Publications by authors named "Foad Elahi"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ketamine-induced QTc interval prolongation.

J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2017 Jan-Mar;33(1):136-138

Department of Anesthesia, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA 52245, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-9185.173335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5374824PMC
April 2017

Novel technique for trialing peripheral nerve stimulation: ultrasonography-guided StimuCath trial.

Neurosurg Focus 2017 Mar;42(3):E5

Anesthesiology.

OBJECTIVE Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) has been used for the treatment of neuropathic pain for many decades. Despite the specific indications for PNS, clinicians often have difficulty screening for candidates likely to have a good or fair outcome. Given the expense of a permanent implant, most insurance companies will not pay for the implant without a successful PNS trial. And since PNS has only recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, many insurance companies will not pay for a conventional trial of PNS. The objective of this study is to describe a short low-cost method for trialing and screening patients for peripheral nerve stimulator implantation. Additionally, this study demonstrates the long-term efficacy of PNS in the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain and the relative effectiveness of this novel screening method. METHODS The records of all patients who had undergone trialing and implantation of a PNS system for chronic refractory pain at the authors' institution over a 1-year period (August 1, 2012-July 31, 2013) were examined in this retrospective case series. The search revealed 17 patients, 13 who had undergone a novel in-office ultrasonography-guided StimuCath screening technique and 4 who had undergone a traditional week-long screening procedure. All 17 patients experienced a successful PNS trial and proceeded to permanent PNS system implantation. Patients were followed up for a mean duration of 3.0 years. Visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores were used to assess pain relief in the short-term (< 6 weeks), at 1 year, and at the last follow-up. Final outcome was also characterized as good, fair, poor, or bad. RESULTS Of these 17 patients, 10 were still using their stimulator at the last follow-up, with 8 of them obtaining good relief (classified as ≥ 50% pain relief, with an average 81% reduction in the VAS score) and 2 patients attaining fair relief (< 50% relief but still using stimulation therapy). Among the remaining 7 patients, the stimulator had been explanted in 4 and there had been no relief in 3. Excluding explanted cases, follow-up ranged from 14 to 46 months, with an average of 36 months. Patients with good or fair relief had experienced pain prior to implantation for an average of 5.1 years (range 1.8-15.2 years). A longer duration of pain trended toward a poorer outcome (bad outcome 7.6 years vs good outcome 4.1 years, p = 0.03). Seven (54%) of the 13 patients with the shorter trial experienced a good or fair outcome with an average 79% reduction in the VAS score; however, all 4 of the bad outcome cases came from this group. Three (75%) of the 4 patients with the longer trial experienced a good or fair outcome at the last follow-up, with an average 54% reduction in the VAS score. There was no difference between the trialing methods and the proportion of favorable (good or fair) outcomes (p = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS Short, ultrasonography-guided StimuCath trials were feasible in screening patients for permanent implantation of PNS, with efficacy similar to the traditional week-long screening noted at the 3-year follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2016.12.FOCUS16475DOI Listing
March 2017

Sphenopalatine ganglion electrical nerve stimulation implant for intractable facial pain.

Pain Physician 2015 May-Jun;18(3):E403-9

University of Iowa, Dept. of Anesthesiology, Iowa City, Iowa.

Persistent idiopathic facial pain can be extremely difficult and significantly challenging to manage for the patient and the clinician. Pharmacological treatment of these painful conditions is not always successful. It has been suggested that the autonomic reflex plays an important role in the pathophysiology of headaches and facial neuralgia. The key structure in the expression of cranial autonomic symptoms is the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG), also known as the pterygopalatine ganglion. The role of the SPG in the pathophysiology of headaches and facial pain has become clearer in the past decade. In this case report, we describe a 30 year-old woman with insidious onset of right facial pain. She was suffering from daily pain for more than 9 years prior to her visit at the pain clinic. Her pain was constant with episodic aggravation without a predisposing trigger factor. The patient was evaluated by multiple different specialties and tried multimodal therapy, which included antiepileptic medications, with minimal pain relief. A SPG block using short-acting local anesthetic provided significant temporary pain relief. The second and third attempt of SPG block using different local anesthetic medications demonstrated the same responses. After a thorough psychological assessment and ruling out the presence of a correctable cause for the pain, we decided to proceed with SPG electrical neuromodulation. The patient reported significant pain relief during the electrical nerve stimulation trial. The patient underwent a permanent implant of the neurostimulation electrode in the SPG region. The patient was successfully taken off opioid medication and her pain was dramatically responsive during a 6 month follow-up visit. In this article we describe the SPG nerve stimulation and the technical aspect of pterygopalatine fossa electrode placement. The pterygoplatine fossa is an easily accessible location. This case report will be encouraging for physicians treating intractable facial pain by demonstrating a novel therapeutic option. This report shows a minimally invasive approach to the SPG.
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December 2015

