin reduction (<0.05). GLP-1RA or GLP-1RA+SGLT-2i provided a greater increase of global work index (12.7% and 17.4%) compared with insulin or SGLT-2i (3.1% and 2%). SGLT-2i or GLP-1RA and SGLT-2i showed a greater decrease of PWV (10.1% and 13%) and central and brachial systolic blood pressure than insulin or GLP-1RA (PWV, 3.6% and 8.6%) (<0.05 for all comparisons). The dual therapy showed the greatest effect on measured markers in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <55% (<0.05). Conclusions Twelve-month treatment with GLP-1RA, SGLT-2i, and their combination showed a greater improvement of vascular markers and effective cardiac work than insulin treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The combined therapy as second line was superior to either insulin or GLP-1RA and SGLT-2i separately. Registration URL: https://www.clini​caltr​ials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03878706.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.015716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428590PMC
May 2020

β-Amyloid and mitochondrial-derived peptide-c are additive predictors of adverse outcome to high-on-treatment platelet reactivity in type 2 diabetics with revascularized coronary artery disease.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2020 Apr;49(3):365-376

Laboratory of Haematology & Blood Bank Unit, 'Attikon University Hospital', School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background And Aims: Increased β-amyloid and decreased mitochondrial-derived peptide (MOTS-c), are reported in diabetes. We investigated their additive value to high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (HPR) for adverse outcome in type 2 diabetics after recent revascularization.

Patients And Methods: In 121 type II diabetics, treated with clopidogrel and aspirin, (93 males, mean age 67.2 years) we measured: (a) maximum platelet aggregation to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by light transmission aggregometry (LTAmax), (b) malondialdehyde (MDA), as oxidative stress marker, (c) MOTS-c, (d) β-amyloid blood levels. Cardiac death and acute coronary syndromes (MACE) were recorded during 2 years of follow-up.

Results: Out of 121 patients, 32 showed HPR (LTAmax > 48%,). At baseline, HPR was associated with β-amyloid > 51 pg/ml (p = 0.006) after adjusting clinical variables, HbA1c, MOTS-c, MDA and medication. During follow-up, 22 patients suffered a MACE. HPR, β-amyloid > 51 pg/ml and MOTS-c < 167 ng/ml were predictors of MACE (relative risk 3.1, 3.5 and 3.8 respectively, p < 0.05) after adjusting for confounders and medication. There was significant interaction between HPR and β-amyloid or MOTS-c for the prediction of MACE (p < 0.05). Patients with HPR and β-amyloid > 51 mg/dl or HPR and MOTS-c concentration < 167 ng/ml had a fourfold higher risk for MACE than patients without these predictors (relative risk 4.694 and 4.447 respectively p < 0.01). The above results were confirmed in an external validation cohort of 90 patients with diabetes and CAD.

Conclusions: Increased β-amyloid or low MOTS-c are additive predictors to high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity for adverse outcome in diabetics with CAD during 2-years follow-up. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT04027712.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11239-020-02060-4DOI Listing
April 2020

Effects of Different Antidiabetic Medications on Endothelial Glycocalyx, Myocardial Function, and Vascular Function in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: One Year Follow-Up Study.

J Clin Med 2019 Jul 5;8(7). Epub 2019 Jul 5.

2nd Department of Cardiology, Attikon Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, 12462 Athens, Greece.

Background: Poor glycaemic control affects myocardial function. We investigated changes in endothelial function and left ventricular (LV) myocardial deformation in poorly controlled type 2 diabetics before and after glycaemic control intensification.

Methods: In 100 poorly-controlled diabetic patients (age: 51 ± 12 years), we measured at baseline and at 12 months after intensified glycaemic control: (a) Pulse wave velocity (PWV, Complior); (b) flow-mediated dilatation (FMD, %) of the brachial artery; (c) perfused boundary region (PBR) of the sublingual arterial micro-vessels (side-view dark-field imaging, Glycocheck); (d) LV global longitudinal strain (GLS), peak twisting (pTw), peak twisting velocity (pTwVel), and peak untwisting velocity (pUtwVel) using speckle tracking echocardiography, where the ratio of PWV/GLS was used as a marker of ventricular-arterial interaction; and (e) Malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PCs) plasma levels.

Results: Intensified 12-month antidiabetic treatment reduced HbA1c (8.9 ± 1.8% (74 ± 24 mmol/mol) versus 7.1 ± 1.2% (54 ± 14 mmol/mol), = 0.001), PWV (12 ± 3 versus 10.8 ± 2 m/s), PBR (2.12 ± 0.3 versus 1.98 ± 0.2 μm), MDA, and PCs; meanwhile, the treatment improved GLS (-15.2 versus -16.9%), PWV/GLS, and FMD% ( < 0.05). By multi-variate analysis, incretin-based agents were associated with improved PWV ( = 0.029), GLS ( = 0.037), PBR ( = 0.047), and FMD% ( = 0.034), in addition to a reduction of HbA1c. The patients with a final HbA1c ≤ 7% (≤ 53 mmol/mol) had greater reduction in PWV, PBR, and markers of oxidative stress, with a parallel increase in FMD and GLS, compared to those who had HbA1c > 7% (> 53 mmol/mol).

