Publications by authors named "Floris C Hofstede"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Expanding the Spectrum of BAF-Related Disorders: De Novo Variants in SMARCC2 Cause a Syndrome with Intellectual Disability and Developmental Delay.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 01 20;104(1):164-178. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Pediatrics, CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center and University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H3T 1C5, Canada. Electronic address:

SMARCC2 (BAF170) is one of the invariable core subunits of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling BAF (BRG1-associated factor) complex and plays a crucial role in embryogenesis and corticogenesis. Pathogenic variants in genes encoding other components of the BAF complex have been associated with intellectual disability syndromes. Despite its significant biological role, variants in SMARCC2 have not been directly associated with human disease previously. Using whole-exome sequencing and a web-based gene-matching program, we identified 15 individuals with variable degrees of neurodevelopmental delay and growth retardation harboring one of 13 heterozygous variants in SMARCC2, most of them novel and proven de novo. The clinical presentation overlaps with intellectual disability syndromes associated with other BAF subunits, such as Coffin-Siris and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes and includes prominent speech impairment, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic features such as hypertrichosis, thick eyebrows, thin upper lip vermilion, and upturned nose. Nine out of the fifteen individuals harbor variants in the highly conserved SMARCC2 DNA-interacting domains (SANT and SWIRM) and present with a more severe phenotype. Two of these individuals present cardiac abnormalities. Transcriptomic analysis of fibroblasts from affected individuals highlights a group of differentially expressed genes with possible roles in regulation of neuronal development and function, namely H19, SCRG1, RELN, and CACNB4. Our findings suggest a novel SMARCC2-related syndrome that overlaps with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with variants in BAF-complex subunits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.11.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323608PMC
January 2019

The impact of metabolic control and tetrahydrobiopterin treatment on health related quality of life of patients with early-treated phenylketonuria: A PKU-COBESO study.

Mol Genet Metab 2018 09 7;125(1-2):96-103. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The aim of this study was to examine Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of patients with Phenylketonuria (PKU) in three different age groups and to investigate the impact of metabolic control and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) treatment on HRQoL of these patients. Participants were 90 early-treated patients aged 7 to 40 years (M = 21.0, SD = 10.1) and 109 controls aged 7 to 40.8 years (M = 19.4, SD = 8.6). HRQoL was assessed with the (generic) TNO-AZL questionnaires. Overall, good HRQoL was reported for children below 12 years of age, although they were judged to be less autonomic than their healthy counterparts. Adolescents aged 12-15 years showed poorer HRQoL in the domain "cognitive functioning" compared to controls. For adults ≥16 years, poorer age-controlled HRQoL was found for the domains cognition, depressive moods, and anger, with a further trend for the domain "pain". With respect to metabolic control, only for adult PKU-patients robust associations were observed, indicating poorer functioning, most notably in the domains cognition, sleep, pain, sexuality and anger, with higher historical and concurrent Phe-levels. With respect to BH4-use, effects on HRQoL were again only observed for adult PKU-patients. After controlling for age and historical Phe-levels, small but significant differences in favor of adult BH4-users compared to non-users were observed for HRQoL-categories happiness, anger, and social functioning. Together, these results show that, particularly for adult PKU-patients, HRQoL-problems are evident and that many of these problems are related to (history of) metabolic control. Beneficial effects of BH4-use appear to be limited to those associated with relief from the practical burdens related to the strict dietary treatment regimen, i.e. general mood and sociability, whereas metabolic control is more strongly related to basic physical and cognitive functioning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.07.002DOI Listing
September 2018

Treatment outcome of twenty-two patients with guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency: An international retrospective cohort study.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2018 May 16;22(3):369-379. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

Genetics and Genome Biology Program, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Department of Paediatrics, University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Purpose: Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by pathogenic variants in GAMT. Brain creatine depletion and guanidinoacetate accumulation cause developmental delay, seizures and movement disorder. Treatment consists of creatine, ornithine and arginine-restricted diet. We initiated an international treatment registry using Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) software to evaluate treatment outcome.

Methods: Physicians completed an online REDCap questionnaire. Clinical severity score applied pre-treatment and on treatment.