Ultrasound guided peripheral nerve stimulation implant for management of intractable pain after inguinal herniorrhaphy.

Pain Physician 2015 Jan-Feb;18(1):E31-8

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iow.

Background: Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most common operations performed worldwide. Intractable pain following this operation is a potential debilitating complication. The exact etiology of this complex pain is unknown and the treatment of chronic pain after inguinal herniorrhaphy can be a difficult task for both the patient and the clinician.

Objectives: The objectives of this study are to identify the ability of peripheral nerve electrical stimulation to decrease post inguinal herniorrhaphy pain, increase patients' functionality, and decrease pain medication use.

Study Design: Three patients with intractable pain after inguinal herniorrhaphy were included in this case series. Two patients had right-sided inguinal repair and one had a left-sided repair. Pain in these patients all began after the inguinal repair and had an average pain duration of 3.4 years after surgery. All 3 patients had been treated with multiple pain management modalities without significant pain improvement. We will describe the clinical course of these patients who presented with chronic intractable pain. After a period of failed conservative medical management and repetitive successful nerve blocks, we decided to proceed with utilizing electrical nerve stimulation as a treatment modality.

Setting: This retrospective study was done at the university hospital and has an IRB assigned number.

Results: After careful consideration of the patients' history and physical examination and a thorough psychological assessment, we proceeded with a temporary percutaneous electrical neurostimulation that provided significant pain relief. Ultrasound guided permanent percutaneous electrical neurostimulation implant was shown to provide significant pain relief at 12-month follow-ups. We reviewed all existing pertinent medical literature related to the management of post herniorrhaphy pain. This case series adds to our current knowledge for chronic intractable post herniorrhaphy pain management.

Limitations: This study is a retrospective assessment of a new technique that was applied to a limited number of cases. It remains to be determined whether this technique is superior to the classical open surgical technique in the future. Our findings warrant further studies on the utilization of peripheral nerve stimulation with chronic post herniorrhaphy pain.
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November 2015

Intractable Facial Pain and Numb Chin due to Metastatic Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

Case Rep Oncol 2014 Sep-Dec;7(3):828-32. Epub 2014 Nov 22.

Cancer Center, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.

The etiologies of facial pain are innumerable, thus facial pain misdiagnosis and resultant mismanagement is common. Numb chin syndrome presents with hypoesthesia and/or anesthesia in the dermatomal distribution of the inferior alveolar or the mental nerve. In this case report, we will discuss a case of intractable facial pain in a 57-year-old male with a history of esophageal adenocarcinoma who was initially misdiagnosed and treated as trigeminal neuralgia. During clinical examination, the loss of sensation in the inferior alveolar nerve distribution was identified and led to the diagnosis of mandibular metastasis. The details of the clinical presentation will be discussed in the context of accurate identification and diagnosis. Focal radiation to the metastatic location along with sphenopalatine ganglion radiofrequency ablation and medication management provided significant pain relief. This case report provides additional information to the current medical knowledge and it enhances the clinical vigilance of the clinicians when they encounter similar cases. We concluded that patients with a history of neoplasms who present with atypical symptoms of facial pain should undergo further investigation with advanced imaging. Targeted treatment based on an accurate diagnosis is the foundation of pain management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000369785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4296230PMC
January 2015

Neuromodulation of the great auricular nerve: a case report.

Neuromodulation 2014 Dec 24;17(8):784-7. Epub 2013 Sep 24.

Center of Pain Medicine and Regional Anesthesia, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ner.12114DOI Listing
December 2014

Neuromodulation of the suprascapular nerve.

