Publications by authors named "Florine Obrist"

17 Publications

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Cancer cell-autonomous overactivation of PARP1 compromises immunosurveillance in non-small cell lung cancer.

J Immunother Cancer 2022 06;10(6)

Equipe 11 labellisée par la Ligue contre le Cancer, Université de Paris Cité, Sorbonne Université, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, INSERM UMR1138, Paris, France

Background: High activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells leads to an increase in immunohistochemically detectable PAR, correlating with poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC, as well as reduced tumor infiltration by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Intrigued by this observation, we decided to determine whether PARP1 activity in NSCLC cells may cause an alteration of anticancer immunosurveillance.

Methods: Continuous culture of mouse NSCLC cells in the presence of cisplatin led to the generation of cisplatin-resistant PAR clones. As compared with their parental controls, such PAR cells formed tumors that were less infiltrated by CTLs when they were injected into immunocompetent mice, suggesting a causative link between high PARP1 activity and compromised immunosurveillance. To confirm this cause-and-effect relationship, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to knock out PARP1 in two PAR NSCLC mouse cell lines (Lewis lung cancer [LLC] and tissue culture number one [TC1]), showing that the removal of PARP1 indeed restored cisplatin-induced cell death responses.

Results: PARP1 knockout (PARP1) cells became largely resistant to the PARP inhibitor niraparib, meaning that they exhibited less cell death induction, reduced DNA damage response, attenuated metabolic shifts and no induction of PD-L1 and MHC class-I molecules that may affect their immunogenicity. PAR tumors implanted in mice responded to niraparib irrespective of the presence or absence of T lymphocytes, suggesting that cancer cell-autonomous effects of niraparib dominate over its possible immunomodulatory action. While PAR NSCLC mouse cell lines proliferated similarly in immunocompetent and T cell-deficient mice, PARP1 cells were strongly affected by the presence of T cells. PARP1 LLC tumors grew more quickly in immunodeficient than in immunocompetent mice, and PARP1 TC1 cells could only form tumors in T cell-deficient mice, not in immunocompetent controls. Importantly, as compared with PAR controls, the PARP1 LLC tumors exhibited signs of T cell activation in the immune infiltrate such as higher inducible costimulator (ICOS) expression and lower PD-1 expression on CTLs.

Conclusions: These results prove at the genetic level that PARP1 activity within malignant cells modulates the tumor microenvironment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2021-004280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9247697PMC
June 2022

Metabolic features of cancer cells impact immunosurveillance.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 06;9(6)

Equipe 11 labellisée par la Ligue contre le Cancer, Université de Paris, Sorbonne Université, INSERM U1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, INSERM, Paris, France

Background: Tumors rewire their metabolism to achieve robust anabolism and resistance against therapeutic interventions like cisplatin treatment. For example, a prolonged exposure to cisplatin causes downregulation of pyridoxal kinase (PDXK), the enzyme that generates the active vitamin B6, and upregulation of poly ADP-ribose (PAR) polymerase-1 (PARP1) activity that requires a supply of nicotinamide (vitamin B3) adenine dinucleotide. We investigated the impact of the levels of PDXK and PAR on the local immunosurveillance (ie, density of the antigen presenting cells and adaptive immune response by CD8 T lymphocytes) in two different tumor types.

Methods: Tumors from patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (LACC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were stained for PAR, PDXK, dendritic cell lysosomal associated membrane glycoprotein (DC-LAMP) and CD8 T cell infiltration. Their correlations and prognostic impact were assessed. Cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cell clones isolated from Lewis-lung cancer (LLC) cells were evaluated for PAR levels by immunoblot. Parental (PAR) and cisplatin-resistant (PAR) clones were subcutaneously injected into the flank of C57BL/6 mice. Tumors were harvested to evaluate their immune infiltration by flow cytometry.