Results: There were 22 patients. All had developmental delay, 18 had seizures and 8 had movement disorder. Based on the clinical severity score, 5 patients had a severe, 14 patients had a moderate and 3 patients had a mild phenotype. All patients had pathogenic variants in GAMT. The phenotype ranged from mild to moderate in patients with the most common c.327G > A variant. The phenotype ranged from mild to severe in patients with truncating variants. All patients were on creatine, 18 patients were on ornithine and 15 patients were on arginine- or protein-restricted diet. Clinical severity score improved in 13 patients on treatment. Developmental delay improved in five patients. One patient achieved normal development. Eleven patients became seizure free. Movement disorder resolved in four patients.

Conclusion: In our small patient cohort, there seems to be no phenotype-genotype correlation. Creatine and ornithine and/or arginine- or protein-restricted diet were the most useful treatment to improve phenotype.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2018.02.007DOI Listing
May 2018

Long-Term Follow-Up of Cognition and Mental Health in Adult Phenylketonuria: A PKU-COBESO Study.

Behav Genet 2017 09 3;47(5):486-497. Epub 2017 Aug 3.

Department of Clinical Child and Adolescent Studies & Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Cognitive and mental health problems in individuals with the inherited metabolic disorder phenylketonuria (PKU) have often been associated with metabolic control and its history. For the present study executive functioning (EF) was assessed in 21 PKU patients during childhood (T1, mean age 10.4 years, SD = 2.0) and again in adulthood (T2, mean age 25.8 years, SD = 2.3). At T2 additional assessments of EF in daily life and mental health were performed. Childhood (i.e. 0-12 years) blood phenylalanine was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, executive motor control, EF in daily life and mental health in adulthood (i.e. at T2). Patients with a greater increase in phenylalanine levels after the age of 12 performed more poorly on EF-tasks at T2. Group-based analyses showed that patients with phenylalanine <360 µmol/L in childhood and phenylalanine ≥360 µmol/L from age 13 onwards (n = 11) had better cognitive flexibility and executive motor control than those who had phenylalanine ≥360 µmol/L throughout life (n = 7), supporting the notion that phenylalanine should be below the recommended upper treatment target of 360 µmol/L during childhood for better outcome in adulthood. Despite some results indicating additional influence of phenylalanine levels between 13 and 17 years of age, evidence for a continued influence of phenylalanine levels after childhood on adult outcomes was largely lacking. This may be explained by the fact that the patients in the present study had relatively low phenylalanine levels during childhood (mean: 330 µmol/L, range: 219-581 µmol/L) and thereafter (mean Index of Dietary Control at T2: 464 µmol/L, range: 276-743 µmol/L), which may have buffered against transitory periods of poor metabolic control during adolescence and early adulthood.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10519-017-9863-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5574956PMC
September 2017

Cognitive profile and mental health in adult phenylketonuria: A PKU-COBESO study.

Neuropsychology 2017 May 20;31(4):437-447. Epub 2017 Mar 20.

Division of Metabolic Diseases, Beatrix Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Groningen.

Objective: Despite early dietary treatment phenylketonuria patients have lower IQ and poorer executive functions compared to healthy controls. Cognitive problems in phenylketonuria have often been associated with phenylalanine levels. The present study examined the cognitive profile and mental health in adult phenylketonuria, in relation to phenylalanine levels and tetrahydrobiopterin treatment.

Method: Fifty-seven early treated adult patients with phenylketonuria and 57 healthy matched controls (18-40 years) performed IQ subtests and executive function tests from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks. They also completed the Adult Self-Report on mental health problems. Analyses of variance were performed to examine group differences.

Results: Patients with phenylketonuria had normal IQs although lower than controls. They performed poorer on working memory, inhibitory control, and sustained attention tasks. Patients reported Depressive and Avoidant Personality problems more frequently. Specifically, patients with childhood and lifetime phenylalanine ≥360 μmol/L had poorer cognitive and mental health outcomes than controls. In a subset of patients, comparisons between patients on and off tetrahydrobiopterin showed that nontetrahydrobiopterin users (matched for childhood, pretreatment phenylalanine) were slower (on number of tasks) and reported more mental health problems.