Pain Physician 2014 Nov-Dec;17(6):E769-73

University of Iowa, Dept. of Anesthesiology, Iowa City, Iowa.

The shoulder joint is an enarthrodial or ball-and-socket joint. A complex network of anatomic structures endows the human shoulder with tremendous mobility, greater than any other joint in the body. Many pathologies can been found in those patients with chronic shoulder pain. The painful limitation of shoulder motion affects hand and arm motion as well; therefore, it significantly influences work performance and everyday activities as well as the quality of life. Therefore, the treatment of patients with chronic shoulder pain has major social and health economic implications. In this article we present a patient with a complex history of shoulder pathology including 7 surgeries that left the patient with chronic debilitating shoulder pain. She was suffering from chronic pain and limited mobility of the shoulder joint due to adhesive shoulder capsulitis. She was treated with a multimodality approach with the goals of increasing shoulder range of motion and decreasing her pain. This did not provide significant improvement. The suprascapular nerve supplies motor and sensory innervation to the shoulder, and can be easily accessible in the supraspinatus fossa. A suprascapular nerve block dramatically decreased her pain. This clinical observation along with confirmatory nerve block play an important role during the decision-making process for a trial period of electrical neuromodulation. She was followed for 3 months after the permanent implantation of a suprascapular nerve stimulator. Her pain and shoulder range of motion in all planes improved dramatically. Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) of the suprascapular nerve, in addition to multimodality pain management, is one approach to the difficult task of treating adhesive capsulitis with accompanying pain and the inability to move the shoulder. We conducted a literature review on PubMed and found no case describing a similar patient to our knowledge.
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September 2015

Pulsed radiofrequency for occipital neuralgia.

Pain Physician 2014 Nov-Dec;17(6):E709-17

Dept. of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mercy Medical Center, Des Moines, Iowa; The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, The Center for Pain Medicine & Regional Anesthesia, Iowa City, Iowa.

Background: The clinical application of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) by interventional pain physicians for a variety of chronic pain syndromes, including occipital neuralgia, is growing. As a minimally invasive percutaneous technique with none to minimal neurodestruction and a favorable side effect profile, use of PRF as an interventional neuromodulatory chronic pain treatment is appealing. Occipital neuralgia, also known as Arnold's neuralgia, is defined by the International Headache Society as a paroxysmal, shooting or stabbing pain in the greater, lesser, and/or third occipital nerve distributions. Pain intensity is often severe and debilitating, with an associated negative impact upon quality of life and function. Most cases of occipital neuralgia are idiopathic, with no clearly identifiable structural etiology. Treatment of occipital neuralgia poses inherent challenges as no criterion standard exists. Initially, conservative treatment options such as physical therapy and pharmacotherapy are routinely trialed. When occipital neuralgia is refractory to conservative measures, a number of interventional treatment options exist, including: local occipital nerve anesthetic and corticosteroid infiltration, botulinum toxin A injection, occipital nerve subcutaneous neurostimulation, and occipital nerve PRF. Of these, PRF has garnered significant interest as a potentially superior, safe, non-invasive treatment with long-term efficacy.

Objective: The objective of this article is to provide a concise review of occipital neuralgia; and a concise, yet thorough, evidence-based review of the current literature concerning the use of PRF for occipital neuralgia.

Study Design: Review of published medical literature up through April 2013.

Setting: The Center for Pain Medicine and Regional Anesthesia, the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics.

Results: A total of 3 clinical studies and one case report investigating the use of PRF for knee occipital neuralgia have been published worldwide. Statistically significant improvements in pain, quality of life, and adjuvant pain medication usage have been demonstrated.

Limitations: Lack of randomized control trials, small study sample sizes, an absence of diagnostic block imaging guidance, and the use of outcome measures that are inherently subjective, limiting objectivity and introducing an unquantifiable degree of bias.

Conclusion: Clinical studies to date examining the efficacy of PRF as a treatment for occipital neuralgia have yielded promising results, demonstrating sustained improvement in pain, quality of life, and adjuvant pain medication usage. Despite these encouraging clinical studies, conclusive evidence in support of PRF as an interventional treatment option for occipital neuralgia awaits to be seen.
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September 2015

Successful Management of Refractory Headache and Facial Pain due to Cavernous Sinus Meningioma with Sphenopalatine Ganglion Radiofrequency.