Results: The infiltration of tumors by CD8 T and DC-LAMP cells was associated with a favorable overall survival in patients with LACC (p=0.006 and p=0.008, respectively) and NSCLC (p<0.001 for both CD8 T and DC-LAMP cells). We observed a positive correlation between PDXK expression and the infiltration by DC-LAMP (R=0.44, p=0.02 in LACC, R=0.14, p=0.057 in NSCLC), and a negative correlation between PAR levels and CD8 T lymphocytes (R=-0.39, p=0.034 in LACC, R=-0.18, p=0.017 in NSCLC). PARP1 is constitutively hyperactivated in cisplatin-resistant LLC cells manifesting elevated intracellular levels of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins (PAR). Tumors formed by such cancer cells injected into immunocompetent mice were scarcely infiltrated by CD8 T (p=0.028) and antigen presenting cells (p=0.086).

Conclusions: Oncometabolic features can impact local immunosurveillance, providing new functional links between cisplatin resistance and therapeutic failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2021-002362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8231002PMC
June 2021

Cisplatin resistance coupled to enhanced sensitivity to metabolic interventions.

Mol Cell Oncol 2018 10;5(6):e1526004. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Equipe 11 labellisée par la Ligue contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.

Specific metabolic alterations have recently been observed in cisplatin-resistant cancers. As a result, cisplatin resistance can be overcome by co-administration of pyridoxine, and cisplatin-resistant cancer cells become exquisitely sensitive to killing by inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, starvation, and antimetabolites targeting nucleotide biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23723556.2018.1526004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6276841PMC
October 2018

Metabolic vulnerability of cisplatin-resistant cancers.

EMBO J 2018 07 6;37(14). Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Metabolomics and Cell Biology Platforms, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France

Cisplatin is the most widely used chemotherapeutic agent, and resistance of neoplastic cells against this cytoxicant poses a major problem in clinical oncology. Here, we explored potential metabolic vulnerabilities of cisplatin-resistant non-small human cell lung cancer and ovarian cancer cell lines. Cisplatin-resistant clones were more sensitive to killing by nutrient deprivation and than their parental cisplatin-sensitive controls. The susceptibility of cisplatin-resistant cells to starvation could be explained by a particularly strong dependence on glutamine. Glutamine depletion was sufficient to restore cisplatin responses of initially cisplatin-resistant clones, and glutamine supplementation rescued cisplatin-resistant clones from starvation-induced death. Mass spectrometric metabolomics and specific interventions on glutamine metabolism revealed that, in cisplatin-resistant cells, glutamine is mostly required for nucleotide biosynthesis rather than for anaplerotic, bioenergetic or redox reactions. As a result, cisplatin-resistant cancers became exquisitely sensitive to treatment with antimetabolites that target nucleoside metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embj.201798597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6043854PMC
July 2018

Evaluation of autophagy inducers in epithelial cells carrying the ΔF508 mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator CFTR.

Cell Death Dis 2018 02 7;9(2):191. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Paris Sud-Saclay, Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) due to the ΔF508 mutation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) can be treated with a combination of cysteamine and Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Since ECGC is not a clinically approved drug, we attempted to identify other compounds that might favourably interact with cysteamine to induce autophagy and thus rescuing the function of ΔF508 CFTR as a chloride channel in the plasma membrane. For this, we screened a compound library composed by chemically diverse autophagy inducers for their ability to enhance autophagic flux in the presence of cysteamine. We identified the antiarrhythmic Ca channel blocker amiodarone, as an FDA-approved drug having the property to cooperate with cysteamine to stimulate autophagy in an additive manner. Amiodarone promoted the re-expression of ΔF508 CFTR protein in the plasma membrane of respiratory epithelial cells. Hence, amiodarone might be yet another compound for the etiological therapy of CF in patients bearing the ΔF508 CFTR mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-017-0235-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5833759PMC
February 2018

Trial watch - inhibiting PARP enzymes for anticancer therapy.

Mol Cell Oncol 2016 Mar 10;3(2):e1053594. Epub 2015 Jun 10.

Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy; Department of Biology, University of Rome "TorVergata", Rome, Italy.