Conclusions: Adult patients had lower IQ and poorer executive functions than controls, resembling problems observed in younger patients with phenylketonuria, as well as more internalizing problems. Group differences and phenylalanine-outcome associations were smaller than those observed in younger populations. A subset of nontetrahydrobiopterin users, matched for childhood phenylalanine level, had a poorer outcome on some tests than tetrahydrobiopterin users, which might indicate an impact of tetrahydrobiopterin treatment beyond lowering phenylalanine. However, clinical relevance needs further investigation. (PsycINFO Database Record
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/neu0000358DOI Listing
May 2017

Carglumic acid enhances rapid ammonia detoxification in classical organic acidurias with a favourable risk-benefit profile: a retrospective observational study.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2016 Mar 31;11:32. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Reference Center for Metabolic Diseases, Pediatric Neurology & Metabolic diseases, Robert Debre University Hospital, Paris, France.

Background: Isovaleric aciduria (IVA), propionic aciduria (PA) and methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) are inherited organic acidurias (OAs) in which impaired organic acid metabolism induces hyperammonaemia arising partly from secondary deficiency of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) synthase. Rapid reduction in plasma ammonia is required to prevent neurological complications. This retrospective, multicentre, open-label, uncontrolled, phase IIIb study evaluated the efficacy and safety of carglumic acid, a synthetic structural analogue of NAG, for treating hyperammonaemia during OA decompensation.

Methods: Eligible patients had confirmed OA and hyperammonaemia (plasma NH3 > 60 μmol/L) in ≥1 decompensation episode treated with carglumic acid (dose discretionary, mean (SD) first dose 96.3 (73.8) mg/kg). The primary outcome was change in plasma ammonia from baseline to endpoint (last available ammonia measurement at ≤18 hours after the last carglumic acid administration, or on Day 15) for each episode. Secondary outcomes included clinical response and safety.

Results: The efficacy population (received ≥1 dose of study drug and had post-baseline measurements) comprised 41 patients (MMA: 21, PA: 16, IVA: 4) with 48 decompensation episodes (MMA: 25, PA: 19, IVA: 4). Mean baseline plasma ammonia concentration was 468.3 (±365.3) μmol/L in neonates (29 episodes) and 171.3 (±75.7) μmol/L in non-neonates (19 episodes). At endpoint the mean plasma NH3 concentration was 60.7 (±36.5) μmol/L in neonates and 55.2 (±21.8) μmol/L in non-neonates. Median time to normalise ammonaemia was 38.4 hours in neonates vs 28.3 hours in non-neonates and was similar between OA subgroups (MMA: 37.5 hours, PA: 36.0 hours, IVA: 40.5 hours). Median time to ammonia normalisation was 1.5 and 1.6 days in patients receiving and not receiving concomitant scavenger therapy, respectively. Although patients receiving carglumic acid with scavengers had a greater reduction in plasma ammonia, the endpoint ammonia levels were similar with or without scavenger therapy. Clinical symptoms improved with therapy. Twenty-five of 57 patients in the safety population (67 episodes) experienced AEs, most of which were not drug-related. Overall, carglumic acid seems to have a good safety profile for treating hyperammonaemia during OA decompensation.

Conclusion: Carglumic acid when used with or without ammonia scavengers, is an effective treatment for restoration of normal plasma ammonia concentrations in hyperammonaemic episodes in OA patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-016-0406-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4815113PMC
March 2016

Social-cognitive functioning and social skills in patients with early treated phenylketonuria: a PKU-COBESO study.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2016 05 25;39(3):355-362. Epub 2016 Feb 25.

Department of Clinical Child and Adolescent Studies & Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Objective: Early treatment of phenylketonuria (ET-PKU) prevents mental retardation, but many patients still show cognitive and mood problems. In this study, it was investigated whether ET-PKU-patients have specific phenylalanine (Phe-)related problems with respect to social-cognitive functioning and social skills.

Methods: Ninety five PKU-patients (mean age 21.6 ± 10.2 years) and 95 healthy controls (mean age 19.6 ± 8.7 years) were compared on performance of computerized and paper-and-pencil tasks measuring social-cognitive abilities and on parent- and self-reported social skills, using multivariate analyses of variance, and controlling for general cognitive ability (IQ-estimate). Further comparisons were made between patients using tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, N = 30) and patients not using BH4. Associations with Phe-levels on the day of testing, during childhood, during adolescence and throughout life were examined.