Case Rep Neurol Med 2014 29;2014:923516. Epub 2014 Sep 29.

Center of Pain Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

Headaches and facial pain can be extremely difficult to manage for the patient and the clinician. In the medical literature, it has been suggested that the autonomic reflex plays an important role in the pathophysiology of facial neuralgia. The sphenopalatine ganglion is the largest parasympathetic ganglion outside the cranium. It is an easy accessible target for pain management. The application of radiofrequency nerve ablation was described in the medical literature. In this case report, we describe a 54-year-old female. She was diagnosed with a cavernous sinus meningioma. She underwent surgical resection and gamma knife radiosurgery. She was suffering from an intractable hemifacial pain for many years. Her pain started shortly after surgery and continued throughout many years. Sphenopalatine ganglion block in multiple occasions was able to provide temporary relief. The patient's intractable hemicranial headaches and hemifacial pain responded to the sphenopalatine ganglion radiofrequency nerve ablation. The pain response remained unchanged for 12 months after procedure. This case report increased our current knowledge about the sphenopalatine ganglion role in the headache and facial intractable pain management. The failure of available antalgic medications to adequately control pain in similar patients underscores the need to develop an algorithm for therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/923516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4197886PMC
October 2014

Anesthesia dolorosa of trigeminal nerve, a rare complication of acoustic neuroma surgery.

Case Rep Neurol Med 2014 25;2014:496794. Epub 2014 Sep 25.

Center of Pain Medicine, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

Anesthesia dolorosa is an uncommon deafferentation pain that can occur after traumatic or surgical injury to the trigeminal nerve. This creates spontaneous pain signals without nociceptive stimuli. Compression of the trigeminal nerve due to acoustic neuromas or other structures near the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) can cause trigeminal neuralgia, but the occurrence of anesthesia dolorosa subsequent to acoustic tumor removal has not been described in the medical literature. We report two cases of acoustic neuroma surgery presented with anesthesia dolorosa along the trigeminal nerve distribution. The patients' pain was managed with multidisciplinary approaches with moderate success.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/496794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4195256PMC
October 2014

Venipuncture-induced complex regional pain syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

Case Rep Med 2014 19;2014:613921. Epub 2014 Aug 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Venipuncture, the most frequently performed invasive medical procedure, is usually benign. Generally it produces only transitory mild discomfort. Venipuncture-induced neuropathic pain is hard to recognize at an early stage. Medical literature reviews show that there is not adequate medical knowledge about this important subject. The inciting incident in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) can often seem far too trivial to result in a condition with such severe pathophysiologic effects. The practicing physician has little information available to enable early recognition of the condition, initiation of multidisciplinary treatment modalities, and proper referral to pain specialists. We encountered a unique case of venipuncture-induced complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). The patient is a 52-year-old school teacher with no significant past medical history, who presented initially to the Center of Pain Medicine with left upper extremity pain. The pain started while phlebotomy was performed in the patient's left antecubital area for routine blood check. The patient's pain did not improve with multiple medications, physical therapy, or several nerve blocks. The patient demonstrated all the signs and symptoms of chronic neuropathic pain of CRPS in the upper extremity with minimal response to the continuous pain management. We decided to proceed with cervical spinal cord nerve stimulation along with continuing other modalities. The patient responded to this combination. During the follow-up, we noticed that the patient's pain course was complicated by extension of the CRPS to her lower extremity. We will describe the course of treatment for the patient in this paper. In this paper we will discuss the electrical neuromodulation as an important modality in addition to the multidisciplinary pain management for a patient with venipuncture-induced chronic neuropathic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/613921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4156992PMC
September 2014

High cervical epidural neurostimulation for post-traumatic headache management.

