Publications by authors named "Florian Bolze"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Kisspeptin-52 partially rescues the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in underweight male rats dosed with an anti-obesity compound.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2020 10 26;404:115152. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv, Denmark. Electronic address:

Energy metabolism and reproduction are closely linked and reciprocally regulated. The detrimental effect of underweight on reproduction complicates the safety evaluation of anti-obesity drugs, making it challenging to distinguish pathological changes mediated through the intended drug-induced weight loss from direct drug effects on reproductive organs. Four-weeks dosing of normal weight Sprague Dawley rats with a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)/glucagon receptor co-agonist induced a robust weight loss, accompanied by histological findings in prostate, seminal vesicles, mammary glands, uterus/cervix and vagina. Characterization of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in male rats revealed reduced hypothalamic Kiss1 mRNA levels and decreased serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone concentrations following co-agonist dosing. These alterations resemble hypogonadotropic hypogonadism typically seen in adverse energy deprived conditions, like chronic food restriction. Concomitant daily administration of kisspeptin-52 from day 21 to the end of the four-week co-agonist dosing period evoked LH and testosterone responses without normalizing histological findings. This incomplete rescue by kisspeptin-52 may be due to the rather short kisspeptin-52 treatment period combined with a desensitization observed on testosterone responses. Concomitant leptin treatment from day 21 did not reverse co-agonist induced changes in HPG axis activity. Furthermore, a single co-agonist injection in male rats slightly elevated LH levels but left testosterone unperturbed, thereby excluding a direct acute inhibitory effect on the HPG axis. Our data suggest that the reproductive phenotype after repeated co-agonist administration was driven by the intended weight loss, however, we cannot exclude a direct organ related effect in chronically treated rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2020.115152DOI Listing
October 2020

High-Fat Diet Accelerates Carcinogenesis in a Mouse Model of Barrett's Esophagus via Interleukin 8 and Alterations to the Gut Microbiome.

Gastroenterology 2019 08 15;157(2):492-506.e2. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Irvine Cancer Research Center, Columbia University, New York, New York.

Background & Aims: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Progression from BE to cancer is associated with obesity, possibly due to increased abdominal pressure and gastroesophageal reflux disease, although this pathogenic mechanism has not been proven. We investigated whether environmental or dietary factors associated with obesity contribute to the progression of BE to EAC in mice.

Methods: Tg(ED-L2-IL1RN/IL1B)#Tcw mice (a model of BE, called L2-IL1B mice) were fed a chow (control) or high-fat diet (HFD) or were crossbred with mice that express human interleukin (IL) 8 (L2-IL1B/IL8 mice). Esophageal tissues were collected and analyzed for gene expression profiles and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Organoids were established from BE tissue of mice and cultured with serum from lean or obese individuals or with neutrophils from L2-IL1B mice. Feces from mice were analyzed by 16s ribosomal RNA sequencing and compared to 16s sequencing data from patients with dysplasia or BE. L2-IL1B were mice raised in germ-free conditions.

Results: L2-IL1B mice fed an HFD developed esophageal dysplasia and tumors more rapidly than mice fed the control diet; the speed of tumor development was independent of body weight. The acceleration of dysplasia by the HFD in the L2-IL1B mice was associated with a shift in the gut microbiota and an increased ratio of neutrophils to natural killer cells in esophageal tissues compared with mice fed a control diet. We observed similar differences in the microbiomes from patients with BE that progressed to EAC vs patients with BE that did not develop into cancer. Tissues from dysplasias of L2-IL1B mice fed the HFD contained increased levels of cytokines that are produced in response to CXCL1 (the functional mouse homolog of IL8, also called KC). Serum from obese patients caused organoids from L2-IL1B/IL8 mice to produce IL8. BE tissues from L2-IL1B mice fed the HFD and from L2-IL1B/IL8 mice contained increased numbers of myeloid cells and cells expressing Cxcr2 and Lgr5 messenger RNAs (epithelial progenitors) compared with mice fed control diets. BE tissues from L2-IL1B mice raised in germ-free housing had fewer progenitor cells and developed less dysplasia than in L2-IL1 mice raised under standard conditions; exposure of fecal microbiota from L2-IL1B mice fed the HFD to L2-IL1B mice fed the control diet accelerated tumor development.