Results: PKU-patients showed poorer social-cognitive functioning and reportedly had poorer social skills than controls (regardless of general cognitive abilities). Quality of social-cognitive functioning was negatively related to recent Phe-levels and Phe-levels between 8 and 12 years for adolescents with PKU. Quality of social skills was negatively related to lifetime phenylalanine levels in adult patients, and specifically to Phe-levels between 0 and 7, and between 8 and 12 years. There were no differences with respect to social outcome measures between the BH4 and non-BH4 groups.

Conclusion: PKU-patients have Phe-related difficulties with social-cognitive functioning and social skills. Problems seem to be more evident among adolescents and adults with PKU. High Phe-levels during childhood and early adolescence seem to be of greater influence than current and recent Phe-levels for these patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-016-9918-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851698PMC
May 2016

The neonatal tetrahydrobiopterin loading test in phenylketonuria: what is the predictive value?

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2016 Jan 29;11:10. Epub 2016 Jan 29.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Beatrix Children's Hospital, PO box 30.001, CA33, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: It is unknown whether the neonatal tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) loading test is adequate to diagnose long-term BH4 responsiveness in PKU. Therefore we compared the predictive value of the neonatal (test I) versus the 48-h BH4 loading test (test II) and long-term BH4 responsiveness.

Methods: Data on test I (>1991, 20 mg/kg) at T = 8 (n = 85) and T = 24 (n = 5) were collected and compared with test II and long-term BH4 responsiveness at later age, with ≥30% Phe decrease used as the cut-off.

Results: The median (IQR) age at hospital diagnosis was 9 (7-11) days and the age at test II was 11.8 (6.6-13.7) years. The baseline Phe concentrations at test I were significantly higher compared to test II (1309 (834-1710) versus 514 (402-689) μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.000). 15/85 patients had a positive test I T = 8. All, except one patient who was not tested for long-term BH4 responsiveness, showed long-term BH4 responsiveness. In 20/70 patients with a negative test I T = 8, long-term BH4 responsiveness was confirmed. Of 5 patients with a test I T = 24, 1/5 was positive at both tests and showed long-term BH4 responsiveness, 2/5 had negative results at both tests and 2/5 showed a negative test I T = 24, but a positive test II with 1/2 showing long-term BH4 responsiveness.

Conclusions: Both a positive neonatal 8- and 24-h BH4 loading test are predictive for long-term BH4 responsiveness. However, a negative test does not rule out long-term BH4 responsiveness. Other alternatives to test for BH4 responsiveness at neonatal age should be investigated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-016-0394-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4731980PMC
January 2016

Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children.

PLoS One 2015 11;10(3):e0120972. Epub 2015 Mar 11.

Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce.

Materials And Methods: B6 vitamer concentrations in simultaneously sampled plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 70 children with intellectual disability were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For ethical reasons, CSF samples could not be obtained from healthy children. The influence of sex, age, epilepsy and treatment with anti-epileptic drugs, were investigated.

Results: The B6 vitamer composition of plasma (pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxal (PL)) differed from that of CSF (PL > PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxamine). Strong correlations were found for B6 vitamers in and between plasma and CSF. Treatment with anti-epileptic drugs resulted in decreased concentrations of PL and PLP in CSF.

Conclusion: We provide concentrations of all B6 vitamers in plasma and CSF of children with intellectual disability (±epilepsy), which can be used in the investigation of known and novel disorders associated with vitamin B6 metabolism as well as in monitoring of the biochemical effects of treatment with vitamin B6.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0120972PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4356616PMC
November 2015

Is BRIEF a useful instrument in day to day care of patients with phenylketonuria?

Mol Genet Metab 2015 Mar 12;114(3):425-30. Epub 2014 Dec 12.

Department of Clinical Child and Adolescents Studies, Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: Despite early and continuous treatment many patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) still experience neurocognitive problems. Most problems have been observed in the domain of executive functioning (EF). For regular monitoring of EF, the use of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) has been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the BRIEF is indeed a useful screening instrument in monitoring of adults with PKU.

