Publications by authors named "Florian Erger"

15 Publications

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Variants in PRKAR1B cause a neurodevelopmental disorder with autism spectrum disorder, apraxia, and insensitivity to pain.

Genet Med 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute of Human Genetics, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.

Purpose: We characterize the clinical and molecular phenotypes of six unrelated individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder who carry heterozygous missense variants of the PRKAR1B gene, which encodes the R1β subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA).

Methods: Variants of PRKAR1B were identified by single- or trio-exome analysis. We contacted the families and physicians of the six individuals to collect phenotypic information, performed in vitro analyses of the identified PRKAR1B-variants, and investigated PRKAR1B expression during embryonic development.

Results: Recent studies of large patient cohorts with neurodevelopmental disorders found significant enrichment of de novo missense variants in PRKAR1B. In our cohort, de novo origin of the PRKAR1B variants could be confirmed in five of six individuals, and four carried the same heterozygous de novo variant c.1003C>T (p.Arg335Trp; NM_001164760). Global developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, and apraxia/dyspraxia have been reported in all six, and reduced pain sensitivity was found in three individuals carrying the c.1003C>T variant. PRKAR1B expression in the brain was demonstrated during human embryonal development. Additionally, in vitro analyses revealed altered basal PKA activity in cells transfected with variant-harboring PRKAR1B expression constructs.

Conclusion: Our study provides strong evidence for a PRKAR1B-related neurodevelopmental disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01152-7DOI Listing
April 2021

Still diagnosed too late and under-recognized? The first comprehensive report on primary hyperoxaluria in Poland.

Pol Arch Intern Med 2020 12 4;130(12):1053-1063. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Introduction: Primary hyperoxalurias (PHs) are rare disorders leading to overproduction and increased urinary excretion of oxalate. Three monogenic forms (PH1-PH3) were classified. PHs lead to urolithiasis and chronic kidney disease. There are only sparse data on patients with PH from Eastern European countries including Poland.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence, genetic background, and clinical course of PH in the Polish population.

Patients And Methods: This was a retrospective multicenter study including data of all identified and genetically confirmed Polish patients with PH.

Results: Between 1998 and 2019, 21 patients with PH were identified, including 13 patients with PH1 (62%), 2 with PH2 (9%), and 6 with PH3 (29%). In those with PH1, the most common mutation was c.508G>A in AGXT and in PH3, c.700+5G>T in HOGA1. Nine patients (69%) developed end‑stage renal disease at a median age of 13 years and 2 died. In 6 (46%) PH1 cases, the diagnosis was made only after patients had progressed to end‑stage renal disease and received isolated kidney transplantation, followed by graft failure. Combined liver‑kidney transplantation was performed in 6 patients with PH1. Two siblings with PH2 showed a milder course with slightly decreased renal function in one, at age of 11 years. Despite infantile onset of urolithiasis, all patients with PH3 at a median age of 10 years maintained normal renal function.

Conclusions: The prevalence of PH1 and PH2 in Poland seems to be much lower than in Western countries with PH3 constituting about 30% of all cases. The molecular findings and clinical course are typical, but the underdiagnosis is of concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20452/pamw.15698DOI Listing
December 2020

The adult phenotype of Schaaf-Yang syndrome.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 10 19;15(1):294. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: MAGEL2-associated Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SHFYNG, OMIM #615547, ORPHA: 398069), which was identified in 2013, is a rare disorder caused by truncating variants of the paternal copy of MAGEL2, which is localized in the imprinted region on 15q11.2q13. The phenotype of SHFYNG in childhood partially overlaps with that of the well-established Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS, OMIM #176270). While larger numbers of younger individuals with SHFYNG have been recently published, the phenotype in adulthood is not well established. We recruited 7 adult individuals (aged 18 to 36) with molecularly confirmed SHFYNG and collected data regarding the clinical profile including eating habits, sleep, behavior, personal autonomy, psychiatric abnormalities and other medical conditions, as well as information about the respective phenotypes in childhood.

Results: Within our small cohort, we identified a range of common features, such as disturbed sleep, hypoactivity, social withdrawal and anxiety, but also noted considerable differences at the level of personal autonomy and skills. Behavioral problems were frequent, and a majority of individuals displayed weight gain and food-seeking behavior, along with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual function. Classical symptoms of SHFYNG in childhood were reported for most individuals.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate a high variability of the functional abilities and social participation of adults with SHFYNG. A high prevalence of obesity within our cohort was notable, and uncontrollable food intake was a major concern for some caregivers. The phenotypes of PWS and SHFYNG in adulthood might be more difficult to discern than the phenotypes in childhood. Molecular genetic testing for SHFYNG should therefore be considered in adults with the suspected diagnosis of PWS, if testing for PWS has been negative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-020-01557-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7574436PMC
October 2020

Severe neurological outcomes after very early bilateral nephrectomies in patients with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD).