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are a members of family of enzymes that catalyze poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and/or mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation (MARylation), two post-translational protein modifications involved in crucial cellular processes including (but not limited to) the DNA damage response (DDR). PARP1, the most abundant family member, is a nuclear protein that is activated upon sensing distinct types of DNA damage and contributes to their resolution by PARylating multiple DDR players. Recent evidence suggests that, along with DDR, activated PARP1 mediates a series of prosurvival and proapoptotic processes aimed at preserving genomic stability. Despite this potential oncosuppressive role, upregulation and/or overactivation of PARP1 or other PARP enzymes has been reported in a variety of human neoplasms. Over the last few decades, several pharmacologic inhibitors of PARP1 and PARP2 have been assessed in preclinical and clinical studies showing potent antineoplastic activity, particularly against homologous recombination (HR)-deficient ovarian and breast cancers. In this Trial Watch, we describe the impact of PARP enzymes and PARylation in cancer, discuss the mechanism of cancer cell killing by PARP1 inactivation, and summarize the results of recent clinical studies aimed at evaluating the safety and therapeutic profile of PARP inhibitors in cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23723556.2015.1053594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4905370PMC
March 2016

Trial Watch: Targeting ATM-CHK2 and ATR-CHK1 pathways for anticancer therapy.

Mol Cell Oncol 2015 Oct-Dec;2(4):e1012976. Epub 2015 Feb 23.

Regina Elena National Cancer Institute; Rome, Italy; Department of Biology, University of Rome "TorVergata"; Rome, Italy.

The ataxia telangiectasia mutated serine/threonine kinase (ATM)/checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2, best known as CHK2) and the ATM and Rad3-related serine/threonine kinase (ATR)/CHEK1 (best known as CHK1) cascades are the 2 major signaling pathways driving the DNA damage response (DDR), a network of processes crucial for the preservation of genomic stability that act as a barrier against tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Mutations and/or deletions of ATM and/or CHK2 are frequently found in tumors and predispose to cancer development. In contrast, the ATR-CHK1 pathway is often upregulated in neoplasms and is believed to promote tumor growth, although some evidence indicates that ATR and CHK1 may also behave as haploinsufficient oncosuppressors, at least in a specific genetic background. Inactivation of the ATM-CHK2 and ATR-CHK1 pathways efficiently sensitizes malignant cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Moreover, ATR and CHK1 inhibitors selectively kill tumor cells that present high levels of replication stress, have a deficiency in p53 (or other DDR players), or upregulate the ATR-CHK1 module. Despite promising preclinical results, the clinical activity of ATM, ATR, CHK1, and CHK2 inhibitors, alone or in combination with other therapeutics, has not yet been fully demonstrated. In this Trial Watch, we give an overview of the roles of the ATM-CHK2 and ATR-CHK1 pathways in cancer initiation and progression, and summarize the results of clinical studies aimed at assessing the safety and therapeutic profile of regimens based on inhibitors of ATR and CHK1, the only 2 classes of compounds that have so far entered clinics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23723556.2015.1012976DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4905354PMC
June 2016

Trial Watch: Proteasomal inhibitors for anticancer therapy.

Mol Cell Oncol 2015 Apr-Jun;2(2):e974463. Epub 2014 Dec 1.

INSERM, U1138; Paris, France; Equipe 11 labelisée par la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Center de Recherche des Cordeliers; Paris, France; Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus; Villejuif, France; Université Paris Descartes/Paris V; Sorbonne Paris Cité; Paris, France.

The so-called "ubiquitin-proteasome system" (UPS) is a multicomponent molecular apparatus that catalyzes the covalent attachment of several copies of the small protein ubiquitin to other proteins that are generally (but not always) destined to proteasomal degradation. This enzymatic cascade is crucial for the maintenance of intracellular protein homeostasis (both in physiological conditions and in the course of adaptive stress responses), and regulates a wide array of signaling pathways. In line with this notion, defects in the UPS have been associated with aging as well as with several pathological conditions including cardiac, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic disorders. As transformed cells often experience a constant state of stress (as a result of the hyperactivation of oncogenic signaling pathways and/or adverse microenvironmental conditions), their survival and proliferation are highly dependent on the integrity of the UPS. This rationale has driven an intense wave of preclinical and clinical investigation culminating in 2003 with the approval of the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in multiple myeloma patients. Another proteasomal inhibitor, carfilzomib, is now licensed by international regulatory agencies for use in multiple myeloma patients, and the approved indications for bortezomib have been extended to mantle cell lymphoma. This said, the clinical activity of bortezomib and carfilzomib is often limited by off-target effects, innate/acquired resistance, and the absence of validated predictive biomarkers. Moreover, the antineoplastic activity of proteasome inhibitors against solid tumors is poor. In this Trial Watch we discuss the contribution of the UPS to oncogenesis and tumor progression and summarize the design and/or results of recent clinical studies evaluating the therapeutic profile of proteasome inhibitors in cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/23723556.2014.974463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4904962PMC
June 2016

PARP and other prospective targets for poisoning cancer cell metabolism.