Conclusions: In a mouse model of BE, we found that an HFD promoted dysplasia by altering the esophageal microenvironment and gut microbiome, thereby inducing inflammation and stem cell expansion, independent of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.04.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6662596PMC
August 2019

Secretin-Activated Brown Fat Mediates Prandial Thermogenesis to Induce Satiation.

Cell 2018 11 15;175(6):1561-1574.e12. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Chair for Molecular Nutritional Medicine, TUM School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany; EKFZ - Else Kröner-Fresenius Center for Nutritional Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany; ZIEL - Institute for Food & Health, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany. Electronic address:

The molecular mediator and functional significance of meal-associated brown fat (BAT) thermogenesis remains elusive. Here, we identified the gut hormone secretin as a non-sympathetic BAT activator mediating prandial thermogenesis, which consequentially induces satiation, thereby establishing a gut-secretin-BAT-brain axis in mammals with a physiological role of prandial thermogenesis in the control of satiation. Mechanistically, meal-associated rise in circulating secretin activates BAT thermogenesis by stimulating lipolysis upon binding to secretin receptors in brown adipocytes, which is sensed in the brain and promotes satiation. Chronic infusion of a modified human secretin transiently elevates energy expenditure in diet-induced obese mice. Clinical trials with human subjects showed that thermogenesis after a single-meal ingestion correlated with postprandial secretin levels and that secretin infusions increased glucose uptake in BAT. Collectively, our findings highlight the largely unappreciated function of BAT in the control of satiation and qualify BAT as an even more attractive target for treating obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.10.016DOI Listing
November 2018

The Effect of Diet-induced Obesity on Toxicological Parameters in the Polygenic Sprague-Dawley Rat Model.

Toxicol Pathol 2018 10 22;46(7):777-798. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

1 Early Regulatory Toxicology, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv, Denmark.

The obese rodent serves as an indispensable tool for proof-of-concept efficacy and mode-of-action pharmacology studies. Yet the utility of this disease model as an adjunct to the conventional healthy animal in the nonclinical safety evaluation of anti-obesity pharmacotherapies has not been elucidated. Regulatory authorities have recommended employing disease models in toxicology studies when necessary. Our study investigated standard and exploratory toxicology parameters in the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese, polygenic Sprague-Dawley rat model in comparison to chow diet (CD)-fed controls. We sought to establish feasibility of the model for safety testing and relevance to human obesity pathophysiology. We report that both sexes fed a 45% kcal HFD for 29 weeks developed obesity and metabolic derangements that mimics to a certain extent, common human obesity. Minor clinical pathologies were observed in both sexes and considered related to CD versus HFD differences. Histopathologically, both sexes exhibited mild obesity-associated findings in brown and subcutaneous white fat, bone, kidneys, liver, lung, pancreas, salivary parotid glands, and skeletal muscle. We conclude that chronic HFD feeding in both sexes led to the development of an obese but otherwise healthy rat. Therefore, the diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rat may serve as a suitable model for evaluating toxicity findings encountered with anti-obesity compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623318803557DOI Listing
October 2018

Aminoglycosides, but not PTC124 (Ataluren), rescue nonsense mutations in the leptin receptor and in luciferase reporter genes.

Sci Rep 2017 04 21;7(1):1020. Epub 2017 Apr 21.

ZIEL - Institute for Food and Health, Technical University of Munich, Gregor-Mendel-Str. 2, 85354, Freising, Germany.