Study Design: Adult PKU patients (n = 55; mean age 28.3 ± 6.2 years) filled out the BRIEF-A (higher scores=poorer EF) and performed computerized tasks measuring executive functions (inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory). The outcome of the BRIEF-A questionnaire was compared with the neurocognitive outcome as measured by three tasks from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT).

Results: Forty-two percent of the PKU patients scored in the borderline/clinical range of the BRIEF-A. Six of the 55 patients (11%) scored >1 SD above the normative mean, mostly on the Metacognition Index. With respect to ANT measurements, patients mainly showed deficits in inhibitory control (34-36%) and cognitive flexibility (31-40%) as compared to the general Dutch population. No significant correlations between the two methods were found, which was confirmed with the Bland-Altman approach where no agreement between the two methods was observed. Only with respect to inhibitory control, patients scored significantly worse on both BRIEF-A and ANT classifications. No other associations between classification according to the BRIEF-A and classifications according to the ANT tasks were found.

Conclusions: Patients reporting EF problems in daily life are not necessarily those that present with core EF deficits. The results of this study suggest that regular self-administration of the BRIEF-A is not a sufficient way to monitor EF in adult PKU patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2014.12.302DOI Listing
March 2015

Thirteen new patients with guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency and functional characterization of nineteen novel missense variants in the GAMT gene.

Hum Mutat 2014 Apr 6;35(4):462-9. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Metabolic Laboratory, Department of Clinical Chemistry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT-D) is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder of creatine biosynthesis. Creatine deficiency on cranial proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and elevated guanidinoacetate levels in body fluids are the biomarkers of GAMT-D. In 74 patients, 50 different mutations in the GAMT gene have been identified with missense variants being the most common. Clinical and biochemical features of the patients with missense variants were obtained from their physicians using a questionnaire. In 20 patients, 17 missense variants, 25% had a severe, 55% a moderate, and 20% a mild phenotype. The effect of these variants on GAMT enzyme activity was overexpressed using primary GAMT-D fibroblasts: 17 variants retained no significant activity and are therefore considered pathogenic. Two additional variants, c.22C>A (p.Pro8Thr) and c.79T>C (p.Tyr27His) (the latter detected in control cohorts) are in fact not pathogenic as these alleles restored GAMT enzyme activity, although both were predicted to be possibly damaging by in silico analysis. We report 13 new patients with GAMT-D, six novel mutations and functional analysis of 19 missense variants, all being included in our public LOVD database. Our functional assay is important for the confirmation of the pathogenicity of identified missense variants in the GAMT gene.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.22511DOI Listing
April 2014

Expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with germline PIGA mutations: a child with developmental delay, accelerated linear growth, facial dysmorphisms, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and progressive CNS abnormalities.

Am J Med Genet A 2014 Jan 20;164A(1):29-35. Epub 2013 Nov 20.

Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Phosphatidyl inositol glycan (PIG) enzyme subclasses are involved in distinct steps of glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchor protein biosynthesis. Glycolsyl phosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins have heterogeneous functions; they can function as enzymes, adhesion molecules, complement regulators and co-receptors in signal transduction pathways. Germline mutations in genes encoding different members of the PIG family result in diverse conditions with (severe) developmental delay, (neonatal) seizures, hypotonia, CNS abnormalities, growth abnormalities, and congenital abnormalities as hallmark features. The variability of clinical features resembles the typical diversity of other glycosylation pathway deficiencies such as the congenital disorders of glycosylation. Here, we report the first germline missense mutation in the PIGA gene associated with accelerated linear growth, obesity, central hypotonia, severe refractory epilepsy, cardiac anomalies, mild facial dysmorphic features, mildly elevated alkaline phosphatase levels, and CNS anomalies consisting of progressive cerebral atrophy, insufficient myelinization, and cortical MRI signal abnormalities. X-exome sequencing in the proband identified a c.278C>T (p.Pro93Leu) mutation in the PIGA gene. The mother and maternal grandmother were unaffected carriers and the mother showed 100% skewing of the X-chromosome harboring the mutation. These results together with the clinical similarity of the patient reported here and the previously reported patients with a germline nonsense mutation in PIGA support the determination that this mutation caused the phenotype in this family.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.36184DOI Listing
January 2014

Mental health and social functioning in early treated Phenylketonuria: the PKU-COBESO study.