Pain Physician 2014 Jul-Aug;17(4):E537-41

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

Headache following head injuries has been reported for centuries. The majority of post-traumatic headache (PTH) patients will report resolution of their complaints within a few months from the time of the initial injury. PTHs can contribute to disability, lost productivity, and health care costs. In this article we discuss a 40-year-old male with a history of motor vehicle accident and basal skull fracture. The patient had no headache history prior to the accident. He presented with more than 3 years persistent daily headache. The patient described constant throbbing and stabbing quality headaches predominantly on the left hemicranium with constant facial pain. He denies having aura, nausea, or vomiting, but reported occasional neck tightness. An extensive workup was carried out under the direction of the patient's primary neurologist. Secondary to persistent intractable pain, the patient was referred to the pain clinic for further evaluation. As his headaches were resistant to all trialed strategies, we decided to turn our therapeutic focus toward electrical neuromodulation along with continuing multimodal medications and multidisciplinary approach. During 7 days of high cervical dorsal column electrical nerve stimulation trial, he reported almost 90% pain reduction and significant improvement on his quality of life. On 12 months follow-up after he underwent a permanent implant of high cervical dorsal column electrical nerve stimulation, he reported the same level of pain reduction along with 100% satisfaction rate. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no publications to date concerning the application of high cervical nerve stimulation for PTH.
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November 2014

Neuromodulation of the great auricular nerve for persistent post-traumatic headache.

Pain Physician 2014 Jul-Aug;17(4):E531-6

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

Headache is the most frequent reason for referral to an outpatient neurology and pain physician practice, with post-traumatic headache (PTH) accounting for approximately 4% of all symptomatic headaches. Headache following trauma has been reported for centuries. In this unique case report we will discuss the clinical course and successful headache treatment of a 57-year-old man diagnosed with PTHs. He suffered from chronic, intractable headaches resistant to multidisciplinary medical management for 4 years. A trial of electrical neuromodulation of the C2-C3 branches within the great auricular nerve (GAN) distribution was proposed as a potential long-term treatment for his chronic, intractable headaches after having several prior headache attacks successfully aborted with ultrasound-guided GAN blocks. Six months after permanent peripheral neurostimulator implantation, the patient reported a greater than 90% reduction in headache frequency, and was able to wean off all his previous prophylactic and abortive headache medications, with the exception of over-the-counter ibuprofen as needed. Subcutaneous electrode application over the branches of C2-C3-namely greater, lesser, and the least occipital nerves-for the treatment of chronic, intractable headache is not a new concept within pain medicine literature. However, subcutaneous electrode application, specifically over the GAN, is unique. The following case report chronicles the novel application of ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve stimulation of the GAN as an effective and safe long-term treatment for chronic, intractable primary headache. The positive outcome chronicled in this case presentation suggests that peripheral nerve stimulation of the GAN should be considered for highly select cases. To our knowledge, this is the first such case report describing GAN as a target for the management of PTH in the literature.
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November 2014

Acute Sciatic Neuritis following Lumbar Laminectomy.

Case Rep Med 2014 15;2014:404386. Epub 2014 Jun 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

It is commonly accepted that the common cause of acute/chronic pain in the distribution of the lumbosacral nerve roots is the herniation of a lumbar intervertebral disc, unless proven otherwise. The surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation is successful in radicular pain and prevents or limits neurological damage in the majority of patients. Recurrence of sciatica after a successful disc surgery can be due to many possible etiologies. In the clinical setting we believe that the term sciatica might be associated with inflammation. We report a case of acute sciatic neuritis presented with significant persistent pain shortly after a successful disc surgery. The patient is a 59-year-old female with complaint of newly onset sciatica after complete pain resolution following a successful lumbar laminectomy for acute disc extrusion. In order to manage the patient's newly onset pain, the patient had multiple pain management visits which provided minimum relief. Persistent sciatica and consistent physical examination findings urged us to perform a pelvic MRI to visualize suspected pathology, which revealed right side sciatic neuritis. She responded to the electrical neuromodulation. Review of the literature on sciatic neuritis shows this is the first case report of sciatic neuritis subsequent to lumbar laminectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/404386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4082899PMC
July 2014

Mental nerve neuropathy following dental extraction.

Pain Physician 2014 May-Jun;17(3):E375-80

University of Iowa, Iowa City,IA; and Southeast Rehabilitation Health Center, Des Moines, IA.