In rare cases, monogenetic obesity is caused by nonsense mutations in genes regulating energy balance. A key factor herein is the leptin receptor. Here, we focus on leptin receptor nonsense variants causing obesity, namely the human W31X, murine Y333X and rat Y763X mutations, and explored their susceptibilities to aminoglycoside and PTC124 mediated translational read-through in vitro. In a luciferase based assay, all mutations - when analysed within the mouse receptor - were prone to aminoglycoside mediated nonsense suppression with the highest susceptibility for W31X, followed by Y763X and Y333X. For the latter, the corresponding rodent models appear valuable for in vivo experiments. When W31X was studied in the human receptor, its superior read-through susceptibility - initially observed in the mouse receptor - was eliminated, likely due to the different nucleotide context surrounding the mutation in the two orthologues. The impact of the surrounding context on the read-through opens the possibility to discover novel sequence elements influencing nonsense suppression. As an alternative to toxic aminoglycosides, PTC124 was indicated as a superior nonsense suppressor but inconsistent data concerning its read-through activity are reported. PTC124 failed to rescue W31X as well as different nonsense mutated luciferase reporters, thus, challenging its ability to induce translational read-through.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-01093-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5430635PMC
April 2017

Treatment of diet-induced lipodystrophic C57BL/6J mice with long-acting PASylated leptin normalises insulin sensitivity and hepatic steatosis by promoting lipid utilisation.

Diabetologia 2016 09 7;59(9):2005-12. Epub 2016 Jun 7.

Lehrstuhl für Molekulare Ernährungsmedizin and Else Kröner-Fresenius Center, Technische Universität München, Gregor-Mendel-Str. 2, 85354, Freising (Weihenstephan), Germany.

Aims/hypothesis: Recombinant leptin offers a viable treatment for lipodystrophy (LD) syndromes. However, due to its short plasma half-life, leptin replacement therapy requires at least daily subcutaneous (s.c.) injections. Here, we optimised this treatment strategy in LD mice by using a novel leptin version with extended plasma half-life using PASylation technology.

Methods: A long-acting leptin version was prepared by genetic fusion with a 600 residue polypeptide made of Pro, Ala and Ser (PASylation), which enlarges the hydrodynamic volume and, thus, retards renal filtration, allowing less frequent injection. LD was induced in C57BL/6J mice by feeding a diet supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Chronic and acute effects of leptin treatment were assessed by evaluating plasma insulin levels, insulin tolerance, histological liver sections, energy expenditure, energy intake and body composition.

Results: In a cohort of female mice, 4 nmol PAS-leptin (applied via four s.c. injections every 3 days) successfully alleviated the CLA-induced LD phenotype, which was characterised by hyperinsulinaemia, insulin intolerance and hepatosteatosis. The same injection regimen had no measurable effect when unmodified recombinant leptin was administered at an equivalent dose. In a cohort of LD males, a single s.c. injection of PAS-leptin did not affect energy expenditure but inhibited food intake and promoted a shift in fuel selection towards preferential fat oxidation, which mechanistically substantiates the metabolic improvements.

Conclusions/interpretation: The excellent pharmacological properties render PASylated leptin an agent of choice for refining both animal studies and therapeutic strategies in the context of LD syndromes and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-016-4004-6DOI Listing
September 2016

Long-Acting PASylated Leptin Ameliorates Obesity by Promoting Satiety and Preventing Hypometabolism in Leptin-Deficient Lep(ob/ob) Mice.

Endocrinology 2016 Jan 22;157(1):233-44. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

Lehrstuhl für Molekulare Ernährungsmedizin (F.B., A.B., N.R., S.M., M.K.), Else Kröner-Fresenius Center and ZIEL-Research Center for Nutrition and Food Science, and Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science and Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie (V.M., M.S., A.S.), Technische Universität München, 85350 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany; and XL-protein GmbH (A.S.), 85354 Freising, Germany.