Sci Rep 2020 09 29;10(1):16025. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Cologne and University of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50937, Cologne, Germany.

To test the association between bilateral nephrectomies in patients with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) and long-term clinical outcome and to identify risk factors for severe outcomes, a dataset comprising 504 patients from the international registry study ARegPKD was analyzed for characteristics and complications of patients with very early (≤ 3 months; VEBNE) and early (4-15 months; EBNE) bilateral nephrectomies. Patients with very early dialysis (VED, onset ≤ 3 months) without bilateral nephrectomies and patients with total kidney volumes (TKV) comparable to VEBNE infants served as additional control groups. We identified 19 children with VEBNE, 9 with EBNE, 12 with VED and 11 in the TKV control group. VEBNE patients suffered more frequently from severe neurological complications in comparison to all control patients. Very early bilateral nephrectomies and documentation of severe hypotensive episodes were independent risk factors for severe neurological complications. Bilateral nephrectomies within the first 3 months of life are associated with a risk of severe neurological complications later in life. Our data support a very cautious indication of very early bilateral nephrectomies in ARPKD, especially in patients with residual kidney function, and emphasize the importance of avoiding severe hypotensive episodes in this at-risk cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71956-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7525474PMC
September 2020

Long-term data on two sisters with C3GN due to an identical, homozygous CFH mutation and autoantibodies.

Clin Nephrol 2020 Oct;94(4):197-206

C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) is a rare but severe form of kidney disease caused by fluid-phase dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway. Causative mutations in complement regulating genes as well as auto-immune forms of C3GN have been described. However, therapy and prognosis in individual patients remain a matter of debate and long-term data are scarce. This also applies for the management of transplant patients as disease recurrence post-transplant is frequent. Here, we depict the clinical courses of two sisters with the unique combination of an identical, homozygous mutation in the gene as well as autoantibodies with a clinical follow-up of more than 20 years. Interestingly, the sisters presented with discordant clinical courses of C3GN with normal kidney function in one (patient A) and end-stage kidney disease in the other sister (patient B). In patient B, eculizumab was administered immediately prior to and in the course after kidney transplantation, with the result of a stable graft function without any signs of disease recurrence. Comprehensive genetic work-up revealed no further disease-causing mutation in both sisters. Intriguingly, the auto-antibody profile substantially differed in both sisters: autoantibodies in patient A reduced the C3b deposition, while the antibodies identified in patient B increased complement activation and deposition of split products. This study underlines the concept of a personalized-medicine approach in complement-associated diseases after thorough evaluation of the individual risk profile in each patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/CN110135DOI Listing
October 2020

cfNOMe - A single assay for comprehensive epigenetic analyses of cell-free DNA.

Genome Med 2020 06 24;12(1):54. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Cologne Center for Genomics, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) analysis has become essential in cancer diagnostics and prenatal testing. We present cfNOMe, a two-in-one method of measuring cfDNA cytosine methylation and nucleosome occupancy in a single assay using non-disruptive enzymatic cytosine conversion and a custom bioinformatic pipeline. We show that enzymatic cytosine conversion better preserves cfDNA fragmentation information than does bisulfite conversion. Whereas previously separate experiments were required to study either epigenetic marking, cfNOMe delivers reliable results for both, enabling more comprehensive and inexpensive epigenetic cfDNA profiling. cfNOMe has the potential to advance biomarker discovery and diagnostic usage in diseases with systemic perturbations of cfDNA composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-020-00750-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315486PMC
June 2020

Case Report: Exome Sequencing Reveals LRBA Deficiency in a Patient With End-Stage Renal Disease.