Mental nerve neuropathy (MNN), colloquially referred to as numb chin syndrome, is an uncommon neurologic condition that may arise secondary to multiple local and systemic etiologies, and may mimic other pain conditions affecting the mandible. Early recognition of mental nerve neuropathy in conjunction with accurate etiologic identification is crucial, as early pain management may prevent the transition from an acute to a chronic pain condition. In this article, we will describe the clinical courses of 2 patients who presented to the pain clinic with chronic painful numbness in the mental nerve sensory distribution following dental extraction. After a period of failed conservative medical management and repetitive successful nerve blocks at the mental foramen, we decided to proceed with radiofrequency nerve ablation. In both cases, performance of radiofrequency nerve ablation demonstrated a significant decrease in pain. Within interventional pain medicine, nerve blocks are often utilized to assist with pain generator identification, and resultantly also play an integral role in treatment planning. For instance, nerve blocks are often utilized to establish accurate identification of nerve tissue viability, a preliminary role essential for the determination of whether to proceed with an ablative peripheral nerve procedure. In this article, we will additionally review these important usages of nerve blocks within interventional pain medicine. The objective of our article is to help clinicians identify and properly manage early stage mental nerve neuropathy. Moreover, we aim to advance general medical knowledge of this important pain medicine topic. During the process of preparing this article we reviewed all existing pertinent medical literature related to MNN.
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June 2015

Pudendal entrapment neuropathy: a rare complication of pelvic radiation therapy.

Pain Physician 2013 Nov-Dec;16(6):E793-7

University of Iowa Hospital, Iowa City, Iowa.

Pudendal nerve entrapment (PNE) is an uncommon cause of chronic pain. Pudendal nerve entrapment typically occurs when the pudendal nerve is fused to nearby anatomical structures or trapped between the sacrotuberous and sacrospinalis ligaments. Pudendal nerve entrapment can be caused by excessive bicycling, pregnancy, anatomic abnormalities, scarring due to surgery, or as a sequela of radiation therapy. Radiation-induced peripheral neuropathy is usually chronic, progressive, and often irreversible. Radiation-induced pudendal neuropathy is much less common than the more familiar brachial plexopathy secondary to radiation treatment for breast cancer. The prevalence of PNE, however, is increasing due to improved long-term cancer survival. Diagnosis of pudendal neuralgia is essentially clinical; no specific clinical signs or complementary tests are reliably confirmatory. A detailed pain history with correlative clinical examination is paramount for accurate diagnosis. Performance of a pudendal nerve block can serve as both a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. Utilization of various imaging studies, as well as the performance of an electrophysiological study with pudendal nerve motor latency testing, may yield valuable evidence in support of a pudendal neuralgia diagnosis. We present the case of a 59-year-old man with stage IV prostate cancer, referred to the pain clinic for chronic perineal and right sided pelvic pain. His pain began insidiously, approximately 2 months after undergoing radiation treatment and chemotherapy 3 years prior. He was ultimately diagnosed as having a right sided pudendal entrapment neuropathy. His pain was refractory to all conventional treatment modalities; therefore we decided to pursue neuromodulation via a dorsal column spinal cord stimulator implant. Below, we describe the decision making process for the diagnosis and treatment of his pudendal neuropathy.
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August 2014

Successful conservative management of an intrathecal catheter-associated inflammatory mass.

Spine J 2013 Nov 28;13(11):1708-9. Epub 2013 Oct 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Iowa, 200 West Hawkins Dr., Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2013.07.471DOI Listing
November 2013

Images in anesthesiology: reversible anterior spinal artery syndrome during celiac plexus block.

Anesthesiology 2013 Jan;118(1):187

Center for Pain Medicine & Regional Anesthesia, Department of Anesthesia, University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182600ecaDOI Listing
January 2013

Patient outcome at long-term follow-up after aggressive microsurgical resection of cranial base chordomas.

Neurosurgery 2006 Aug;59(2):230-7; discussion 230-7

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Objective: In this study, we evaluated patients' clinical outcome and recurrence rates at long-term follow-up after aggressive microsurgical resection of cranial base chordomas.