Body weight loss of Lep(ob/ob) mice in response to leptin is larger than expected from the reduction in energy intake alone, suggesting a thermogenic action of unknown magnitude. We exploited the superior pharmacological properties of a novel long-acting leptin prepared via PASylation to study the contribution of its anorexigenic and thermogenic effects. PASylation, the genetic fusion of leptin with a conformationally disordered polypeptide comprising 600 Pro/Ala/Ser (PAS) residues, provides a superior way to increase the hydrodynamic volume of the fusion protein, thus retarding kidney filtration and extending plasma half-life. Here a single PAS(600)-leptin injection (300 pmol/g) resulted in a maximal weight reduction of 21% 6 days after application. The negative energy balance of 300 kJ/(4 d) was driven by a decrease in energy intake, whereas energy expenditure remained stable. Mice that were food restricted to the same extent showed an energy deficit of only 220 kJ/(4 d) owing to recurring torpor bouts. Therefore, the anorexigenic effect of PAS(600)-leptin contributes 75% to weight loss, whereas the thermogenic action accounts for 25% by preventing hypometabolism. In a second experiment, just four injections of PAS(600)-leptin (100 pmol/g) administered in 5- to 6-day intervals rectified the Lep(ob/ob) phenotype. In total, 16 nmol of PAS(600)-leptin per mouse triggered a weight loss of 43% within 20 days and normalized hypothermia and glucose homeostasis as well as hepatic steatosis. The beneficial properties of PAS(600)-leptin are substantiated by a comparison with previous studies in which approximately 400 nmol (∼25-fold) unmodified leptin was mandatory to achieve similar improvements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2015-1519DOI Listing
January 2016

PASylation of Murine Leptin Leads to Extended Plasma Half-Life and Enhanced in Vivo Efficacy.

Mol Pharm 2015 May 10;12(5):1431-42. Epub 2015 Apr 10.

∥XL-protein GmbH, Lise-Meitner-Strasse 30, 85354 Freising, Germany.

Leptin plays a central role in the control of energy homeostasis and appetite and, thus, has attracted attention for therapeutic approaches in spite of its limited pharmacological activity owing to the very short circulation in the body. To improve drug delivery and prolong plasma half-life, we have fused murine leptin with Pro/Ala/Ser (PAS) polypeptides of up to 600 residues, which adopt random coil conformation with expanded hydrodynamic volume in solution and, consequently, retard kidney filtration in a similar manner as polyethylene glycol (PEG). Relative to unmodified leptin, size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering revealed an approximately 21-fold increase in apparent size and a much larger molecular diameter of around 18 nm for PAS(600)-leptin. High receptor-binding activity for all PASylated leptin versions was confirmed in BIAcore measurements and cell-based dual-luciferase assays. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice revealed a much extended plasma half-life after ip injection, from 26 min for the unmodified leptin to 19.6 h for the PAS(600) fusion. In vivo activity was investigated after single ip injection of equimolar doses of each leptin version. Strongly increased and prolonged hypothalamic STAT3 phosphorylation was detected for PAS(600)-leptin. Also, a reduction in daily food intake by up to 60% as well as loss in body weight of >10% lasting for >5 days was observed, whereas unmodified leptin was merely effective for 1 day. Notably, application of a PASylated superactive mouse leptin antagonist (SMLA) led to the opposite effects. Thus, PASylated leptin not only provides a promising reagent to study its physiological role in vivo but also may offer a superior drug candidate for clinical therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/mp5007147DOI Listing
May 2015

Intrinsic differences in BRITE adipogenesis of primary adipocytes from two different mouse strains.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2014 Sep 19;1841(9):1345-52. Epub 2014 Jun 19.