Biochem Pharmacol 2014 Nov 6;92(1):164-71. Epub 2014 Sep 6.

Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France; Equipe 11, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris 75005, France; Metabolomics Platform, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France; Pôle de Biologie, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, AP-HP, Paris 75908, France; Université Paris Descartes, Faculty of Medicine, Paris 75005, France. Electronic address:

Increasing evidence indicates that cancer cells rewire their metabolism during tumorigenesis. The high intracellular levels of lactate and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during enhanced aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation respectively led to oxidative stress. The detoxification of these accumulating metabolites and the equilibrium between reduced and oxidized nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NADH and NAD(+)) are two prominent mechanisms regulating redox status and hence energy homeostasis in tumors. Targeting both processes may thus be selectively cytotoxic for cancer cells. In this context, the impact of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, a class of anticancer agents employed for the treatment of DNA repair deficient tumors, on energy homeostasis and mitochondrial respiration regulation has potential clinical implications. Here we provide an overview of the metabolic reprogramming occurring in cancer cells and discuss the translational perspectives of targeting tumor metabolism and redox balance for antineoplastic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2014.08.026DOI Listing
November 2014

MCL-1 dependency of cisplatin-resistant cancer cells.

Biochem Pharmacol 2014 Nov 12;92(1):55-61. Epub 2014 Aug 12.

Equipe 11 labellisée par la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, INSERM U1138, F-75006 Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75005 Paris, France; Metabolomics and Cell Biology Platforms, Gustave Roussy, F-94805 Villejuif, France; Pôle de Biologie, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, AP-HP, F-75015 Paris, France. Electronic address:

The selection of human cancer cell lines in cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP, best known as cisplatin) is accompanied by stereotyped alterations that contribute to the acquisition of a CDDP-resistant state. Thus, CDDP resistance often leads to the upregulation of the DNA repair enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) with the consequent intracellular accumulation of poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR)-modified proteins. Here we report another frequent alteration accompanying CDDP resistance, namely upregulation of the antiapoptotic BCL-2 family protein MCL-1. Six out of 8 CDDP resistant cancer cell lines manifested an increase in MCL-1 protein expression level, while only a minority of cell lines overexpressed BCL-2 or BCL-XL. BCL-XL was decreased in six out of 8 cancer cell lines. Importantly, MCL-1 overexpressing, CDDP resistant cells appear to be 'addicted' to MCL-1 because they died upon depletion of MCL-1 by RNA interference or pharmacological inhibition of MCL-1 expression by the BH3 mimetic obatoclax. Knockdown of PARP1 did not succeed in reducing MCL-1 expression, while depletion or inhibition of MCL-1 failed to affect the activity of PARP1. Hence, the two resistance mechanisms are not linked to each other by a direct cause-effect relationship. Importantly, CDDP-resistant, MCL-1 overexpressing human non-small cell lung cancers responded to monotherapy with obatoclax in vivo, in xenotransplanted mice, underscoring the probable therapeutic relevance of these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2014.07.029DOI Listing
November 2014

Trial Watch:: Oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy.

Oncoimmunology 2014;3:e28694. Epub 2014 Jun 1.

Gustave Roussy; Villejuif, France ; Equipe 11 labellisée par la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers; Paris, France ; Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité; Paris, France.

Oncolytic viruses are natural or genetically modified viral species that selectively infect and kill neoplastic cells. Such an innate or exogenously conferred specificity has generated considerable interest around the possibility to employ oncolytic viruses as highly targeted agents that would mediate cancer cell-autonomous anticancer effects. Accumulating evidence, however, suggests that the therapeutic potential of oncolytic virotherapy is not a simple consequence of the cytopathic effect, but strongly relies on the induction of an endogenous immune response against transformed cells. In line with this notion, superior anticancer effects are being observed when oncolytic viruses are engineered to express (or co-administered with) immunostimulatory molecules. Although multiple studies have shown that oncolytic viruses are well tolerated by cancer patients, the full-blown therapeutic potential of oncolytic virotherapy, especially when implemented in the absence of immunostimulatory interventions, remains unclear. Here, we cover the latest advances in this active area of translational investigation, summarizing high-impact studies that have been published during the last 12 months and discussing clinical trials that have been initiated in the same period to assess the therapeutic potential of oncolytic virotherapy in oncological indications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/onci.28694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4091053PMC
June 2014

Trial Watch: Toll-like receptor agonists in oncological indications.