Mol Genet Metab 2013 22;110 Suppl:S57-61. Epub 2013 Oct 22.

Beatrix Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

This article presents a new Dutch multicenter study ("PKU-COBESO") into cognitive and behavioral sequelae of early and continuously treated Phenylketonuria (PKU) patients. Part of the study sample will consist of young adult PKU patients who have participated in a large neuropsychological study approximately 10 years ago, when they were 7-to-15-year-olds (Huijbregts et al., 2002 [1]). Their neurocognitive development will be mapped in association with their earlier and continued metabolic history, taking into account possible changes in, for instance, medication. A second part of the sample will consist of PKU patients between the ages of 7 and approximately 40 years (i.e., born in or after 1974, when neonatal screening was introduced in The Netherlands), who have not participated in the earlier neuropsychological study. Again, their cognitive functioning will be related to their metabolic history. With respect to aspects of cognition, there will be an emphasis on executive functioning. The concept of executive functioning will however be extended with further emphasis on the impact of cognitive deficits on the daily lives of PKU patients, aspects of social cognition, social functioning, and behavior/mental health (i.e., COgnition, BEhavior, SOcial functioning: COBESO). In addition to a description of the PKU-COBESO study, some preliminary results with respect to mental health and social functioning will be presented in this article. Thirty adult PKU patients (mean age 27.8, SD 6.4) and 23 PKU patients under the age of 18 years (mean age 11.0, SD 3.3) were compared to 14 (mean age 26.9 years, SD 5.9) and 7 matched controls (mean age 10.5, SD 2.6) respectively, with respect to their scores on the Adult Self-Report or Child Behavior Checklist (measuring mental health problems) and the Social Skills Checklist or Social Skills Rating System (measuring social skills). Whereas there were very few significant group differences (except for mental health problems in the internalizing spectrum for adult PKU patients), possibly due to the small control groups, several significant associations between mental health problems and Phe levels were observed for the PKU patients. Childhood Phe levels and internalizing problems for adult PKU patients were related; concurrent Phe was associated with both internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems for those under the age of 18. These preliminary results underline the importance of early dietary adherence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2013.10.011DOI Listing
July 2014

Evaluation of quality of life in PKU before and after introducing tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4); a prospective multi-center cohort study.

Mol Genet Metab 2013 25;110 Suppl:S49-56. Epub 2013 Sep 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare inborn error of metabolism caused by phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme (PAH) deficiency. Treatment constitutes a strict Phe restricted diet with unpalatable amino acid supplements. Residual PAH activity enhancement with its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a novel treatment which increases dietary tolerance in some patients and permits dietary relaxation. Relaxation of diet may improve health related quality of life (HRQoL). This prospective cohort study aims to evaluate HRQoL of patients with PKU and effects of BH4 treatment on HRQoL.

Methods: Patients aged 4years and older, diagnosed through newborn screening and early and continuously treated, were recruited from eight metabolic centers. Patients and mothers completed validated generic and chronic health-conditions HRQoL questionnaires (PedsQL, TAAQOL, and DISABKIDS) twice: before and after testing BH4 responsivity. Baseline results were compared to the general population. Data collected after BH4 testing was used to find differences in HRQoL between BH4 unresponsive patients and BH4 responsive patients after one year of treatment with BH4. Also a within patient comparison was performed to find differences in HRQoL before and after treatment with BH4.

Results: 69/81 (85%) patients completed the questionnaires before BH4 responsivity testing, and 45/69 (65%) participated again after testing. Overall PKU patients demonstrated normal HRQoL. However, some significant differences were found when compared to the general population. A significantly higher (thus better) score on the PedsQL was reported by children 8-12 years on physical functioning and by children 13-17 years on total and psychosocial functioning. Furthermore, adult patients reported significantly lower (thus worse) scores in the TAAQOL cognitive domain. 10 patients proved to be responsive to BH4 treatment; however improvement in their HRQoL after relaxation of diet could not be demonstrated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2013.09.015DOI Listing
July 2014

Tetrahydrobiopterin responsiveness in phenylketonuria: prediction with the 48-hour loading test and genotype.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2013 Jul 10;8:103. Epub 2013 Jul 10.