Molecular Nutritional Medicine, Technische Universität München, Else Kröner-Fresenius Center, Freising, Germany. Electronic address:

BRITE (brown-in-white) cells are brown adipocyte-like cells found in white adipose tissue (WAT) of rodents and/or humans. The recruitment of BRITE adipocytes, referred to as the browning of WAT, is hallmarked by the expression of UCP1 and exerts beneficial metabolic effects. Here we address whether beyond systemic cues depot- and strain-specific variation in BRITE recruitment is determined by a cellular program intrinsic to progenitors. Therefore we compared the browning capacity of serum and investigated brown and BRITE adipogenesis in primary cultures of stromal-vascular cells isolated from interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT), inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) in two inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J (B6, a strain with low browning propensity) and 129/S6SvEv (129, a strain with high browning propensity). Paradoxically, serum collected from B6 mice was more potent in the promotion of browning than serum collected from 129 mice. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that depot- and strain-specific differences observed in vivo are pheno-copied in primary cultures in vitro, as judged by UCP1 expression and by functional analysis. Notably, primary adipocytes from 129 mice had a higher capacity for isoproterenol-induced uncoupled respiration than B6. We conclude that cues intrinsic to the progenitor cells contribute to differential BRITE adipogenesis. Further analyses demonstrate that these cues are independent of autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, BRITE progenitor abundance and genetic variation in the gene regulatory region of Ucp1 but rather depend on trans-acting factors. These results provide new insights on the molecular basis of strain and depot-specific differences in BRITE adipogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.06.003DOI Listing
September 2014

Mutation screen in the GWAS derived obesity gene SH2B1 including functional analyses of detected variants.

BMC Med Genomics 2012 Dec 27;5:65. Epub 2012 Dec 27.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Duisburg-Essen, Virchowstr, 171, D 45147, Essen, Germany.

Background: The SH2B1 gene (Src-homology 2B adaptor protein 1 gene) is a solid candidate gene for obesity. Large scale GWAS studies depicted markers in the vicinity of the gene; animal models suggest a potential relevance for human body weight regulation.

Methods: We performed a mutation screen for variants in the SH2B1 coding sequence in 95 extremely obese children and adolescents. Detected variants were genotyped in independent childhood and adult study groups (up to 11,406 obese or overweight individuals and 4,568 controls). Functional implications on STAT3 mediated leptin signalling of the detected variants were analyzed in vitro.

Results: We identified two new rare mutations and five known SNPs (rs147094247, rs7498665, rs60604881, rs62037368 and rs62037369) in SH2B1. Mutation g.9483C/T leads to a non-synonymous, non-conservative exchange in the beta (βThr656Ile) and gamma (γPro674Ser) splice variants of SH2B1. It was additionally detected in two of 11,206 (extremely) obese or overweight children, adolescents and adults, but not in 4,506 population-based normal-weight or lean controls. The non-coding mutation g.10182C/A at the 3' end of SH2B1 was only detected in three obese individuals. For the non-synonymous SNP rs7498665 (Thr484Ala) we observed nominal over-transmission of the previously described risk allele in 705 obesity trios (nominal p = 0.009, OR = 1.23) and an increased frequency of the same allele in 359 cases compared to 429 controls (nominal p = 0.042, OR = 1.23). The obesity risk-alleles at Thr484Ala and βThr656Ile/γPro674Ser had no effect on STAT3 mediated leptin receptor signalling in splice variants β and γ.

Conclusion: The rare coding mutation βThr656Ile/γPro674Ser (g.9483C/T) in SH2B1 was exclusively detected in overweight or obese individuals. Functional analyzes did not reveal impairments in leptin signalling for the mutated SH2B1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1755-8794-5-65DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3544595PMC
December 2012

Rescue of melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) nonsense mutations by aminoglycoside-mediated read-through.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2012 May 7;20(5):1074-81. Epub 2011 Jul 7.