Front Pediatr 2020 11;8:42. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, Institute of Human Genetics, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Lipopolysaccharide-responsive and beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency is characterized by autoimmunity, chronic diarrhea, and immunodeficiency. Minor renal manifestations have been found in a few patients, but kidney disease has not been systematically studied and may remain underdiagnosed in this highly variable entity. Our patient initially presented with pancytopenia, enteropathy, hypogammaglobulinemia, and failure to thrive at the age of 15 months. Chronic kidney disease was diagnosed at 6 years. A renal biopsy taken at 11 years of age showed interstitial nephritis. The patient progressed rapidly to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and underwent kidney transplantation at the age of 12 years. Bronchiolitis obliterans, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), and chronic rejection complicated the post-transplant management. Graft loss required reinstitution of hemodialysis within 3 years. After negative results of different targeted sequencing strategies, exome sequencing identified a homozygous nonsense mutation (p.Q1010) in the gene more than 21 years after the patient's initial presentation. We report here the development of ESRD and long-term follow-up in a patient with LRBA deficiency. A molecular diagnosis in rare (kidney) disease like LRBA deficiency bears many advantages over a descriptive diagnosis. A precise diagnosis may result in improved (symptomatic) treatment and allows differentiating treatment- and procedure-related complications from manifestations of the primary disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7078106PMC
March 2020

Patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 2 have significant morbidity and require careful follow-up.

Kidney Int 2019 12 3;96(6):1389-1399. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Department of Nephrology, Birmingham Children's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.

Primary hyperoxaluria type 2 is a rare inherited disorder of glyoxylate metabolism causing nephrocalcinosis, renal stone formation and ultimately kidney failure. Previously, primary hyperoxaluria type 2 was considered to have a more favorable prognosis than primary hyperoxaluria type 1, but earlier reports are limited by low patient numbers and short follow up periods. Here we report on the clinical, genetic, and biochemical findings from the largest cohort of patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 2, obtained by a retrospective record review of genetically confirmed cases in the OxalEurope registry, a dataset containing 101 patients from eleven countries. Median follow up was 12.4 years. Median ages at first symptom and diagnosis for index cases were 3.2 years and 8.0 years, respectively. Urolithiasis was the most common presenting feature (82.8% of patients). Genetic analysis revealed 18 novel mutations in the GRHPR gene. Of 238 spot-urine analyses, 23 (9.7%) were within the normal range for oxalate as compared to less than 4% of 24-hour urine collections. Median intra-individual variation of 24-hour oxalate excretion was substantial (34.1%). At time of review, 12 patients were lost to follow-up; 45 of the remaining 89 patients experienced chronic kidney disease stage 2 or greater and 22 patients had reached stage 5. Median renal survival was 43.3 years, including 15 kidney transplantations in 11 patients (1 combined with liver transplantation). Renal outcome did not correlate with genotype, biochemical parameters or initially present nephrocalcinosis. Thus, primary hyperoxaluria type 2 is a disease with significant morbidity. Accurate diagnosis by 24-hour urine analysis and genetic testing are required with careful follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2019.08.018DOI Listing
December 2019

Mutations in PIGB Cause an Inherited GPI Biosynthesis Defect with an Axonal Neuropathy and Metabolic Abnormality in Severe Cases.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 08 27;105(2):384-394. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine Research Center, Montreal, QC H3T 1C5, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine and University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H3T 1C5, Canada. Electronic address:

Proteins anchored to the cell surface via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) play various key roles in the human body, particularly in development and neurogenesis. As such, many developmental disorders are caused by mutations in genes involved in the GPI biosynthesis and remodeling pathway. We describe ten unrelated families with bi-allelic mutations in PIGB, a gene that encodes phosphatidylinositol glycan class B, which transfers the third mannose to the GPI. Ten different PIGB variants were found in these individuals. Flow cytometric analysis of blood cells and fibroblasts from the affected individuals showed decreased cell surface presence of GPI-anchored proteins. Most of the affected individuals have global developmental and/or intellectual delay, all had seizures, two had polymicrogyria, and four had a peripheral neuropathy. Eight children passed away before four years old. Two of them had a clinical diagnosis of DOORS syndrome (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation, and seizures), a condition that includes sensorineural deafness, shortened terminal phalanges with small finger and toenails, intellectual disability, and seizures; this condition overlaps with the severe phenotypes associated with inherited GPI deficiency. Most individuals tested showed elevated alkaline phosphatase, which is a characteristic of the inherited GPI deficiency but not DOORS syndrome. It is notable that two severely affected individuals showed 2-oxoglutaric aciduria, which can be seen in DOORS syndrome, suggesting that severe cases of inherited GPI deficiency and DOORS syndrome might share some molecular pathway disruptions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.05.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698938PMC
August 2019

Which genes to assess in the NGS diagnostics of intellectual disability? The case for a consensus database-driven and expert-curated approach.

Mol Cell Probes 2019 06 23;45:84-88. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Cologne, Kerpener Str. 34, 50931, Cologne, Germany.