Background: How to efficiently diagnose tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) responsiveness in patients with phenylketonuria remains unclear. This study investigated the positive predictive value (PPV) of the 48-hour BH4 loading test and the additional value of genotype.

Methods: Data of the 48-hour BH4 loading test (20 mg BH4/kg/day) were collected at six Dutch university hospitals. Patients with ≥30% phenylalanine reduction at ≥1 time points during the 48 hours (potential responders) were invited for the BH4 extension phase, designed to establish true-positive BH4 responsiveness. This is defined as long-term ≥30% reduction in mean phenylalanine concentration and/or ≥4 g/day and/or ≥50% increase of natural protein intake. Genotype was collected if available.

Results: 177/183 patients successfully completed the 48-hour BH4 loading test. 80/177 were potential responders and 67/80 completed the BH4 extension phase. In 58/67 true-positive BH4 responsiveness was confirmed (PPV 87%). The genotype was available for 120/177 patients. 41/44 patients with ≥1 mutation associated with long-term BH4 responsiveness showed potential BH4 responsiveness in the 48-hour test and 34/41 completed the BH4 extension phase. In 33/34 true-positive BH4 responsiveness was confirmed. 4/40 patients with two known putative null mutations were potential responders; 2/4 performed the BH4 extension phase but showed no true-positive BH4 responsiveness.

Conclusions: The 48-hour BH4 loading test in combination with a classified genotype is a good parameter in predicting true-positive BH4 responsiveness. We propose assessing genotype first, particularly in the neonatal period. Patients with two known putative null mutations can be excluded from BH4 testing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-1172-8-103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3711849PMC
July 2013

Metabolic profiles in children during fasting.

Pediatrics 2011 Apr 21;127(4):e1021-7. Epub 2011 Mar 21.

Department of Metabolic and Endocrine Diseases, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital Utrecht, University Medical Center, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Hypoglycemia is one of the most common metabolic derangements in childhood. To establish the cause of hypoglycemia, fasting tolerance tests can be used. Currently available reference values for fasting tolerance tests have limitations in their use in daily practice.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the reference values of metabolites involved in glucose homeostasis during fasting in healthy children.

Methods: This study included a retrospective analysis of 488 fasting tests. All tests of patients (n = 321) with disorders, including metabolic and endocrine disorders, were excluded, as were tests performed in children who were over- or underweight.

Results: In 167 fasting tests performed in the study, hypoglycemia was reached in 52 (31%) tests. On the basis of the time until hypoglycemia was reached, 3 age groups could be defined: (1) children aged 0 to 24 months (median 15 months) (n = 49); (2) children aged 25 to 84 months (median 45 months) (n = 79); (3) and children aged 85 to 216 months (median 106 months) (n = 39). In all groups, a significant increase in ketone body levels and a significant decrease in glucose levels in plasma were observed during fasting. Younger children had a faster increase in ketone body levels and a faster decrease in glucose levels in plasma than older children.

Conclusions: Reference values of the metabolites involved in glucose homeostasis during fasting in children were generated. Those values can be used to determine whether a child has a normal fasting response. For high-risk children, guidelines concerning maximum fasting time and dietary intervention during illness are of the utmost importance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-1706DOI Listing
April 2011

IDH2 mutations in patients with D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria.

Science 2010 Oct 16;330(6002):336. Epub 2010 Sep 16.

Metabolic Unit, Department of Clinical Chemistry, VU University Medical Center, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Heterozygous somatic mutations in the genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 and -2 (IDH1 and IDH2) were recently discovered in human neoplastic disorders. These mutations disable the enzymes' normal ability to convert isocitrate to 2-ketoglutarate (2-KG) and confer on the enzymes a new function: the ability to convert 2-KG to d-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG). We have detected heterozygous germline mutations in IDH2 that alter enzyme residue Arg(140) in 15 unrelated patients with d-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D-2-HGA), a rare neurometabolic disorder characterized by supraphysiological levels of D-2-HG. These findings provide additional impetus for investigating the role of D-2-HG in the pathophysiology of metabolic disease and cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1192632DOI Listing
October 2010