Oncoimmunology 2014;3:e29179. Epub 2014 Aug 1.

Gustave Roussy; Villejuif, France ; Equipe 11 labellisée par la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers; Paris, France ; Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité; Paris, France.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an evolutionarily conserved group of enzymatically inactive, single membrane-spanning proteins that recognize a wide panel of exogenous and endogenous danger signals. Besides constituting a crucial component of the innate immune response to bacterial and viral pathogens, TLRs appear to play a major role in anticancer immunosurveillance. In line with this notion, several natural and synthetic TLR ligands have been intensively investigated for their ability to boost tumor-targeting immune responses elicited by a variety of immunotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic interventions. Three of these agents are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or equivalent regulatory agencies for use in cancer patients: the so-called bacillus Calmette-Guérin, monophosphoryl lipid A, and imiquimod. However, the number of clinical trials testing the therapeutic potential of both FDA-approved and experimental TLR agonists in cancer patients is stably decreasing, suggesting that drug developers and oncologists are refocusing their interest on alternative immunostimulatory agents. Here, we summarize recent findings on the use of TLR agonists in cancer patients and discuss how the clinical evaluation of FDA-approved and experimental TLR ligands has evolved since the publication of our first Trial Watch dealing with this topic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/onci.29179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4091055PMC
August 2014

Trial watch: Immunostimulatory cytokines in cancer therapy.

Oncoimmunology 2014;3:e29030. Epub 2014 Jun 3.

Gustave Roussy; Villejuif, France ; Equipe 11 labellisée par la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers; Paris, France ; Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité; Paris, France.

Tumor-targeting immune responses provide a significant contribution to (when they do not entirely account for) the clinical activity of diverse antineoplastic regimens, encompassing not only a large panel of immunotherapeutic strategies but also conventional cytotoxic molecules, targeted anticancer agents and irradiation. In line with this notion, several approaches have been devised to elicit novel or boost existing anticancer immune responses, including the administration of immunomodulatory cytokines. Such a relatively unspecific intervention suffices to mediate clinical effects in (at least a subset of) patients bearing particularly immunogenic tumors, like melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. More often, however, immunostimulatory cytokines are administered to boost the immunogenic potential of other agents, including (but not limited to) immune checkpoint-blocking antibodies, anticancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses and immunogenic chemotherapeutics. Here, we summarize the latest advances in the clinical development of recombinant cytokines as an immunomodulatory intervention for cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/onci.29030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4091551PMC
June 2014

Trial Watch: Adoptive cell transfer for anticancer immunotherapy.

Oncoimmunology 2014;3:e28344. Epub 2014 May 1.

Gustave Roussy; Villejuif, France ; Equipe 11 labellisée par la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer; Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers; Paris, France ; Université Paris Descartes/Paris V; Sorbonne Paris Cité; Paris, France.

The expression "adoptive cell transfer" (ACT) is commonly employed to indicate an immunotherapeutic regimen involving the isolation of autologous blood-borne or tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, their selection/expansion/activation ex vivo, and their reinfusion into the patient, most often in the context of lymphodepleting pre-conditioning and in combination with immunostimulatory treatments. Optionally, the cellular material for ACT is genetically manipulated before expansion to (1) target specific tumor-associated antigens; (2) endogenously express immunostimulatory molecules; and/or (3) persist for long periods upon reinfusion. Consistent efforts have been dedicated at the amelioration of this immunotherapeutic regimen throughout the past decade, resulting in the establishment of ever more efficient and safer ACT protocols. Accordingly, the number of clinical trials testing ACT in oncological indications does not cease to increase. In this Trial Watch, we summarize recent developments in this exciting area of research, covering both high-impact studies that have been published during the last 12 months and clinical trials that have been launched in the same period to evaluate the safety and therapeutic potential of ACT in cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/onci.28344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4063152PMC
February 2021

Trial Watch: DNA vaccines for cancer therapy.