When deciding on which genes to assess in larger Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) datasets for the molecular genetic diagnosis of intellectual disability (ID), geneticists today have a variety of gene-phenotype databases and expert-curated gene lists available. To quantify their respective completeness, we compare an ID gene selection auto-generated from the Human Phenotype Ontology gene-phenotype association database and expert-curated ID gene lists from three reputable sources (sysID, the DDD consortium and Genomics England) and analyse some of their differences. We give examples of what we regard as genuine gaps ("missing ID genes") for each of these and conclude that a complementary or consensus approach is needed to maximise diagnostic yield in ID patients. We propose several consensus gene lists with ID-associated genes of different confidence levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcp.2019.03.006DOI Listing
June 2019

The Discovery of a LEMD2-Associated Nuclear Envelopathy with Early Progeroid Appearance Suggests Advanced Applications for AI-Driven Facial Phenotyping.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 04 21;104(4):749-757. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne, Cologne, 50931, Germany; Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, 50931, Germany. Electronic address:

Over a relatively short period of time, the clinical geneticist's "toolbox" has been expanded by machine-learning algorithms for image analysis, which can be applied to the task of syndrome identification on the basis of facial photographs, but these technologies harbor potential beyond the recognition of established phenotypes. Here, we comprehensively characterized two individuals with a hitherto unknown genetic disorder caused by the same de novo mutation in LEMD2 (c.1436C>T;p.Ser479Phe), the gene which encodes the nuclear envelope protein LEM domain-containing protein 2 (LEMD2). Despite different ages and ethnic backgrounds, both individuals share a progeria-like facial phenotype and a distinct combination of physical and neurologic anomalies, such as growth retardation; hypoplastic jaws crowded with multiple supernumerary, yet unerupted, teeth; and cerebellar intention tremor. Immunofluorescence analyses of patient fibroblasts revealed mutation-induced disturbance of nuclear architecture, recapitulating previously published data in LEMD2-deficient cell lines, and additional experiments suggested mislocalization of mutant LEMD2 protein within the nuclear lamina. Computational analysis of facial features with two different deep neural networks showed phenotypic proximity to other nuclear envelopathies. One of the algorithms, when trained to recognize syndromic similarity (rather than specific syndromes) in an unsupervised approach, clustered both individuals closely together, providing hypothesis-free hints for a common genetic etiology. We show that a recurrent de novo mutation in LEMD2 causes a nuclear envelopathy whose prognosis in adolescence is relatively good in comparison to that of classical Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, and we suggest that the application of artificial intelligence to the analysis of patient images can facilitate the discovery of new genetic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.02.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451726PMC
April 2019

Uniparental isodisomy as a cause of recessive Mendelian disease: a diagnostic pitfall with a quick and easy solution in medium/large NGS analyses.

Eur J Hum Genet 2018 09 11;26(9):1392-1395. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Institute of Human Genetics, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Complete uniparental isodisomy (iUPD)-the presence of two identical chromosomes in an individual that originate from only a single parental homolog-is an underestimated cause of recessive Mendelian disease in humans. Correctly identifying iUPD in an index patient is of enormous consequence to correctly counseling the family/couple, as the recurrence risk for siblings is reduced from 25% to usually <1%. In medium/large-scale NGS analyses, we found that complete iUPD can be rapidly and straightforwardly inferred from a singleton dataset (index patient only) through a simple chromosome- and genotype-filtering step in <1 min. We discuss the opportunities of iUPD detection in medium/large-scale NGS analyses by example of a case of CHRNG-associated multiple pterygium syndrome due to complete maternal iUPD. Using computer simulations for several detection thresholds, we validate and estimate sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV), and negative predictive values (NPV) of the proposed screening method for reliable detection of complete iUPD. When screening for complete iUPD, our models suggest that a >85% proportion of homozygous calls on a single chromosome with ≥30 sufficiently interspaced called variants results in a sensitivity of 97.9% and specificity of 99.7%. The PPV is 95.1%, the NPV 99.9%. When this threshold is exceeded for a chromosome on which a patient harbors an apparently homozygous disease-associated variant, it should be sufficient cause to discuss iUPD as a plausible or probable mechanism of disease in the genetic analysis report, even when parental segregation has not (yet) been performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-018-0195-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117279PMC
September 2018

Risk Factors for Early Dialysis Dependency in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease.

J Pediatr 2018 08 9;199:22-28.e6. Epub 2018 May 9.

Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; Center for Molecular Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Objective: To identify prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors for dialysis within the first year of life in children with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) as a basis for parental counseling after prenatal and perinatal diagnosis.

Study Design: A dataset comprising 385 patients from the ARegPKD international registry study was analyzed for potential risk markers for dialysis during the first year of life.