Methods: Seventy-four patients with chordomas underwent operations during a 16-year period from 1988 to 2004. The philosophy was to perform complete resection whenever possible and to provide adjuvant radiotherapy for remnants. Staged operations were performed for extensive tumors or if a sizable tumor remnant was noted after the first resection. Patients included primary (previously untreated) and previously operated or irradiated cases. Information was prospectively gathered concerning the patients' neurological condition, Karnofsky Performance Scale score, and tumor status on magnetic resonance imaging scans.

Results: There were 47 primarily operated patients (63.5%) and 27 patients (36.5%) who had previously undergone surgery or radiotherapy. A total of 121 procedures were performed in 74 patients. The mean follow-up period was 96 months, with a range of 1 to 198 months. A single stage removal was performed in 41 (55.4%) of the patients and multiple stage removal was performed in 33 (44.5%) of the patients. Gross total removal was accomplished in 53 (71.6%) of the patients, and subtotal resection was accomplished in 21 (28.4%) of the patients. During the follow-up period, 24 (32%) of the patients had no evidence of disease, 37 (50%) of the patients were alive with evidence of disease, 11 (14.8%) of the patients died of disease, and two (2.7%) of the patients died of complications. Recurrence-free survival at 10 years was 31% for the whole group, 42% for the primarily operated patients, and 26% for the reoperation cases (P = 0.0001). The average Karnofsky Performance Scale score was 80 +/- 11.7 preoperatively, 84 +/- 8.9 at the 1-year follow-up, and 86 +/- 12.8 at the last follow-up in surviving patients. No conclusion could be drawn regarding the value of radiotherapy because of the treatment philosophy and the small number of patients.

Conclusion: Aggressive microsurgical resection of chordomas can be followed by long-term, tumor-free survival with good functional outcome. A more conservative strategy is recommended in reoperation cases, especially after previous radiotherapy, to reduce postoperative complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/01.NEU.0000223441.51012.9DDOI Listing
August 2006

Patient outcome at long-term follow-up after aggressive microsurgical resection of cranial base chondrosarcomas.

Neurosurgery 2006 Jun;58(6):1090-8; discussion 1090-8

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA.

Objective: To evaluate patient clinical outcome and survival at long-term follow-up after aggressive microsurgical resection of chondrosarcomas of the cranial base.

Methods: Over a 20-year period, 47 patients underwent 72 operative procedures for resection of cranial base chondrosarcomas. Thirty-three patients were previously untreated, whereas 14 patients previously had undergone surgery or radiation. Twenty-three patients had a single operation and 24 underwent staged (more than one) operations because of extensive disease. Patients who underwent subtotal resection also underwent radiotherapy or radiosurgery. Patients were evaluated at follow-up clinically and by imaging studies.

Results: Gross total resection was accomplished in 29 (61.7%) patients, and subtotal resection was accomplished in 18 patients (38.3%). The resection was better in patients who underwent a primary operation (gross total resection, 68.8 versus 46.7%) rather than a reoperation. Patients who underwent incomplete resection underwent postoperative radiotherapy, which included proton beam radiotherapy (15.6%), radiosurgery (68%), and fractionated radiation (15.6%). There were no operative deaths. Postoperative complications (cerebrospinal fluid leakage, quadriparesis, infections, cranial nerve palsies, etc.) were observed in 10 patients (18%). The follow-up ranged from 2 to 255 months, with an average of 86 months. At the conclusion of study, 36 (76.6%) patients were alive, and 21 (44.7%) patients were alive without disease. Recurrence-free survival was 32% at 10 years in all patients, 42.3% in primary patients and 13.8% in those who underwent reoperation. The Karnofsky performance score was 82.4 +/- 9.8 before surgery, 85 +/- 12.5 at 1 year after surgery, and 85.3 +/- 5.8 at the latest follow-up. Two patients died as a result of radiotherapy complications (malignancy, radiation necrosis).

Conclusion: Cranial base chondrosarcomas can be managed well by complete surgical resection or by a combination of surgery and radiotherapy. The study cannot comment about the efficacy of radiotherapy. Approximately half of the patients survived without recurrence at long-term follow-up (>132 mo). The functional status of the surviving patients was excellent at follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/01.NEU.0000215892.65663.54DOI Listing
June 2006