Institute of Experimental Pediatric Endocrinology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Aminoglycoside-mediated read-through of stop codons was recently demonstrated for a variety of diseases in vitro and in vivo. About 30 percent of human genetic diseases are the consequence of nonsense mutations. Nonsense mutations in obesity-associated genes like the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), expressed in the hypothalamus, show the impact of premature stop codons on energy homeostasis. Therefore, the MC4R could be a potential pharmaceutical target for obesity treatment and targeting MC4R stop mutations could serve as proof of principle for nonsense mutations in genes expressed in the brain. We investigated four naturally occurring nonsense mutations in the MC4R (W16X, Y35X, E61X, Q307X) located at different positions in the receptor for aminoglycoside-mediated functional rescue in vitro. We determined localization and amount of full-length protein before and after aminoglycoside treatment by fluorescence microscopy, cell surface and total enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Signal transduction properties were analyzed by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) assays after transient transfection of MC4R wild type and mutant receptors into COS-7 cells. Functional rescue of stop mutations in the MC4R is dependent on: (i) triplet sequence of the stop codon, (ii) surrounding sequence, (iii) location within the receptor, (iv) applied aminoglycoside and ligand. Functional rescue was possible for W16X, Y35X (N-terminus), less successful for Q307X (C-terminus) and barely feasible for E61X (first transmembrane domain). Restoration of full-length proteins by PTC124 could not be confirmed. Future pharmaceutical applications must consider the potency of aminoglycosides to restore receptor function as well as the ability to pass the blood-brain barrier.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2011.202DOI Listing
May 2012

Mouse models for the central melanocortin system.

Genes Nutr 2009 Jun 6;4(2):129-34. Epub 2009 Mar 6.

Molecular Nutritional Medicine, Else-Kröner-Fresenius-Zentrum, Technische Universität München, Am Forum 5, Freising, 85350, Weihenstephan, Germany,

Obesity is characterized by an excess storage of body fat and promotes the risk for complex disease traits such as diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. The obesity prevalence in Europe is rising and meanwhile ranges from 10 to 20% in men and 15-25% in women. Body fat accumulation occurs in states of positive energy balance and is favored by interactions among environmental, psychosocial and genetic factors. Energy balance is regulated by a complex neuronal network of anorexigenic and orexigenic neurons which integrates peripheral and central hormonal and neuronal signals relaying information on the metabolic status of organs and tissues in the body. A key component of this network is the central melanocortin pathway in the hypothalamus that elicits metabolic and behavioral adaptations for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Genetic defects in this system cause obesity in mice and humans. In this review we emphasize mouse models with spontaneous natural mutations as well as targeted mutations that contributed to our understanding of the central melanocortin system function in the control of energy balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12263-009-0117-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2690725PMC
June 2009

Evidence for Nr4a1 as a cold-induced effector of brown fat thermogenesis.

Physiol Genomics 2005 Dec 11;24(1):37-44. Epub 2005 Oct 11.

Department of Animal Physiology, Biology Faculty, Philipps University-Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

Acute cold exposure leads to norepinephrine release in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and activates uncoupling protein (UCP)1-mediated nonshivering thermogenesis. Chronic sympathetic stimulation is known to initiate mitochondrial biogenesis, UCP1 expression, hyperplasia of BAT, and recruitment of brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) depots. Despite distinct functions of BAT and WAT in energy balance, only a few genes are exclusively expressed in either tissue. We identified NUR77 (Nr4a1), an orphan receptor, to be induced transiently in brown adipocytes in response to beta-adrenergic stimulation and in BAT of cold-exposed mice. Subsequent reporter gene assays demonstrated an inhibitory action of NUR77 on basal and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma/retinoid X receptor (RXR)alpha-mediated transactivation of the Ucp1 enhancer in heterologous cotransfection experiments. Despite this function of NUR77 in the control of Ucp1 gene expression, nonshivering thermogenesis was not affected in Nur77 knockout mice. However, we observed a superinduction of Nor1 in BAT of cold-exposed knockout mice. We conclude that NUR77 is a cold-induced negative regulator of Ucp1, but phenotypic consequences in knockout mice are compensated by functional redundancy of Nor1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00204.2005DOI Listing
December 2005
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