Results: Thirty-six out of 385 children (9.4%) commenced dialysis in the first year of life. According to multivariable Cox regression analysis, the presence of oligohydramnios or anhydramnios, prenatal kidney enlargement, a low Apgar score, and the need for postnatal breathing support were independently associated with an increased hazard ratio for requiring dialysis within the first year of life. The increased risk associated with Apgar score and perinatal assisted breathing was time-dependent and vanished after 5 and 8 months of life, respectively. The predicted probabilities for early dialysis varied from 1.5% (95% CI, 0.5%-4.1%) for patients with ARPKD with no prenatal sonographic abnormalities to 32.3% (95% CI, 22.2%-44.5%) in cases of documented oligohydramnios or anhydramnios, renal cysts, and enlarged kidneys.

Conclusions: This study, which identified risk factors associated with onset of dialysis in ARPKD in the first year of life, may be helpful in prenatal parental counseling in cases of suspected ARPKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.03.052DOI Listing
August 2018

A heritable microduplication encompassing TBL1XR1 causes a genomic sister-disorder for the 3q26.32 microdeletion syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2017 Aug 2;173(8):2132-2138. Epub 2017 Jun 2.

Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Recently, a new syndrome with intellectual disability (ID) and dysmorphic features due to deletions or point mutations within the TBL1XR1 gene located in the chromosomal band 3q26.32 has been described (MRD41, OMIM 616944). One recurrent point mutation in the TBL1XR1 gene has been identified as the cause of Pierpont syndrome (OMIM 602342), a distinct intellectual disability syndrome with plantar lipomatosis. In addition, different de novo point mutations in the TBL1XR1 gene have been found in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability. Here, we report four patients from two unrelated families in whom array-CGH analysis and real-time quantitative PCR of genomic DNA revealed a TBL1XR1-microduplication. Adjacent genes were not affected. The microduplication occurred as a de novo event in one patient, whereas the other three cases occurred in two generations of a second, unrelated family. We compare and contrast the clinical findings in TBL1XR1 microdeletion, point mutation, and microduplication cases and expand the TBL1XR1-associated phenotypic spectrum. ID, hearing loss, and ASD are common features of TBL1XR1-associated diseases. Our clinical observations add to the increasing evidence of the role of TBL1XR1 in brain development, and they simultaneously demonstrate that different genetic disease mechanisms affecting TBL1XR1 can lead to similar ID phenotypes. The TBL1XR1-microduplication syndrome is an intellectual disability/learning disability syndrome with associated incomplete penetrance ASD, hearing loss, and delay of puberty. Its phenotypic overlap indicates that it is a genomic sister-disorder to the 3q26.32 microdeletion syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38285DOI Listing
August 2017

Prenatal ultrasound, genotype, and outcome in a large cohort of prenatally affected patients with autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease and other hereditary cystic kidney diseases.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2017 Apr 10;295(4):897-906. Epub 2017 Mar 10.

Institute of Human Genetics, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Pauwelsstr. 30, 52074, Aachen, Germany.

Purpose: To investigate the sonographic and clinical genotype-phenotype correlations in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) and other cystic kidney diseases (CKD) in a large cohort of prenatally detected fetuses with hereditary CKD.

Methods: We retrospectively studied the clinical and diagnostic data of 398 patients referred with prenatal ultrasound findings suggestive of CKD between 1994 and 2010. Cases with confirmed hereditary CKD (n = 130) were analyzed as to their prenatal ultrasound findings, genotype, and possible predictors of clinical outcome.

Results: ARPKD was most common in our non-representative sample. Truncating PKHD1 mutations led to a significantly reduced neonatal prognosis, with two such mutations being invariably lethal. Sonographically visible kidney cysts occurred in only 3% of ARPKD cases. Renal abnormalities in Meckel syndrome (MKS) appeared earlier than in ADPKD (19.6 ± 3.7 vs. 29.8 ± 5.1 GW) or ARPKD (19.6 ± 3.7 vs. 30.2 ± 1.2 GW). Additional CNS malformations were not found in ARPKD, but were highly sensitive for MKS. Pulmonary hypoplasia, oligo/anhydramnios (OAH), and kidney enlargement were associated with a significantly worse neonatal prognosis.

Conclusion: Genotype, sonographic signs of OAH, enlarged kidney size, and pulmonary hypoplasia can be useful predictors of neonatal survival. We propose sonographic morphological criteria for ARPKD, ADPKD, MKS, and renal cyst and diabetes syndrome (RCAD). We further propose a clinical diagnostic algorithm for differentiating cystic kidney diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-017-4336-6DOI Listing
April 2017