Oncoimmunology 2014 Jan 1;3(1):e28185. Epub 2014 Apr 1.

Gustave Roussy; Villejuif, France ; Equipe 11 labellisée par la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers; Paris, France ; Université Paris Descartes/Paris V; Sorbonne Paris Cité; Paris, France.

During the past 2 decades, the possibility that preparations capable of eliciting tumor-specific immune responses would mediate robust therapeutic effects in cancer patients has received renovated interest. In this context, several approaches to vaccinate cancer patients against their own malignancies have been conceived, including the administration of DNA constructs coding for one or more tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Such DNA-based vaccines conceptually differ from other types of gene therapy in that they are not devised to directly kill cancer cells or sensitize them to the cytotoxic activity of a drug, but rather to elicit a tumor-specific immune response. In spite of an intense wave of preclinical development, the introduction of this immunotherapeutic paradigm into the clinical practice is facing difficulties. Indeed, while most DNA-based anticancer vaccines are well tolerated by cancer patients, they often fail to generate therapeutically relevant clinical responses. In this Trial Watch, we discuss the latest advances on the use of DNA-based vaccines in cancer therapy, discussing the literature that has been produced around this topic during the last 13 months as well as clinical studies that have been launched in the same time frame to assess the actual therapeutic potential of this intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/onci.28185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4008456PMC
January 2014

Resveratrol and aspirin eliminate tetraploid cells for anticancer chemoprevention.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014 Feb 10;111(8):3020-5. Epub 2014 Feb 10.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U848, F-94805 Villejuif, France.

Tetraploidy constitutes a genomically metastable state that can lead to aneuploidy and genomic instability. Tetraploid cells are frequently found in preneoplastic lesions, including intestinal cancers arising due to the inactivation of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Using a phenotypic screen, we identified resveratrol as an agent that selectively reduces the fitness of tetraploid cells by slowing down their cell cycle progression and by stimulating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Selective killing of tetraploid cells was observed for a series of additional agents that indirectly or directly stimulate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) including salicylate, whose chemopreventive action has been established by epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Both resveratrol and salicylate reduced the formation of tetraploid or higher-order polyploid cells resulting from the culture of human colon carcinoma cell lines or primary mouse epithelial cells lacking tumor protein p53 (TP53, best known as p53) in the presence of antimitotic agents, as determined by cytofluorometric and videomicroscopic assays. Moreover, oral treatment with either resveratrol or aspirin, the prodrug of salicylate, repressed the accumulation of tetraploid intestinal epithelial cells in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of colon cancer. Collectively, our results suggest that the chemopreventive action of resveratrol and aspirin involves the elimination of tetraploid cancer cell precursors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1318440111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3939868PMC
February 2014

Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for cancer therapy.

Mol Cell Oncol 2014 15;1(1):e29911. Epub 2014 Jul 15.

Regina Elena National Cancer Institute; Rome, Italy; Equipe 11 labelisée par la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer; Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers; Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes/Paris V; Sorbonne Paris Cité; Paris, France.

Macroautophagy (herein referred to as autophagy) is a highly conserved mechanism for the lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic components. Autophagy is critical for the maintenance of intracellular homeostasis, both in baseline conditions and in the context of adaptive responses to stress. In line with this notion, defects in the autophagic machinery have been etiologically associated with various human disorders including infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. Once tumors are established, however, autophagy sustains the survival of malignant cells, hence representing an appealing target for the design of novel anticancer regimens. Accordingly, inhibitors of autophagy including chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been shown to mediate substantial antineoplastic effects in preclinical models, especially when combined with chemo- or radiotherapeutic interventions. The pharmacological profile of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, however, appear to involve mechanisms other than autophagy inhibition. Here, we discuss the dual role of autophagy in oncogenesis and tumor progression, and summarize the results or design of clinical studies recently completed or initiated to evaluate the therapeutic activity of chloroquine derivatives in cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/mco.29911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4905171PMC
June 2016
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