Conclusions: Intensified glycaemic control, in addition to incretin-based treatment, improves arterial stiffness, endothelial glycocalyx, and myocardial deformation in type 2 diabetes after one year of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8070983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6678085PMC
July 2019

Laboratory Assessment of the Anticoagulant Activity of Apixaban in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2018 Dec 1;24(9_suppl):194S-201S. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Laboratory of Haematology & Blood Bank Unit, "Attiko" University Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Our aim is to determine the most appropriate laboratory tests, besides anti-factor Xa (anti-FXa) chromogenic assays, to estimate the degree of anticoagulation with apixaban and compare it with that of rivaroxaban in real-world patients. Twenty patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation treated with apixaban 5 mg twice daily and 20 patients on rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily were studied. Conventional coagulation tests, thrombin generation assay (TGA), and thromboelastometry (nonactivated TEM [NATEM] assay) were performed in the 40 patients and 20 controls. The anti-FXa chromogenic assays were used to measure apixaban and rivaroxaban plasma levels. The NATEM measurements showed no significant difference between the 2 groups of patients. Concerning TGA, endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) was significantly decreased in patients on rivaroxaban as compared to those treated with apixaban ( < .003). A statistically significant, strong inverse correlation between apixaban plasma concentrations and ETP ( < .001) was observed. Apixaban significantly reduces ETP compared to controls, but to a lesser extent than rivaroxaban. Thrombin generation assay might provide additional information on apixaban exposure, which is required in order to individualize treatment especially for patients with a high bleeding risk. Our findings have to be further investigated in studies with larger sample sizes, in the entire range of apixaban exposure, with other direct oral anticoagulants, and in relation to clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1076029618802364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6714834PMC
December 2018

Effects of 6-month treatment with the glucagon like peptide-1 analogue liraglutide on arterial stiffness, left ventricular myocardial deformation and oxidative stress in subjects with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2018 01 8;17(1). Epub 2018 Jan 8.

2nd Cardiology Department, Attikon Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Rimini 1 str, Haidari, 12462, Athens, Greece.

Background: Incretin-based therapies are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. We investigated the changes in arterial stiffness and left ventricular (LV) myocardial deformation after 6-month treatment with the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide in subjects with newly diagnosed T2DM.

Methods: We randomized 60 patients with newly diagnosed and treatment-naive T2DM to receive either liraglutide (n = 30) or metformin (n = 30) for 6 months. We measured at baseline and after 6-month treatment: (a) carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) (b) LV longitudinal strain (GLS), and strain rate (GLSR), peak twisting (pTw), peak twisting velocity (pTwVel) and peak untwisting velocity (pUtwVel) using speckle tracking echocardiography. LV untwisting was calculated as the percentage difference between peak twisting and untwisting at MVO (%dpTw-Utw), at peak (%dpTw-Utw) and end of early LV diastolic filling (%dpTw-Utw) (c) Flow mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and percentage difference of FMD (FMD%) (d) malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PCs) and NT-proBNP.

Results: After 6-months treatment, subjects that received liraglutide presented with a reduced PWV (11.8 ± 2.5 vs. 10.3 ± 3.3 m/s), MDA (0.92 [0.45-2.45] vs. 0.68 [0.43-2.08] nM/L) and NT-proBNP (p < 0.05) in parallel with an increase in GLS (- 15.4 ± 3 vs. - 16.6 ± 2.7), GLSR (0.77 ± 0.2 vs. 0.89 ± 0.2), pUtwVel (- 97 ± 49 vs. - 112 ± 52°, p < 0.05), %dpTw-Utw (31 ± 10 vs. 40 ± 14), %dpTw-Utw (43 ± 19 vs. 53 ± 22) and FMD% (8.9 ± 3 vs. 13.2 ± 6, p < 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences of the measured markers in subjects that received metformin except for an improvement in FMD. In all subjects, PCs levels at baseline were negatively related to the difference of GLS (r = - 0.53) post-treatment and the difference of MDA was associated with the difference of PWV (r = 0.52) (p < 0.05 for all associations) after 6-month treatment.

Conclusions: Six-month treatment with liraglutide improves arterial stiffness, LV myocardial strain, LV twisting and untwisting and NT-proBNP by reducing oxidative stress in subjects with newly diagnosed T2DM. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03010683.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-017-0646-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5759220PMC
January 2018

Defective production of interleukin-1 beta in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Restoration by proper glycemic control.

Cytokine 2017 02 3;90:177-184. Epub 2016 Dec 3.

4th Department of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece.

The underlying immune defect of susceptibility in diabetes mellitus type 2 to infections remains unknown. The qualitative changes in cytokine biosynthesis by circulating mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and its modulation by glycemic control were investigated. PBMCs were isolated from 39 patients and 25 controls. They were stimulated with purified ligands and heat-killed bacteria in the absence/presence of glucose and NLPR3 inflammasome ligands. Experiments were repeated after 3 and 6months. Cytokine production was measured in cell supernatants; pro-interleukin(IL)-1 β was measured in cell lysates. Gene expression of IL-1β and activity of caspase-1 were measured as well. Adequate release of interleukin (IL)-1β was found in 42.9% of patients compared to 90% of controls (p: 0.0001). This was related with down-regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome since gene expression of IL-1β remained unaltered whereas both the ratio of IL-1β to the intracellular pro-IL-1β and the activity of caspase-1 was lower in patients than controls. Addition of glucose did not modify defective IL-1β production. IL-6 production was increased after stimulation with Pam3Cys, phytohemagglutinin and C. albicans. After proper glycemic control, release of IL-1β was increased and of IL-6 decreased; cells of patients with improved glycemic control responded better to LPS stimulation under increased concentrations of glucose. It is concluded that diabetes type 2 is characterized by defective production of IL-1β from circulating monocytes due to impaired activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and increased production of the anti-inflammatory IL-6. Defects are restored with proper glycemic control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2016.11.009DOI Listing
February 2017
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